Jihad is an Arabic word which means striving or struggling with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to any effort to make personal and social life conform with God's guidance, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, religious proselytizing, or efforts toward the moral betterment of the ummah, though it is most associated with war. In classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad; the term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups. The word jihad appears in the Quran with and without military connotations in the idiomatic expression "striving in the path of God". Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era understood the obligation of jihad predominantly in a military sense, they developed an elaborate set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat.
In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead given rise to an ideological and political discourse. While modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory. Jihad is classified into inner jihad, which involves a struggle against one's own base impulses, external jihad, further subdivided into jihad of the pen/tongue and jihad of the sword. Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, while much of contemporary Muslim opinion favors the opposite view. Gallup analysis of a large survey reveals considerable nuance in the conceptions of jihad held by Muslims around the world. Jihad is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, though this designation is not recognized. In Twelver Shi'a Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion. A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid.
The term jihad is rendered in English as "Holy War", although this translation is controversial. Today, the word jihad is used without religious connotations, like the English crusade. In Modern Standard Arabic, the term jihad is used for a struggle for causes, both religious and secular; the Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines the term as "battle. Nonetheless, it is used in the religious sense and its beginnings are traced back to the Qur'an and the words and actions of Muhammad. In the Qur'an and in Muslim usage, jihad is followed by the expression fi sabil illah, "in the path of God." Muhammad Abdel-Haleem states that it indicates "the way of truth and justice, including all the teachings it gives on the justifications and the conditions for the conduct of war and peace." It is sometimes used without religious connotation, with a meaning similar to the English word "crusade". According to Ahmed al-Dawoody, seventeen derivatives of jihād occur altogether forty-one times in eleven Meccan texts and thirty Medinan ones, with the following five meanings: striving because of religious belief, non-Muslim parents exerting pressure, that is, jihād, to make their children abandon Islam, solemn oaths, physical strength.
The context of the Quran is elucidated by Hadith. Of the 199 references to jihad in the most standard collection of hadith—Bukhari—all assume that jihad means warfare. Among reported saying of the Islamic prophet Muhammad involving jihad are The best Jihad is the word of Justice in front of the oppressive sultan. and The Messenger of Allah was asked about the best jihad. He said: "The best jihad is the one in which your horse is slain and your blood is spilled." Ibn Nuhaas cited a hadith from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, where Muhammad states that the highest kind of jihad is "The person, killed whilst spilling the last of his blood". According to another hadith, supporting one's parents is an example of jihad, it has been reported that Muhammad considered well-performing hajj to be the best jihad for Muslim women. The practice of periodic raids by Bedouins against enemy tribes and settlements to collect spoils predates the revelations of the Quran. According to some scholars, while Islamic leaders "instilled into the hearts of the warriors the belief" in jihad "holy war" and ghaza, the "fundamental structure" of this bedouin warfare "remained... raiding to collect booty".
According to Jonathan Berkey, the Quran's statements in support of jihad may have been directed against Muhammad's local enemies, the pagans of Mecca or the Jews of Medina, but these same statements could be redirected once new enemies appeared. According to another scholar, it was the shift in focus to the conquest and spoils collecting of non-Bedouin unbelievers and away from traditional inter-bedouin tribal raids, that may have made it possible for Islam not only to expand but to avoid self-destruction. "From an early date Muslim law laid down" jihad in the military sense as "one of the principal obligations" of both "the head of the Muslim state", who declared the jihad, the Muslim community. According to legal historian Sadakat Kadri, Islamic jurists first developed classical doctrine of jihad "towards th
The peach is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated. It bears an edible juicy fruit called a nectarine; the specific name persica refers to its widespread cultivation in Persia, from where it was transplanted to Europe. It belongs to the genus Prunus which includes the cherry, apricot and plum, in the rose family; the peach is classified with the almond in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated seed shell. Due to their close relatedness, the inside of a peach stone tastes remarkably similar to almond, peach stones are used to make a cheap version of marzipan, known as persipan. Peaches and nectarines are the same species though they are regarded commercially as different fruits. In contrast to peaches, whose fruits present the characteristic fuzz on the skin, nectarines are characterized by the absence of fruit-skin trichomes.
