A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the operating system a web browser and associated application programming interfaces, or other underlying software, as long as the program code is executed with it. Computing platforms have different abstraction levels, including a computer architecture, an OS, or runtime libraries. A computing platform is the stage. A platform can be seen both as a constraint on the software development process, in that different platforms provide different functionality and restrictions. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware and provides a generic command for saving files or accessing the network. Platforms may include: Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS. A browser in the case of web-based software; the browser itself runs on a hardware+OS platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser.
An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in an application-specific scripting language, such as an Excel macro. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform. Software frameworks. Cloud computing and Platform as a Service. Extending the idea of a software framework, these allow application developers to build software out of components that are hosted not by the developer, but by the provider, with internet communication linking them together; the social networking sites Twitter and Facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine or. NET CLR. Applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a complete system, including virtualized hardware, OS, storage; these allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on. Some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it.
In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer beneath it. For instance, a Java program has to be written to use the Java virtual machine and associated libraries as a platform but does not have to be adapted to run for the Windows, Linux or Macintosh OS platforms. However, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS. AmigaOS, AmigaOS 4 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD IBM i Linux Microsoft Windows OpenVMS Classic Mac OS macOS OS/2 Solaris Tru64 UNIX VM QNX z/OS Android Bada BlackBerry OS Firefox OS iOS Embedded Linux Palm OS Symbian Tizen WebOS LuneOS Windows Mobile Windows Phone Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless Cocoa Cocoa Touch Common Language Infrastructure Mono. NET Framework Silverlight Flash AIR GNU Java platform Java ME Java SE Java EE JavaFX JavaFX Mobile LiveCode Microsoft XNA Mozilla Prism, XUL and XULRunner Open Web Platform Oracle Database Qt SAP NetWeaver Shockwave Smartface Universal Windows Platform Windows Runtime Vexi Ordered from more common types to less common types: Commodity computing platforms Wintel, that is, Intel x86 or compatible personal computer hardware with Windows operating system Macintosh, custom Apple Inc. hardware and Classic Mac OS and macOS operating systems 68k-based PowerPC-based, now migrated to x86 ARM architecture based mobile devices iPhone smartphones and iPad tablet computers devices running iOS from Apple Gumstix or Raspberry Pi full function miniature computers with Linux Newton devices running the Newton OS from Apple x86 with Unix-like systems such as Linux or BSD variants CP/M computers based on the S-100 bus, maybe the earliest microcomputer platform Video game consoles, any variety 3DO Interactive Multiplayer, licensed to manufacturers Apple Pippin, a multimedia player platform for video game console development RISC processor based machines running Unix variants SPARC architecture computers running Solaris or illumos operating systems DEC Alpha cluster running OpenVMS or Tru64 UNIX Midrange computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM OS/400 Mainframe computers with their custom operating systems, such as IBM z/OS Supercomputer architectures Cross-platform Platform virtualization Third platform Ryan Sarver: What is a platform
Sir Michael John Gambon is an Irish-born British character actor who has worked in theatre and film. He was trained under Laurence Olivier and started his long work on stage in the National Theatre before retiring in 2015 due to memory loss, his most famous role is that of Professor Albus Dumbledore who Gambon played in the final six Harry Potter films after the death of Richard Harris who had played the role. His other films include, The Cook, the thief, His Wife, Her Lover, The Wings of the Dove, Sleepy Hollow, Gosford Park, Being Julia, Amazing Grace, The King's Speech, Quartet and Abdul, the Paddington films. Gambon has appeared in various television projects including, The Singing Detective and Daughters, Path to War, Angels in America, Emma, The Casual Vacancy, Churchill's Secret, The Hollow Crown, Little Women, he was knighted in 1998 for services to drama, has won four BAFTA TV Awards, three Olivier Awards and was awarded the Irish Film & Television Academy Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017 for his contribution to Irish film.
Gambon was born in Cabra, during World War II. His father, Edward Gambon, was an engineering operative, his mother, was a seamstress; as his father decided to seek work in the rebuilding of London, the family moved to Mornington Crescent in north London, when Gambon was six. His father had him made a British citizen, a decision that would allow Gambon to receive a substantive, rather than honorary, knighthood and CBE. Brought up as a strict Roman Catholic, he attended St Aloysius Boys' School in Somers Town and served at the altar, he moved to St Aloysius' College in Hornsey Lane, London, whose former pupils include actor Peter Sellers. He moved to North End and attended Crayford Secondary School, before leaving with no qualifications at fifteen, he gained an apprenticeship with Vickers Armstrong as a toolmaker. By the time he was 21, he was a qualified engineering technician, he kept the job for a further year, acquiring a fascination and passion for collecting antique guns, clocks and classic cars.
At age 24, Gambon wrote a letter to Micheál Mac Liammóir, the Irish theatre impresario who ran Dublin's Gate Theatre. It was accompanied by a CV describing a rich and wholly imaginary theatre career: he was taken on. Gambon made his professional stage debut in the Gate Theatre's 1962 production of Othello, playing "Second Gentleman", followed by a European tour. A year auditioning with the opening soliloquy from Richard III, he caught the eye of Laurence Olivier, recruiting promising actors for his new National Theatre Company. Gambon, along with Robert Stephens, Derek Jacobi and Frank Finlay, were hired as one of the "to be renowned" and played any number of small roles, appearing on cast lists as "Mike Gambon"; the company performed at the Old Vic, their first production being Hamlet, directed by Olivier and starring Peter O'Toole. Gambon played for four years in many NT productions, including named roles in The Recruiting Officer and The Royal Hunt of the Sun, working with directors William Gaskill and John Dexter.
