President of Romania
The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term. An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party; the office of President was created in 1974, when Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu elevated the presidency of the State Council to a full-fledged executive presidency. It took its current form in stages after the Romanian Revolution, culminating with the adoption of Romania's current constitution in 1991; the current President of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, since 21 December 2014. In the Communist era, the president was elected for a term of five years by the Great National Assembly, with no term limits, he served as ex officio president of the State Council, had the right to act on any matter that did not require a State Council plenum. He appointed and dismissed ministers and heads of central agencies; when the GNA was not in session, the president could appoint and dismiss the president of the Supreme Court and the prosecutor general without State Council approval.
Ceaușescu created the office in order to make himself chief decision-maker in both fact. He had nominally been first among equals on the State Council, deriving his real power from his leadership of the Romanian Communist Party. In practice, he used his power to act on all matters that did not require a plenum to rule by decree and usurped many powers that belonged to the State Council as a whole. After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session; the elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution: Romanian: Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea și priceperea pentru propășirea spirituală și materială a poporului român, să respect Constituția și legile țării, să apăr democrația, drepturile și libertățile fundamentale ale cetățenilor, independența, unitatea și integritatea teritorială a României. Așa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu! I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
So help me God! Under the 1991 Constitution, presidential powers were curtailed as opposed to those applicable in communist Romania, but the office continues to wield significant influence within a semi-presidential system of government; the President's duties are set out in Chapter III of the Constitution. These are supplemented by other constitutional and legal provisions. In internal affairs: Embodies the state and safeguards its independence and territorial integrity. Guards the observance of the Constitution and the functioning of public authorities. Designates and appoints the Prime Minister, subject to parliamentary approval. Appoints and removes ministers, on the advice of the Prime Minister. Consults the Government on major policy matters. Chairs Cabinet when matters of national interest with regard to foreign policy, the defence of the country or public order are debated and, at the Prime Minister's request, in other instances as well. Addresses Parliament on issues of national interest.
Assents to bills. Refers bills for review to the Constitutional Court before signifying his assent. Summons Parliament after a legislative election. Requests extraordinary sessions of Parliament. Dissolves Parliament. Calls referendums; such referendums are advisory and Parliament may choose not to implement their result. However, if a referendum is valid, Parliament may not legislate contrary to the referendum result. In foreign affairs: Undertakes state and working visits overseas. Concludes international treaties negotiated by the Government and submits them to Parliament for ratification. Appoints and recalls ambassadors and diplomatic envoys on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs. Receives letters of credence from foreign diplomatic envoys. Approves the setting up, closing down or change in rank of diplomatic missions. In defence issues: Exerts the role of Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces. Presides over the Supreme Council of National Defence. Declares mobilisation of the Armed Forces.
Takes measures to repel armed aggression towards the country. Institutes the state of siege or the state of emergency. Other duties: Confers decorations and titles of honour. Makes appointments to senior military ranks. Makes appointments to public offices as provided by law. Grants individual pardons. In the exercise of
Dorohoi is a city in Botoșani County, Romania, on the right bank of the Jijia River, which broadens into a lake on the north. Dorohoi used to be a market for the farm produce of the north Moldavian highlands; the settlement is first mentioned in documents from 1408, where a treaty was signed between Moldavian voievode, Alexandru cel Bun, the King of Poland and Hungary. Dorohoi was bombed by the Russians during World War I. Dorohoi used to be the capital of Dorohoi County, but was degraded to a municipality when Romania lost Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union. On July 1, 1940, units of the Romanian Army attacked local Jews in a pogrom; these military actions against the Jews were not endorsed by the Romanian Government. When the conspiracy against the Jews was discovered by the military command, troops were sent to end the abuse; the northeastern town of Dorohoi witnessed deaths during the night of June 28–29 as floods rose to just over 1 metre/3.3 feet in some places. Several roads into Dorohoi remained either washed away or under water.
The heavy rain, falling for close to a week had forecasters warning that it would continue in northeast Romania. The unusually heavy rain killed most in the town of Dorohoi on the 29th. According to the census from 2011 there was a total population of 22,600 people living in this city. Of this population, 98.13% are ethnic Romanians, 1.54% ethnic Romani, 0.07% ethnic Jews and 0.02% ethnic Ukrainians. Jews first settled in Dorohoi in the 17th Century, it was set up as a Jewish Guild under Moldavia. Jews suffered here during World War I. There were 600 Jewish families in Dorohoi in 1803. 3,031 people in 1859 6,804 in 1899 5,800 in 1930s. The Jewish population increased after the Holocaust as a result of refugees settling there. In 1947, there were 7,600 Jews living in Dorohoi. Following the establishment of Israel, the Jewish population of the Dorohoi decreased. In 1956, there were 2,753 Jews. In 1966, there were 1,013. By 2000, there were only 49 Jews left in Dorohoi. In the city there is a church built by Ștefan cel Mare.