China alone produced 58% of the world's total for peaches and nectarines in 2016. Prunus persica grows up to 7 m wide. However, when pruned properly, trees are 3–4 m tall and wide; the leaves are lanceolate, 7 -- 16 cm long, 2 -- pinnately veined. The flowers are produced in early spring before the leaves; the fruit has yellow or whitish flesh, a delicate aroma, a skin, either velvety or smooth in different cultivars. The flesh is delicate and bruised in some cultivars, but is firm in some commercial varieties when green; the single, large seed is red-brown, oval shaped 1.3–2 cm long, is surrounded by a wood-like husk. Peaches, along with cherries and apricots, are stone fruits. There are various heirloom varieties, including the Indian Peach, or Indian Blood Peach, which arrives in the latter part of the summer, can have color ranging from red and white, to purple. Cultivated peaches are divided into clingstones and freestones, depending on whether the flesh sticks to the stone or not. Peaches with white flesh are sweet with little acidity, while yellow-fleshed peaches have an acidic tang coupled with sweetness, though this varies greatly.
Both colors have some red on their skin. Low-acid white-fleshed peaches are the most popular kinds in China and neighbouring Asian countries, while Europeans and North Americans have favoured the acidic, yellow-fleshed cultivars; the scientific name persica, along with the word "peach" itself and its cognates in many European languages, derives from an early European belief that peaches were native to Persia. The Ancient Romans referred to the peach as malum persicum "Persian apple" becoming French pêche, whence the English peach; the scientific name, Prunus persica means "Persian plum", as it is related to the plum. Fossil endocarps with characteristics indistinguishable from those of modern peaches have been recovered from late Pliocene deposits in Kunming, dating to 2.6 million years ago. In the absence of evidence that the plants were in other ways identical to the modern peach, the name Prunus kunmingensis has been assigned to these fossils. Although its botanical name Prunus persica refers to Persia from where it came to Europe, genetic studies suggest peaches originated in China, where they have been cultivated since the neolithic period.
Until it was believed that the cultivation started c. 2000 BC. More recent evidence indicates that domestication occurred as early as 6000 BC in Zhejiang Province of China; the oldest archaeological peach stones are from the Kuahuqiao site. Archaeologists point to the Yangtze River Valley as the place where the early selection for favorable peach varieties took place. Peaches were mentioned in Chinese writings and literature beginning from the early 1st millennium BC. A domesticated peach appeared early in Japan, in 4700–4400 BC, during the Jōmon period, it was similar to modern cultivated forms, where the peach stones are larger and more compressed than earlier stones. This domesticated type of peach was brought into Japan from China. In China itself, this variety is attested only at a date of c. 3300 to 2300 BC. In India, the peach first appeared during the Harappan period, it is found elsewhere in Western Asia in ancient times. Peach cultivation reached Greece by 300 BC, it is claimed that Alexander the Great introduced the fruit into Europe after he conquered the Persians, although there is no historical evidence for this belief.
Peaches were, well known to the Romans in the 1st century AD, were cultivated in Emilia-Romagna. Peach trees are portrayed in the wall paintings of the towns destroyed by the Vesuvius eruption of 79 AD, while the oldest known artistic representations of the fruit are in two fragments of wall paintings, dated to the 1st century AD, in Herculaneum, now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples; the peach was brought to the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, made it to England and France in the 17th century, where it was a prized and expensive treat. The horticulturist George Minifie brought the first peaches from England to its North American colonies in the early 17th century, planting them at his Estate of Buc
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. The related genus Broussonetia is commonly known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera. Mulberries are fast-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and exceed 10–15 metres tall; the leaves are alternately arranged and lobed and serrated on the margin. Lobes are more common on juvenile shoots than on mature trees; the trees can be dioecious. The mulberry fruit is a multiple fruit 2–3 cm long. Immature fruits are green, or pale yellow. In most species the fruits turn pink and red while ripening dark purple or black, have a sweet flavor when ripe; the fruits of the white-fruited cultivar are white. Although quite similar looking, they are not to be confused with blackberries; the taxonomy of Morus is complex and disputed. Over 150 species names have been published, although differing sources may cite different selections of accepted names, only 10–16 are cited as being accepted by the vast majority of botanical authorities.
