A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads; the precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary. The word "loom" is derived from the Old English geloma, formed from ge- and loma, a root of unknown origin. In 1404 it was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into cloth. By 1838, it had gained the meaning of a machine for interlacing thread. Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp, i.e. "that, thrown across", with the transverse threads, the weft, i.e. "that, woven". The major components of the loom are the warp beam, harnesses or shafts, shuttle and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, picking and taking-up operations; these are the principal motions. Shedding. Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form a shed, through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted, forming the weft.
On the modern loom and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame known as a harness. This is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called healds, are attached; the yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles. The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. Two common methods of controlling the heddles are a Jacquard Head. Picking; as the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle; the shuttle is pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed. In a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle; the filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick; as the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.
Battening. Between the heddles and the takeup roll, the warp threads pass through another frame called the reed; the portion of the fabric, formed but not yet rolled up on the takeup roll is called the fell. After the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, the weaver uses the reed to press each filling yarn against the fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 160 picks per minute. There are two secondary motions, because with each weaving operation the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam; this process is called taking up. At the same time, the warp yarns must be released from the warp beams. To become automatic, a loom needs a tertiary motion, the filling stop motion; this will brake the loom. An automatic loom requires 0.125 hp to 0.5 hp to operate. The back strap loom is a simple loom, it consists of two bars between which the warps are stretched. One bar is attached to a fixed object and the other to the weaver by means of a strap around the back.
The weaver uses their body weight to tension the loom. On traditional looms, the two main sheds are operated by means of a shed roll over which one set of warps pass, continuous string heddles which encase each of the warps in the other set. To open the shed controlled by the string heddles, the weaver relaxes tension on the warps and raises the heddles; the other shed is opened by drawing the shed roll toward the weaver. Both simple and complex textiles can be woven on this loom. Width is limited to. Warp faced textiles decorated with intricate pick-up patterns woven in complementary and supplementary warp techniques are woven by indigenous peoples today around the world, they produce such things as belts, bags and carrying cloths. Supplementary weft patterning and brocading is practiced in many regions. Balanced weaves are possible on the backstrap loom. Today, commercially produced backstrap loom kits include a rigid heddle; the warp-weighted loom is a vertical loom. The earliest evidence of warp-weighted looms comes from sites belonging to the Starčevo culture in modern Serbia and Hungary and from late Neolithic sites in Switzerland.
This loom was used in Ancient Greece, spread north and west throughout Europe thereafter. Its defining characteristic is hanging weights. Extra warp thread is wound around the weights; when a weaver has reached the bottom of the available warp, the completed section can be rolled around the top beam, additional lengths of warp threads can be unwound from the weights to continue. This frees the weaver from vertical size constraint. A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured cloth. In a drawloom, a "figure harness" is used to control each warp thread separately. A drawloom requires two operators, the weaver and an assistant called a "drawboy" to manage the figure harness; the earliest confirmed drawloom fabrics come from the State of Chu and date c. 400 BC. Most scholars attribute the invention of the dra
Gannavaram is a neighbourhood of Vijayawada in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. As per the G. O. No. M. S.104, Municipal Administration and Urban Development Department, it became a part of Vijayawada metropolitan area. It is the mandal headquarters of Gannavaram mandal, administered under Nuzvid revenue division. APSRTC operates buses from Gannavaram bus station which has a bus depot. Gannavaram railway station is one of the satellite railway stations of the Vijayawada; the airport is located at Gannavaram 13 KM from Vijayawada. Road connectivity is available from Gannavaram to Vijayawada; the primary and secondary school education is imparted by government and private schools, under the School Education Department of the state. The medium of instruction followed by different schools are English, Telugu; the National Institute of Disaster Management was planned to be set up at the village by the higher education department of the state
Gautama Buddha known as Siddhārtha Gautama in Sanskrit or Siddhattha Gotama in Pali, Shakyamuni Buddha, or the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was a monk, sage, philosopher and religious leader on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught in the northeastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region, he taught throughout other regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism, he is believed by Buddhists to be an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering. Accounts of his life and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarised after his death and memorized by his followers. Various collections of teachings attributed to him were passed down by oral tradition and first committed to writing about 400 years later.
Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. Most people accept that the Buddha lived and founded a monastic order during the Mahajanapada era during the reign of Bimbisara, the ruler of the Magadha empire, died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara. While the general sequence of "birth, renunciation, search and liberation, death" is accepted, there is less consensus on the veracity of many details contained in traditional biographies; the times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Most historians in the early 20th century dated his lifetime as c. 563 BCE to 483 BCE. More his death is dated between 411 and 400 BCE, while at a symposium on this question held in 1988, the majority of those who presented definite opinions gave dates within 20 years either side of 400 BCE for the Buddha's death; these alternative chronologies, have not been accepted by all historians.
The evidence of the early texts suggests that Siddhārtha Gautama was born into the Shakya clan, a community, on the periphery, both geographically and culturally, of the eastern Indian subcontinent in the 5th century BCE. One of his usual names was "Sakamuni" or "Sakyamunī", it was either a small republic, or an oligarchy, his father was an elected chieftain, or oligarch. According to the Buddhist tradition, Gautama was born in Lumbini, now in modern-day Nepal, raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, which may have been either in what is present day Tilaurakot, Nepal or Piprahwa, India. According to Buddhist tradition, he obtained his enlightenment in Bodh Gaya, gave his first sermon in Sarnath, died in Kushinagar. Apart from the Vedic Brahmins, the Buddha's lifetime coincided with the flourishing of influential Śramaṇa schools of thought like Ājīvika, Cārvāka, Ajñana. Brahmajala Sutta records sixty-two such schools of thought. In this context, a śramaṇa refers to one who toils, or exerts themselves.
It was the age of influential thinkers like Mahavira, Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambalī, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, as recorded in Samaññaphala Sutta, whose viewpoints the Buddha most must have been acquainted with. Indeed and Moggallāna, two of the foremost disciples of the Buddha, were the foremost disciples of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, the sceptic. There is philological evidence to suggest that the two masters, Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, were indeed historical figures and they most taught Buddha two different forms of meditative techniques. Thus, Buddha was just one of the many śramaṇa philosophers of that time. In an era where holiness of person was judged by their level of asceticism, Buddha was a reformist within the śramaṇa movement, rather than a reactionary against Vedic Brahminism; the life of the Buddha coincided with the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley during the rule of Darius I from about 517/516 BCE. This Achaemenid occupation of the areas of Gandhara and Sindh, to last for about two centuries, was accompanied by the introduction of Achaemenid religions, reformed Mazdaism or early Zoroastrianism, to which Buddhism might have in part reacted.
In particular, the ideas of the Buddha may have consisted of a rejection of the "absolutist" or "perfectionist" ideas contained in these Achaemenid religions. No written records about Gautama were found from his lifetime or from the one or two centuries thereafter. In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, several Edicts of Ashoka mention the Buddha, Ashoka's Rummindei Minor Pillar Edict commemorates the Emperor's pilgrimage to Lumbini as the Buddha's birthplace. Another one of his edicts mentions the titles of several Dhamma texts, establishing the existence of a written Buddhist tradition at least by the time of the Maurya era; these texts may be the precursor of the Pāli Canon. "Sakamuni" in mentioned in the reliefs of Bharhut, dated to circa 100 BCE, in relation with his illumination and the Bodhi tree, with the inscription Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho. The oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts are the Gandhāran Buddhist texts, repor
Sriman Andhra Vishnu, better known as Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu, was a legendary warrior by name of Vishnu belonging to the Andhra family who became famous as a valorous saviour of his small kingdom Trilinga Desha, Telugu Desha or Andhra Desha, which denotes the Telugu-speaking region between Draksharamam and Srisailam. After his reign, people came to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Maha Vishnu himself. In his honor, people had dedicated a new temple now located at Srikakulam, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh; the deity of the temple is known as Srikakulandhra Vishnu. The main sanctum of the temple survived at least since the time of the Satavahana emperors from 2nd or 3rd century BC. In that respect, it is one of the most ancient temple sites in the country. Available evidence seems to suggest; this temple has historical links. As many as 32 inscriptions, including those issued by Krishnadevaraya, appear on the walls of the temple; the presiding deity has some striking peculiarities.