The city administers three villages: Loturi Enescu and Progresul. Official website Jewish Dorohoi
Social Democratic Party (Romania)
The Social Democratic Party is the major social-democratic political party in Romania, founded by Ion Iliescu, Romania's first democratically-elected president. The largest party in Parliament with 63 seats in the Senate and 158 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, it has the largest number of mayors and county councilors and county presidents thus being the biggest and most influential political force in the country. PSD traces its origins to the Democratic National Salvation Front, a breakaway group established in 1992 from the post-communist National Salvation Front. In 1993 this merged with three other parties to become the Party of Social Democracy in Romania; the present name was adopted after a merger with the smaller Romanian Social Democratic Party in 2001. Since its formation, it has always been one of the two dominant parties of the country; the PDSR governed Romania from 1992 to 1996, while the PSDR was a junior coalition partner between 1996 and 2000. The merged PSD was the senior party in the coalitions governing from 2000 to 2004, from March 2014 to November 2015, as well as one of the main coalition partners between December 2008 and October 2009 and again between May 2012 and March 2014.
The party left government after Prime Minister Victor Ponta resigned in November 2015, only to return as the senior governing party in January 2017, after a major victory in the legislative elections. The founder of the party, Ion Iliescu, became President of the Republic, in office from the end of Communism in 1989 to 1996, again from 2000 to 2004; the current president of the PSD is Liviu Dragnea. He was elected as leader after the former Prime Minister of Romania Victor Ponta stepped down on 12 July 2015, following charges of corruption that were dropped. On 7 April 1992, the struggle for power inside the National Salvation Front between the more hard-line group led by Ion Iliescu and the more reformist group led by Petre Roman resulted in the Iliescu group withdrawing from FSN and the founding of the Democratic National Salvation Front, which would become the present-day PSD. FDSN won the 1992 elections and went on to govern Romania until 1996. On 10 July 1993 it took the name of Party of Social Democracy in Romania upon merger with the Socialist Democratic Party of Romania, the Republican Party and the Cooperative Party.
From 1994 to 1996 the PDSR ruled in coalition with the right-wing Romanian National Unity Party and Greater Romania Party, the left-wing Socialist Party of Labour. PUNR had ministers in the cabinet chaired by Nicolae Văcăroiu from March 1994 to September 1996. PRM was given some posts in the State administration; the PDSR went into opposition after the 1996 election, won by the right-wing coalition Romanian Democratic Convention. After 4 years of governmental turmoil and economic downfall, poorly managed by the crumbling CDR, saw PDSR making a fulminant comeback, winning the November 2000 elections, this time in a coalition named the Social Democratic Pole of Romania along with the Romanian Social Democratic Party and the Romanian Humanist Party. PSDR merged with PDSR on 16 June 2001, the resulting party took its present name, PSD. In November 2004, Adrian Năstase, the PSD candidate and incumbent Prime Minister, won the first round of the presidential elections but did not have a majority and had to go to a second round of voting, which he narrowly lost to Traian Băsescu of the opposition Justice and Truth alliance, who became Romania's 4th president.
In the legislative elections of 2004, the PSD gained the largest share of the vote but because it did not have a majority, the other parties that managed to enter parliament, UDMR and PUR, abandoned their respective pre-electoral agreements with PSD and joined the Justice and Truth Alliance at the pressure of the elected president. Mircea Geoană was elected president of the party in April 2005 by delegates at a PSD Party Congress held in Bucharest, his victory represented a surprise defeat for former President Ion Iliescu, expected to defeat Geoană handily. On 17 April 2008, the Social Democratic Party and the Conservative Party announced they would form a political alliance for the 2008 local elections. In February 2010, the Congress elected Victor Ponta as president, after Mircea Geoana lost the presidential elections in December 2009. On 5 February 2011, the PSD formed a political alliance known as the Social Liberal Union with the Conservative Party and National Liberal Party; the USL was disbanded on 25 February 2014 with exit of the National Liberal Party which entered opposition.