Morus classification is further complicated by widespread hybridisation, wherein the hybrids are fertile. The following species are accepted by the Kew Plant List as of August 2015: Black and white mulberry are widespread in southern Europe, the Middle East, northern Africa and Indian subcontinent, where the tree and the fruit have names under regional dialects. Jams and sherbets are made from the fruit in this region. Black mulberry was imported to Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms, it was much used in folk medicine in the treatment of ringworm. Mulberries are widespread in Greece in the Peloponnese, which in the Middle Ages was known as Morea, deriving from the Greek word for the tree. Mulberries can be grown from seed, this is advised as seedling-grown trees are of better shape and health, but they are most planted from large cuttings which root readily; the mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with a crown height of 1.5 to 1.8 metres from ground level and a stem girth of 10–13 cm.
They are specially raised with the help of well-grown saplings 8–10 months old of any of the varieties recommended for rainfed areas like S-13 or S-34 which are tolerant to drought or soil-moisture stress conditions. The plantation is raised and in block formation with a spacing of 1.8 by 1.8 m, or 2.4 by 2.4 m, as plant to plant and row to row distance. The plants are pruned once a year during the monsoon season to a height of 1.5–1.8 m and allowed to grow with a maximum of 8–10 shoots at the crown. The leaves are harvested three or four times a year by a leaf-picking method under rain-fed or semiarid conditions, depending on the monsoon; the tree branches pruned during the fall season are cut and used to make durable baskets supporting agriculture and animal husbandry. Some North American cities have banned the planting of mulberries because of the large amounts of pollen they produce, posing a potential health hazard for some pollen allergy sufferers. Only the male mulberry trees produce pollen.
Conversely, female mulberry trees produce all-female flowers, which draw pollen and dust from the air. Because of this pollen-absorbing feature, all-female mulberry trees have an OPALS allergy scale rating of just 1, some consider it "allergy-free". Mulberry tree scion wood can be grafted onto other mulberry trees during the winter, when the tree is dormant. One common scenario is converting a problematic male mulberry tree to an allergy-free female tree, by grafting all-female mulberry tree scions to a male mulberry, pruned back to the trunk. However, any new growth from below the graft must be removed, as they would be from the original male mulberry tree; the fruit of the white mulberry – an East Asian species extensively naturalized in urban regions of eastern North America – has a different flavor, sometimes characterized as refreshing and a little tart, with a bit of gumminess to it and a hint of vanilla. In North America, the white mulberry is considered an invasive exotic and has taken over extensive tracts from native plant species, including the red mulberry.
The ripe fruit is edible and is used in pies, wines and herbal teas. The fruit of the black mulberry and the red mulberry have the strongest flavor, likened to'fireworks in the mouth'; the fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as nutritional supplements. The mature plant contains significant amounts of resveratrol in stem bark. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic. In a 100 g serving, raw mulberries provide 180 kJ, 44% of the Daily Value for vitamin C, 14% of the DV for iron. Mulberry leaves those of the white mulberry, are ecologically important as the sole food source of the silkworm, the cocoon of, used to make silk; the wild silk moth eats mulbe
Bactria. Bactria proper was north of the Hindu Kush mountain range and south of the Amu Darya river, covering the flat region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan, Tajikistan and parts of Northern Pakistan. More broadly Bactria was the area north of the Hindu Kush, west of the Pamirs and south of the Tian Shan with the Amu Darya flowing west through the center; the English name Bactria is derived from the Ancient Greek: Βακτριανή, a Hellenized version of the Bactrian endonym Bakhlo. Analogous names include Avestan: Old Persian: Bakhtrish, New Persian: باختر, translit. Bākhtar, Tajik: Бохтар, Pashto: بلخ, translit. Balkh, Uzbek: Балх, Chinese: 大夏. Bāhlīka. According to Pierre Leriche: Bactria, the territory of which Bactra was the capital consisted of the area south of the Āmū Daryā with its string of agricultural oases dependent on water taken from the rivers of Balḵ, Kondūz, Sar-e Pol, Šīrīn Tagāō; this region played a major role in Central Asian history. At certain times the political limits of Bactria stretched far beyond the geographic frame of the Bactrian plain.