The deity holds a sankha in right hand and a chakra in left hand as against usual practice of vice versa. Krishna does not find place in dasavatara here; the list includes, Koorma, Narasimha, Parasurama, Balarama and Kalki. The present temple is said to be existing from 1010 A. D. and was reconstructed twice before now. The Cholas are stated to have reconstructed the temple by bringing the idol found in river Krishna bed during their rule; the temple was reconstructed in 1992 during Krishna Pushkarams. However the temple was in a neglected state of affairs though it had a property of about 200 acres of fertile land. In Andhra Kaumudi, a Telugu grammar book it was mentioned, it seems Āndhra Viṣhṇu having built an immense wall, connecting Sri Sailam and Kaleswaram, with the Mahendra hills, formed in it three gates, in which the three eyed Ishwara, bearing the trident in his hand and attended by a host of divinities resided in the form of three lingams. Āndhra Viṣhṇu assisted by divine angels having fought with the great giant Nishambhu for thirteen yugas killed him in battle and took up his residence with the sages on the banks of the river Godavari, since which time, the Andhra country has been named Trilingam.
Andhra Nayaka Satakam was written by Kasula Purushottama Kavi, a poet who enjoyed the patronage of the Zamindar of Challapalli in Diviseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The poems are notable because of the vyāja ninda and vyāja stuti employed to denounce Andhra Viṣhṇu and put him down for his various qualities and actions while praising him indirectly. Once the Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya was travelling via Vijayawada during his Kalinga campaign, he had conquered Kondapalli fort and the surrounding areas. He came to know about the holy temple of Andhra Viṣhṇu and visited Srikakulam village for a few days, he performed the Ekadasi Vratam during that time. It is here. Krishnadevaraya said Observing the fast of the Vishnu's Day, in the fourth and last watch of that God's night, Andhra Vishnu came to me in my dream, his body was a radiant black, blacker than the rain cloud. His eyes wise and sparkling, put the lotus to shame, he was clothed in finer still than the down on his eagle's wings. The red sunrise is pale compared to ruby on his chest.
Andhra Viṣhṇu told him to compose the story of his wedding with Andal at Srirangam. He ordered the emperor to tell the story in the Telugu language; the emperor obliged, composing Amuktamalyada, one of the most famous poetic works in Telugu literature. From 14th poem of this work we can see that the Lord Śrī Āndhra Viṣhṇu refers himself as King of Telugus and refers Sri Krishnadevaraya as Kannada King. తెలుఁగ దేల నన్న దేశంబు దెలుఁగేను తెలుఁగు వల్లభుండఁ దెలుఁ గొకండయెల్ల నృపులగొలువ నెరుఁగ వే బాసాడిదేశభాషలందుఁ తెలుఁగు లెస్స telugadElayanna, dESambu telugEnutelugu vallaBhunDa telugokanDayella nRpulu golva nerugavE bAsADidESa BhAShalandu telugu lessa Meaning of Quote:"If you ask why a work in Telugu. Telugu is language. So, with all kings serving under you, by speaking you will know that of all the languages in the country, Telugu is superior. " Within Amuktamalyada itself it was mentioned that on a Harivasara, Sri Krishnadevaraya had the Darsan of Andhra Viṣhṇu. Harivasara is the time between the last four muhurtas of Ekadasi and the first four muhurtas of Dwadasi, i.e. 6 hours and 24 minutes.