The president of the party conducts the general activity of the party, the activity of the National Executive Committee and the National Permanent Bureau and responds to the Congress on the general work of the Social Democratic Party. The president is elected by secret vote by the Congress for a four-year mandate and represents the party in the Romanian society, in relations with the central and local public authorities, as well as with other parties or organizations in the country or abroad. PSD Honorary President is nominated by Congress for the four-year mandate of the party's recognized personalities; the Honorary President of the PSD participates with the right to vote in the work of the national governing bodies. The Secretary-General manages the functional services at the central level and the relationship with the county and Bucharest organizations, it coordinates the Executive Sec
Iași is the second largest city in Romania, the seat of Iași County. Located in the historical region of Moldavia, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural and artistic life; the city was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia from 1564 to 1859 of the United Principalities from 1859 to 1862, the capital of Romania from 1916 to 1918. Known as The Cultural Capital of Romania, Iași is a symbol in Romanian history; the historian Nicolae Iorga said "There should be no Romanian who does not know of it". Still referred to as The Moldavian Capital, Iași is the main economic and business centre of the Moldavian region of Romania. In December 2018, Iași was declared Historical capital of Romania. At the 2011 census, the city proper had a population of 290,422. With 474,035 residents, the Iași urban area is the second most populous in Romania, whereas more than 500,000 people live within its peri-urban area. Home to the oldest Romanian university and to the first engineering school, Iași is one of the most important education and research centres of the country, accommodates over 60,000 students in 5 public universities.
The social and cultural life revolves around the Vasile Alecsandri National Theater, the Moldova State Philharmonic, the Opera House, the Iași Athenaeum, a famous Botanical Garden, the Central University Library, the high quality cultural centres and festivals, an array of museums, memorial houses and historical monuments. The city is known as the site of the largest Romanian pilgrimage which takes place each year, in October; the city is referred to as: Bulgarian: Яш English, Polish: Jassy French: Iassy German: Jassy, Jassenmarkt Greek: Ιάσιο Hebrew: יאסי or יאשי. Hungarian: Jászvásár Italian: Iassi Russian: Яссы Serbian: Јаши or Jaši Turkish: Yaş Ukrainian: Ясси, Яси - Я́сси, Я́си Yiddish: יאס Arabic: ياشي/اياشي/ياسي Scholars have different theories on the origin of the name "Iași"; some argue that the name originates with the Sarmatian tribe Iazyges, one mentioned by Ovid as Latin: "Ipse vides onerata ferox ut ducata Iasyx/ Per media Histri plaustra bubulcus aquas" and "Iazyges et Colchi Metereaque turba Getaque/ Danubii mediis vix prohibentur aquis".
A now lost inscription on a Roman milestone found near Osijek, Croatia by Matija Petar Katančić in the 18th century, mentions the existence of a Jassiorum municipium, or Municipium Dacorum-Iassiorum from other sources. Other explanations show that the name originated from the Iranian Alanic tribe of Jassi, having same origin with Yazyges tribes Jassic people; the Prut river was known as the city as Forum Philistinorum. From this population derived the plural of town name, "Iașii". Another historian wrote that the Iasians lived among the Cumans and that they left the Caucasus after the first Mongolian campaign in the West, settling temporarily near the Prut, he asserts that the ethnic name of Jasz, given to Iasians by Hungarians has been erroneously identified with the Jazyges. The Hungarian name of the city means "Jassic Market". Archaeological investigations attest to the presence of human communities on the present territory of the city and around it as far back as the prehistoric age. Settlements included those of the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, a late Neolithic archaeological culture.
There is archaeological evidence of human settlements in the area of Iași dating from the 6th to 7th centuries and 7th to 10th centuries. Many of the vessels found in Iași had a cross indicating that the inhabitants were Christians; the name of the city is first found in a document from 1408. This is a grant of certain commercial privileges by the Moldavian Prince Alexander to the Polish merchants of Lvov. However, as buildings older than 1408 still exist, e.g. the Armenian Church believed to be built in 1395, it is certain that the city existed before its first surviving written mention. Around 1564, Prince Alexandru Lăpușneanu moved the Moldavian capital from Suceava to Iași. Between 1561 and 1563, a school and a Lutheran church were founded by the Greek adventurer Prince, Ioan Iacob Heraclid. In 1640, Vasile Lupu established the first school in which the Romanian language replaced Greek, set up a printing press in the Byzantine Trei Ierarhi Monastery. Between 15 September - 27 October 1642, the city hosted the Synod of Jassy.
In 1643, the first volume printed in Moldavia was published in Iași. The city was burned down by the Tatars in 1513, by the Ottomans in 1538, by Imperial Russian troops in 1686. In 1734, it was hit by the plague, it was through the Peace of Iași that the sixth Russo-Turkish War was brought to a close in 1792. A Greek revolutionary manoeuvre and occupation under Alexander Ypsilanti and the Filiki Eteria led to the storming of the city by the Turks in 1822. In 1844 a severe fire affected much of the city. Between 1564 and 1859, the city was the capital of Moldavia.
Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Alexandru Ioan Cuza University
The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University is a public university located in Iași, Romania. Founded one year after the establishment of the Romanian state, by an 1860 decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, under whom the former Academia Mihăileană was converted to a university, the University of Iași, as it was named at first, is the oldest university of Romania, one of its advanced research and education institutions, it is one of the five members of the Universitaria Consortium. The Alexandru Ioan Cuza University offers study programmes in Romanian and French. In 2008, for the third year in a row, it was placed first in the national research ranking compiled on the basis of Shanghai criteria. In the 2012 QS World University Rankings, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University was included in the Top 700 universities of the world, on the position 601+, together with three other Romanian universities; the University is a member of some of the most important university networks and associations: the Coimbra Group, Utrecht Network, European University Association, International Association of Universities, University Agency of Francophony, the Network of Francophone Universities.
Iași has a long tradition in higher education, the first institute that functioned on the territory of Romania was Academia Vasiliană founded in 1640 by the Moldavian Prince Vasile Lupu, followed, in 1707, by Princely Academy of Iași. The Princely Academy matched up to the standards of the other European Academies of the time and the Romanian language gained importance over the Greek language; the foundation, in 1835, of the Academia Mihăileană is considered a landmark in the history of Romanian higher education. The Academia Mihăileană was created under the auspices of Prince Mihail Sturdza, striving for progress and for "meeting the standards of the enlightened Europe". Three faculties were set up: the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Philosophy and the Faculty of Theology and the curriculum resembled to a great extent that of Austrian and German academies. After the Unification of the Romanian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia by the Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, the inauguration, at 26 October 1860, of the University of Iași, the first Romanian modern university, was to be a stepping stone to modern higher education in Romania.
By 1879, the University of Iași had four faculties: Law and Philosophy, Medicine. In 1892, the Faculty of Sciences added the Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, followed by the Department of Agricultural Chemistry, in 1906, the School of the Industrial Electricity, in 1910. In March 1937, the technical higher education departments were transferred to the newly established Gheorghe Asachi Polytechnic School, in 1948, the Faculty of Agriculture became the Iași Agronomic Institute, while the Medical School became the Institute of Medicine and Pharmacy of Iași, its coat of arms with the Y shaped heraldic pall symbolizes the three initiatives which led to the foundation of the University: the Academia Vasiliană, the Academia Mihăileană, the University of Iași. The central element is the classic emblem of higher education; the three shiny stars stand for the three faculties of the University at its foundation moment, Philosophy and Theology, on blue and argent background, the same colors used on the Cuza family shield.
The university grounds lie on Copou Hill in the northern part of the city. The main university building was built between 1893 and 1897 on the site of the first Iași National Theatre which had burned down in 1888; the Hall of the University, known as The Hall of the Lost Footsteps, served as a parliamentary debating chamber between 1917 and 1918 when, during the Great War, Iași was the capital of Romania. In 1967, the painter Sabin Bălaşa started creating a series of romanticized frescoes for the arcades. Nowadays, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University is made up of 15 faculties and one department: The Faculty of Biology, founded in 1864 as a department of the Faculty of Sciences, became part of the Faculty of Natural Sciences in 1948, organized as faculty in 1990; the Faculty of Chemistry was founded in 1864 as a department of the Faculty of Sciences, organized as faculty in 1948. It offers programs in chemistry, technological biochemistry, medical chemistry; the Faculty of Computer Science was founded in 1965, as the Department of Computing Machines of the Faculty of Mathematics.
In 1991, it became the first faculty in Computer Science of a non-technical university in Romania. The Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, founded in 1962; the Faculty of Geography and Geology, founded in 1865 as the Department of Geology-Mineralogy of the Faculty of Sciences. In 1948, it became part of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, organized as the Faculty of Biology-Geography-Geology, in 1977; the Faculty of History, founded in 1860 as a department of the Faculty of Philosophy. It was part of the Faculties of History-Geography, Letters, or History-Philosophy until 1990, when it was organized as an individual faculty; the Faculty of Law, founded in 1856, it is one of the founder faculties. The Faculty of Letters, founded in 1860, as part of the Faculty of Philosophy, renamed in 1864 as Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, it became an individual faculty in 1960. The Faculty of Mathematics, was founded in 1864 as a department of the Faculty of Sciences, organized as faculty in 1948.
The Faculty of Philosophy and Social-Political Sciences, founded in 1856 as the Faculty of Philosophy, became one of the founder faculties. The Faculty of