The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia, dated to c. 2200–1700 BC, located in present-day eastern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya, an area covering ancient Bactria. Its sites were named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. Bactria was the Greek name for Old Persian Bāxtriš, in what is now northern Afghanistan, Margiana was the Greek name for the Persian satrapy of Margu, the capital of, Merv, in today's Turkmenistan; the early Greek historian Ctesias, c. 400 BC, alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in c. 2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War. Since the decipherment of cuneiform script in the 19th century, which enabled actual Assyrian records to be read, historians have ascribed little value to the Greek account. According to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranians who moved southwest into Iran and the northwest of the Indian subcontinent around 2500–2000 BC.
It became the northern province of the Achaemenid Empire in Central Asia. It was in these regions, where the fertile soil of the mountainous country is surrounded by the Turan Depression, that the prophet Zoroaster was said to have been born and gained his first adherents. Avestan, the language of the oldest portions of the Zoroastrian Avesta, was one of the old Iranian languages, is the oldest attested member of the Eastern Iranian languages. Ernst Herzfeld suggested that before its annexation to the Achaemenid Empire by Cyrus the Great in sixth century BC, Bactria belonged to the Medes and together with Margiana, formed the twelfth satrapy of Persia. After Darius III had been defeated by Alexander the Great, the satrap of Bactria, attempted to organise a national resistance but was captured by other warlords and delivered to Alexander, he was tortured and killed. Alexander conquered Sogdiana. In the south, beyond the Oxus, he met strong resistance. After two years of war and a strong insurgency campaign, Alexander managed to establish little control over Bactria.
After Alexander's death, Diodorus Siculus tells us that Philip received dominion over Bactria, but Justin names Amyntas to that role. At the Treaty of Triparadisus, both Diodorus Siculus and Arrian agree that the satrap Stasanor gained control over Bactria. Alexander's empire was divided up among the generals in Alexander's army. Bactria became a part of the Seleucid Empire, named after its founder, Seleucus I; the Macedonians Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I, established the Seleucid Empire and founded a great many Greek towns. The Greek language became dominant for some time there; the paradox that Greek presence was more prominent in Bactria than in areas far closer to Greece can be explained by past deportations of Greeks to Bactria. For instance, during the reign of Darius I, the inhabitants of the Greek city of Barca, in Cyrenaica, were deported to Bactria for refusing to surrender assassins. In addition, Xerxes settled the "Branchidae" in Bactria. Herodotus records a Persian commander threatening to enslave daughters of the revolting Ionians and send them to Bactria.
However, these few examples are not indicative of massive deportations of Greeks to central Asia. Considerable difficulties faced by the Seleucid kings and the attacks of Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus gave the satrap of Bactria, Diodotus I, the opportunity to declare independence about 245 BC and conquer Sogdia, he was the founder of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids—particularly from Antiochus III the Great, defeated by the Romans; the Greco-Bactrians were so powerful that they were able to expand their territory as far as India: As for Bactria, a part of it lies alongside Aria towards the north, though most of it lies above Aria and to the east of it. And much of it produces everything except oil; the Greeks who caused Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the fertility of the country that they became masters, not only of Bactria and beyond, but of In
The almond is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, but cultivated elsewhere. The almond is the name of the edible and cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by corrugations on the shell surrounding the seed; the fruit of the almond is a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed, not a true nut, inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are sold unshelled. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, removed to reveal the white embryo; the almond is a deciduous tree. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight grey in their second year; the leaves are 8 -- 13 cm long, with a 2.5 cm petiole. The flowers are white to pale pink, 3–5 cm diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs and appearing before the leaves in early spring.