This incident of visiting the temple must be between Ahobilam Śaasanam and Simhāchalam Śaasanam In 1962, the Telugu movie named Srikakula Andhra Mahavishnu Katha was made based on the story of this legendary king, directed by A. K. Sekhar, casting N. T. Rama Rao, Jamuna, S. V. Ranga Rao, M. Balaiah, Relangi Venkataramaiah, Girija, L. Vijaya Lakshmi, Chaya Devi, Mudigonda Linga Murthy. Producer was D. Lakshminarayana Chowdary and music was given by Pendyala Nageswara Rao. Srinivas, Sistla. Sri Krishna Deva Raya's Amuktamalyada, Visakhapatnam, 2010
A male organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals, including male humans, have a Y chromosome, which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs. Not all species share a common sex-determination system. In most animals, including humans, sex is determined genetically, but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, Cymothoa exigua changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity; the existence of two sexes seems to have been selected independently across different evolutionary lineages. The repeated pattern is sexual reproduction in isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior to anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types to oogamous species in which the female gamete is much larger than the male and has no ability to move.
There is a good argument that this pattern was driven by the physical constraints on the mechanisms by which two gametes get together as required for sexual reproduction. Accordingly, sex is defined operationally across species by the type of gametes produced and differences between males and females in one lineage are not always predictive of differences in another. Male/female dimorphism between organisms or reproductive organs of different sexes is not limited to animals. In land plants and male designate not only the female and male gamete-producing organisms and structures but the structures of the sporophytes that give rise to male and female plants. A common symbol used to represent the male sex is the Mars symbol, ♂ — a circle with an arrow pointing northeast; the symbol is identical to the planetary symbol of Mars. It was first used to denote sex by Carl Linnaeus in 1751; the symbol is called a stylized representation of the Roman god Mars' shield and spear. According to Stearn, all the historical evidence favours that it is derived from θρ, the contraction of the Greek name for the planet Mars, Thouros.
The sex of a particular organism may be determined by a number of factors. These may be genetic or environmental, or may change during the course of an organism's life. Although most species with male and female sexes have individuals that are either male or female, hermaphroditic animals, such as worms, have both male and female reproductive organs. Most mammals, including humans, are genetically determined as such by the XY sex-determination system where males have an XY sex chromosome, it is possible in a variety of species, including humans, to be XXY or have other intersex/hermaphroditic qualities, though one would still be considered genotypically male so long as one has a Y-chromosome. During reproduction, a male can give either an X sperm or a Y sperm, while a female can only give an X egg. A Y sperm and an X egg produce a male, while an X egg produce a female; the part of the Y-chromosome, responsible for maleness is the sex-determining region of the Y-chromosome, the SRY. The SRY activates Sox9, which forms feedforward loops with FGF9 and PGD2 in the gonads, allowing the levels of these genes to stay high enough in order to cause male development.
The ZW sex-determination system, where males have a ZZ sex chromosome may be found in birds and some insects and other organisms. Members of the insect order Hymenoptera, such as ants and bees, are determined by haplodiploidy, where most males are haploid and females and some sterile males are diploid. In some species of reptiles, such as alligators, sex is determined by the temperature at which the egg is incubated. Other species, such as some snails, practice sex change: adults start out male become female. In tropical clown fish, the dominant individual in a group becomes female while the other ones are male. In some arthropods, sex is determined by infection. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia alter their sexuality. In those species with two sexes, males may differ from females in ways other than the production of spermatozoa. In many insects and fish, the male is smaller than the female. In seed plants, which exhibit alternation of generations, the female and male parts are both included within the sporophyte sex organ of a single organism.