Almond grows best in Mediterranean climates with mild, wet winters. The optimal temperature for their growth is between 15 and 30 °C and the tree buds have a chilling requirement of 300 to 600 hours below 7.2 °C to break dormancy. Almonds begin bearing an economic crop in the third year after planting. Trees reach full bearing five to six years after planting; the fruit matures in 7 -- 8 months after flowering. The almond fruit is 3.5–6 cm long. In botanical terms, it is not a nut but a drupe; the outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick, grey-green coat, called the hull. Inside the hull is a reticulated, woody shell called the endocarp. Inside the shell is the edible seed called a nut. One seed is present, but two occur. After the fruit matures, the hull splits and separates from the shell, an abscission layer forms between the stem and the fruit so that the fruit can fall from the tree; the almond is native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, from Syria, Turkey and eastward to Pakistan.
It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe, more transported to other parts of the world, notably California, United States. The wild form of domesticated almond grows in parts of the Levant. Selection of the sweet type from the many bitter types in the wild marked the beginning of almond domestication, it is unclear as to. The species Prunus fenzliana may be the most wild ancestor of the almond in part because it is native of Armenia and western Azerbaijan where it was domesticated. Wild almond species were grown by early farmers, "at first unintentionally in the garbage heaps, intentionally in their orchards". Almonds were one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees due to "the ability of the grower to raise attractive almonds from seed. Thus, in spite of the fact that this plant does not lend itself to propagation from suckers or from cuttings, it could have been domesticated before the introduction of grafting".
Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age such as the archaeological sites of Numeria, or earlier. Another well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt imported from the Levant. Of the European countries that the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh reported as cultivating almonds, Germany is the northernmost, though the domesticated form can be found as far north as Iceland; the word "almond" comes from Old French almande or alemande, Late Latin *amandula, derived through a form amygdala from the Greek ἀμυγδάλη, an almond. The al- in English, for the a- used in other languages may be due a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandorla. Other related names of almond include mandel or knackmandel, mandorla, amêndoa, almendra; the adjective "amygdaloid" is used to describe objects which are almond-shaped a shape, part way between a triangle and an ellipse. See, for example, the brain structure amygdala, which uses a direct borrowing of the Greek term amygdalē.
The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives being trucked in February to the almond groves. Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for the event; this business has been affected by colony collapse disorder, causing nationwide shortages of honey bees and increasing the price of insect pollination. To protect almond growers from the rising cost of insect pollination, researchers at the Agricultural Research Service have developed a new line of self-pollinating almond trees. Self-pollinating almond trees, such as the'Tuono', have been around
The Hazaras are an ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Hazarajat in central Afghanistan, speaking the Hazaragi variant of Dari, itself an eastern variety of Persian, one of the two official languages of Afghanistan. They are the third-largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, they make up a significant minority group in the neighboring Pakistan, with a population of over 650,000–900,000 living in the region of Quetta. Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire in the early 16th century, records the name Hazara in his autobiography, he referred to the populace of a region called Hazaristan, located west of the Kabulistan region, north of Ghazna, southwest of Ghor. The conventional theory is that the name Hazara derives from the Persian word for "thousand", it may be the translation of the Mongol word ming, a military unit of 1,000 soldiers at the time of Genghis Khan. With time, the term Hazar could have been substituted for the Mongol word and now stands for the group of people, while the Hazaras in their native language always call themselves and.
The origins of the Hazara have not been reconstructed. Significant inner Asian descent—in historical context and Mongol—is impossible to rule out because the Hazara's physical attributes, facial bone structures and parts of their culture and language resemble those of Mongolians and Central Asian Turks. Genetic analysis of the Hazara indicate partial Mongolian ancestry. Invading Mongols and Turco-Mongols mixed with the local Iranian population, forming a distinct group. For example, Nikudari Mongols settled in what is now Afghanistan and mixed with native populations who spoke Dari Persian. A second wave of Chagatai Mongols came from Central Asia and were followed by other Mongolic groups, associated with the Ilkhanate and the Timurids, all of whom settled in Hazarajat and mixed with the local Dari-speaking population, forming a distinct group; the Hazara identity in Afghanistan is believed by many to have originated in the aftermath of the 1221 Siege of Bamyan. The first mention of Hazara are made by Babur in the early 16th century and by the court historians of Shah Abbas of the Safavid dynasty.
It is reported that they embraced Shia Islam between the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, during the Safavid period. Hazara men along with tribes of other ethnic groups had been recruited and added to the army of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the 18th century; some claim that in the mid‑18th century Hazara were forced out of Helmand and the Arghandab District of Kandahar Province. During the second reign of Dost Mohammad Khan in the 19th century, Hazara from Hazarajat began to be taxed for the first time. However, for the most part they still managed to keep their regional autonomy until the subjugation of Abdur Rahman Khan began in the late 19th century; when the Treaty of Gandomak was signed and the Second Anglo-Afghan War ended in 1880, Abdur Rahman Khan set out a goal to bring Hazarajat and Kafiristan under his control. He launched several campaigns in Hazarajat due to resistance from the Hazara in which his forces committed atrocities; the southern part of Hazarajat was spared as they accepted his rule, while the other parts of Hazarajat rejected Abdur Rahman and instead supported his uncle, Sher Ali Khan.
In response to this Abdur Rahman waged a war against tribal leaders who rejected his policies and rule. Abdur Rahman arrested Syed Jafar, chief of the Sheikh Ali Hazara tribe, jailed him in Mazar-i-Sharif; the 1888–1893 Uprisings of Hazaras occurred when the Treaty of Gandomak was signed and the Second Anglo-Afghan War ended in 1880, causing Abdur Rahman Khan to set out on a goal to bring Hazarajat and Kafiristan under his control. He launched several campaigns in Hazarajat due to resistance from the Hazara in which his forces committed atrocities; the southern part of Hazarajat was spared as they accepted his rule, while the other parts of Hazarajat rejected Abdur Rahman and instead supported his uncle, Sher Ali Khan. In response to this Abdur Rahman waged a war against tribal leaders who rejected his policies and rule. Abdur Rahman arrested Syed Jafar, chief of the Sheikh Ali Hazara tribe, jailed him in Mazar-i-Sharif; these campaigns had a catastrophic impact on the demographics of Hazaras causing 60% of them to perish or become displaced.
In 1901, Habibullah Khan, Abdur Rahman's successor, granted amnesty to all people who were exiled by his predecessor. However, the division between the Afghan government and the Hazara people was made too deep under Abdur Rahman. Hazara continued to face severe social and political discrimination through most of the 20th century. In 1933 King Mohammed Nadir Khan was assassinated by Abdul Khaliq Hazara; the Afghan government captured and executed him along with several of his innocent family members. Mistrust of the central government by the Hazaras and local uprisings continued. In particular, in the 1940s, during Zahir Shah's rule, a revolt took place against new taxes that were imposed on the Hazara; the Kuchi nomads meanwhile not only were exempted from taxes, but received allowances from the Afghan government. The angry rebels began killing government officials. In response, the central government sent a force to subdue the region and removed the taxes. During the Soviet–Afghan War, the Hazarajat region did not see as much heavy fighting as other regions of Afghanistan.