In mammals, including humans, males are larger than females. In birds, the male exhibits a colorful plumage that attracts females. Boy Female Gender Male plant Male pregnancy Man Masculinity Gentleman Wedgwood, Hensleigh. "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society: 68
Vijayawada is a city in the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, on the banks of River Krishna in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the third most densely populated in the urban population of built-up areas in the world and is the second largest city in Andhra Pradesh by population. Vijayawada is classified as a Y-grade city as per the Sixth Central Pay Commission. Vijayawada is the commercial headquarters of Andhra Pradesh, it was recognised as a "Global City of the Future" by McKinsey Quarterly, which expected an increase to GDP of $17 billion by 2025. Vijayawada was ISO 37120 Platinum Level certified in October 2018 and has been added to the "Global Cities Registry"; the city is known for its landmarks such as Prakasham Barrage across the Krishna river. The Kanaka Durga Temple is a Hindu temple of Goddess Durga on the Indrakeeladri hill, on the banks of Krishna River; the deity is described as Swayambhu in Triteeya kalpa. Akkana Madanna cave temple is a rock-cut temple, located at the lower reach of the Indrakeeladri temple.'Vijayavatika' and'Bezawada' are the old names of present Vijayawada.
There are many legends behind the origin of the name Vijayawada. Goddess Durga relaxed in this place for some time; as she was victorious, the place came to be known as Vijayawada and the hill was called as Indrekeeladri since it was visited by Indra and his affiliates. The epic Mahabharata refers to the Indrakiladri hills as the place where Arjuna secured Pashupatastra from Lord Shiva; the city thereafter came to be known as Vijayavatika and as Vijayawada. In some legends, Vijayawada was referred to as'Rajendracholapura' as Virarajendra Chola won a battle against Chalukyasin 1068 and ruled over this place. A tale behind its acquiring the name Bezawada is that Goddess Krishnaveni requested Arjuna to make a passage for her to merge into the Bay of Bengal. Hence, Arjuna made a bejjam through the mountains and the place came to be known as Bejjamwada which changed to Bezawada. Other names of Vijayawada were being Vijayavata, Kanakaprabha, Kanakawada, Vijayapuri, Phalguna Kshetram & Jananathpura. Bezawada was founded around 626 A.
D. by Paricchedi Kings. Vijayawada history reveals. Chinese Buddhist scholar Xuanzang stayed few years in Bezawada in around 640 A. D. to copy and study the Abhidhamma Pitaka, the last of the three pitakas constituting the Pali canon, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. Mogalrajapuram hills have five rock-cut temples, built during the 4th–9th centuries; some of the caves can be attributed to Vishnukundina dynasty. Akkana Madanna Caves, at the foot of Indrakeeladri Hill, is a monument of national importance. At the foot of Indrakeeladri hills is the temple of Malleswara; the temple has inscriptions dating back to 9th century AD to 16th century AD by various kings. There are a mutilated slab with inscriptions in the Telugu language. Of them, the inscriptions issued by Yudhamalla I and II of Eastern Chalukyas are important. In the early 16th century, during the reign of Qutb Shahi dynasty, diamond mines were found near Vijayawada on the banks of Krishna River. Vijayawada lies on the banks of Krishna River, covered by canals.
It is 18.5 km from the state capital, Amaravati. and at an altitude of 11 m above sea level. Three canals originating from the north side of the Prakasham barrage reservoir — Eluru and Ryves — flow through the city. Vijayawada has a tropical climate; the annual mean temperatures range between 23.4–34 °C. The highest maximum temperature recorded was 48.8 °C in May 2002, the lowest was 12.4 °C on January 1997. May is the hottest and January is the coldest month of the year.. It receives rainfall from the South-west and North-east monsoons and the average annual rainfall recorded is 977.9 mm. As of 2011 Census of India, the city had a population of 1,476,931; the total population constituted 524,918 males and 523,322 females — for a sex ratio of 997 females per 1000 males — higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 92,848 children were in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 47,582 were boys and 45,266 were girls: a ratio of 951 per 1000. The average literacy rate stood at 82.59% with 789,038 literates higher than the national average of 73.00%.