However, rival Hazara political factions fought. The division was between the Tanzáim-i nasl-i naw-i Hazara, a party based in Quetta, of Hazara nationalists and secular intellectuals, the pro-Khomeini Islamist parties backed by the new Islamic Republic of Iran. By 1979, the Iran-backed Islamist groups liberated
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red; the iron is found in the form of magnetite, goethite, limonite or siderite. Ores containing high quantities of hematite or magnetite are known as "natural ore" or "direct shipping ore", meaning they can be fed directly into iron-making blast furnaces. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron, one of the main raw materials to make steel—98% of the mined iron ore is used to make steel. Indeed, it has been argued that iron ore is "more integral to the global economy than any other commodity, except oil". Metallic iron is unknown on the surface of the Earth except as iron-nickel alloys from meteorites and rare forms of deep mantle xenoliths. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, comprising about 5%, the vast majority is bound in silicate or more carbonate minerals.
The thermodynamic barriers to separating pure iron from these minerals are formidable and energy intensive, therefore all sources of iron used by human industry exploit comparatively rarer iron oxide minerals hematite. Prior to the industrial revolution, most iron was obtained from available goethite or bog ore, for example during the American Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Prehistoric societies used laterite as a source of iron ore. Much of the iron ore utilized by industrialized societies has been mined from predominantly hematite deposits with grades of around 70% Fe; these deposits are referred to as "direct shipping ores" or "natural ores". Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of high-grade hematite ores in the United States, after World War II led to development of lower-grade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite. Iron-ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. There are four main types of iron-ore deposits worked depending on the mineralogy and geology of the ore deposits.
These are magnetite, massive hematite and pisolitic ironstone deposits. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks containing more than 15% iron composed predominantly of thinly bedded iron minerals and silica. Banded iron formations occur in Precambrian rocks, are weakly to intensely metamorphosed. Banded iron formations may contain iron in carbonates or silicates, but in those mined as iron ores, oxides are the principal iron mineral. Banded iron formations are known as taconite within North America; the mining involves moving tremendous amounts of waste. The waste comes in two forms, non-ore bedrock in the mine, unwanted minerals which are an intrinsic part of the ore rock itself; the mullock is mined and piled in waste dumps, the gangue is separated during the beneficiation process and is removed as tailings. Taconite tailings are the mineral quartz, chemically inert; this material is stored in regulated water settling ponds. The key economic parameters for magnetite ore being economic are the crystallinity of the magnetite, the grade of the iron within the banded iron formation host rock, the contaminant elements which exist within the magnetite concentrate.
The size and strip ratio of most magnetite resources is irrelevant as a banded iron formation can be hundreds of meters thick, extend hundreds of kilometers along strike, can come to more than three billion or more tonnes of contained ore. The typical grade of iron at which a magnetite-bearing banded iron formation becomes economic is 25% iron, which can yield a 33% to 40% recovery of magnetite by weight, to produce a concentrate grading in excess of 64% iron by weight; the typical magnetite iron-ore concentrate has less than 0.1% phosphorus, 3–7% silica and less than 3% aluminium. Magnetite iron ore is mined in Minnesota and Michigan in the U. S. Eastern Canada and Northern Sweden. Magnetite bearing banded iron formation is mined extensively in Brazil, which exports significant quantities to Asia, there is a nascent and large magnetite iron-ore industry in Australia. Direct-shipping iron-ore deposits are exploited on all continents except Antarctica, with the largest intensity in South America and Asia.
Most large hematite iron-ore deposits are sourced from altered banded iron formations and igneous accumulations. DSO deposits are rarer than the magnetite-bearing BIF or other rocks which form its main source or protolith rock, but are cheaper to mine and process as they require less beneficiation due to the higher iron content. However, DSO ores can contain higher concentrations of penalty elements being higher in phosphorus, water content and aluminum. Export grade DSO ores are in the 62–64% Fe range. Granite and ultrapotassic igneous rocks segregate magnetite crystals and form masses of magnetite suitable for economic concentration. A few iron ore deposits, notably in Chile, are formed from volcanic flows containing significant accumulations of magnetite phenocrysts. Chilean magnetite iron ore deposits within the Atacama Desert have formed alluvial accumulations of magnetite in s