Vijayawada is one of the most densely populated cities with 31,200 people per square km. The predominant language spoken by the city residents is Telugu. Vijayawada Municipal Corporation is the civic governing body of the city and was the first ISO 9001 certified urban local body in the country, it was constituted on 1 April 1888 and was upgraded to selection grade municipality in 1960, and, to the corporation in 1981. The jurisdictional area of the corporation is spread over an area of 61.8 km2 with 59 wards. The present municipal commissioner of
Machilipatnam known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a town in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Krishna district, it is the mandal headquarters of Machilipatnam mandal in Machilipatnam revenue division of the district. The ancient port town served as the settlement of European traders from the 16th century, it was a major trading port for the British and French in the seventeenth century. During the 17th century, it was known by the names Masulipatnam and Bandar; the port town in the ancient times was referred with the name Maesolia. The town has existed since the 3rd century BCE; the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st-century BCE. The port is on Coromandel Coast, of India. At the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade. Muslin was traded by ancient Greeks from the town and the word muslin originated from the name Maisolos. Muslin was an important source of income for the town, being a favorite of Roman traders for domestic consumption.
Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns near Machilipatnam. The town was the district headquarters of the Masulipatnam district and now to the Krishna district, formed in 1859 in the composite Madras state; the Machilipatnam port served as the principal seaport of the Golconda Kingdom from the 15th to 17th centuries. Machilipatnam city is at 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17. The city has an average elevation of 14 meters. Machilipatnam city gets most of its annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon, it has a tropical savanna climate with moderate winters. The hottest months are between June; the average normal rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres. Machilipatnam city is hit by cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal; the Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took 10,000 lives; as the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts.
A storm surge, 5 meters high, inundated the Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam city. On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed and made operational at the city, it is from Gematronik. With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the newspaper The Hindu; this facility will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state. As of 2011 census, Machilipatnam had a population of 1,70,008; the total population constitutes 83,561 males and 86,447 females — a sex ratio of 1035 females per 1000 males. 13,778 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 7,076 are boys and 6,702 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.32% with 130,173 literates higher than the state average of 67.41%. Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city, it was constituted as a municipality in 1866 and was upgraded to corporation from special grade municipality on 9 December 2015.
It covers an area of 26.67 km2 under its jurisdiction. The present commissioner of the corporation is Sampath and the municipal chairperson is Motamarri Venkata Baba Prasad. Machilipatnam Urban Development Authority is the urban planning authority, headquartered at Machilipatnam. Machilipatnam is a part of Machilipatnam for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Kollu Ravindra is the present MLA of the constituency from the Telugu Desam Party; the assembly segment is a part of Machilipatnam, won by Konakalla Narayana Rao of Telugu Desam Party. Machilipatnam is known for its handloom industry, which produces Kalamkari textiles exported to United States and other Asian countries; the other notable industries are boat fishing. Machilipatnam was a trading base for the Europeans in the 17th century and known for minting copper coins, exporting diamonds, textiles etc. through the port. The state government under the leadership of Sri Nara Chandrababu Naidu is taking measures to bring back the glory of the former port city.
On 7th Feb 2019, it has started construction of Machilipatnam deep seaport and its associated industrial corridor under the Machilipatnam Area Development Authority. This move is expected to generate employment to over 25,000 people. Machilipatnam Kalamkari is a handcrafted dyed block-painting of a fabric, it is performed at the nearby town of Pedana and was registered with geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh. Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti styles are the only existing Kalamkari style works present in India. Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form, originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam; the city is well known for a sweet known as Bandar Laddu. There are many religions with worship centers in and around the city, such as Panduranga Temple at Chilakalapudi, Agastheeswara Temple etc. Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the home to ancient Shiva and Datta temples. Manginapudi is popularly known as "Datta Rameswaram" due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing.
Manginapudi Beach is on the