After three years at the Old Vic, Olivier advised Gambon to gain experience in provincial rep. In 1967, he left the NT for the Birmingham Repertory Company, to give him his first crack at the title roles in Othello and Coriolanus, his rise to fame began in 1974 when Eric Thompson cast him as the melancholy vet in Alan Ayckbourn's The Norman Conquests at Greenwich. A speedy transfer to the West End established him as a comic actor, squatting at a crowded dining table on a tiny chair and agonising over a choice between black or white coffee. Back at the National, now on the South Bank, his next turning point was Peter Hall's premiere staging of Harold Pinter's Betrayal, a performance marked by subtlety – a production photograph shows him embracing Penelope Wilton with sensitive hands and long slim fingers, he is one of the few actors to have mastered the demands of the vast Olivier Theatre. As Simon Callow once said: "Gambon's iron lungs and overwhelming charisma are able to command a sort of operatic full-throatedness which triumphs over hard walls and long distances".
This was to serve him in good stead in John Dexter's masterly staging of The Life of Galileo in 1980, the first Brecht to become a popular success. Hall called him "unsentimental and immensely powerful," and The Sunday Times called his performance "a decisive step in the direction of great tragedy... great acting," while fellow actors paid him the rare compliment of applauding him in the dressing room on the first night. Ralph Richardson dubbed him The Great Gambon, an accolade which stuck, although Gambon dismisses it as a circus slogan, but as Sheridan Morley perceptively remarked in 2000, when reviewing Nicholas Wright's Cressida: "Gambon's eccentricity on stage now begins to rival that of his great mentor Richardson". Like Richardson, interviews are given and raise more questions than they answer. Gambon is a private person, a "non-starry star" as Ayckbourn has called him. Off-stage he prefers to stay out of the limelight. While he has won screen acclaim, his ravaged King Lear at Stratford, while he was still in his early forties, formed a double act with a red-nosed Antony Sher as the Fool sitting on his master's knee like a ventriloquist's doll.
There were appearances in Pinter's Old Times at the Haymarket Theatre and Jonson's Volpone and the brutal sergeant in Pinter's Mountain Language. David Hare's Skylight, with Li
A shotgun is a firearm, designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm bore up to 5 cm bore, in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, lever-action, semi-automatic, fully automatic variants. A shotgun was a smoothbore firearm, which means that the inside of the barrel is not rifled but rifled shotgun barrels and slugs become available. Preceding smoothbore firearms, such as the musket, were used by armies in the 18th century; the direct ancestor to the shotgun, the blunderbuss, was used in a similar variety of roles from self-defense to riot control. It was used by cavalry troops because of its shorter length and ease of use, as well as by coachmen for its substantial power. In the 19th century, these weapons were replaced on the battlefield with breechloading rifled firearms, which were more accurate over longer ranges.
The military value of shotguns was rediscovered in the First World War, when American forces used 12-gauge pump action shotguns in close-quarters trench fighting to great effect. Since it has been used in a variety of roles in civilian, law enforcement, military applications; the shot pellets from a shotgun spread upon leaving the barrel, the power of the burning charge is divided among the pellets, which means that the energy of any one ball of shot is low. In a hunting context, this makes shotguns useful for hunting birds and other small game. However, in a military or law enforcement context, the large number of projectiles makes the shotgun useful as a close quarters combat weapon or a defensive weapon. Militants or insurgents may use shotguns in asymmetric engagements, as shotguns are owned civilian weapons in many countries. Shotguns are used for target shooting sports such as skeet and sporting clays; these involve. Shotguns come in a wide variety of forms, from small up to massive punt guns, in nearly every type of firearm operating mechanism.
The common characteristics that make a shotgun unique center on the requirements of firing shot. These features are the features typical of a shotgun shell, namely a short, wide cartridge, with straight walls, operating at a low pressure. Ammunition for shotguns is referred to in the USA as shotshells, or just shells; the term cartridges is standard usage in the United Kingdom. The shot is fired from a smoothbore barrel; the typical use of a shotgun is against small and fast moving targets while in the air. The spreading of the shot allows the user to point the shotgun close to the target, rather than having to aim as in the case of a single projectile; the disadvantages of shot are limited range and limited penetration of the shot, why shotguns are used at short ranges, against smaller targets. Larger shot sizes, up to the extreme case of the single projectile slug load, result in increased penetration, but at the expense of fewer projectiles and lower probability of hitting the target. Aside from the most common use against small, fast moving targets, the shotgun has several advantages when used against still targets.
First, it has enormous stopping power at more than nearly all handguns and many rifles. Though many believe the shotgun is a great firearm for inexperienced shooters, the truth is, at close range, the spread of shot is not large at all, competency in aiming is still required. A typical self-defense load of buckshot contains 8–27 large lead pellets, resulting in many wound tracks in the target. Unlike a jacketed rifle bullet, each pellet of shot is less to penetrate walls and hit bystanders, it is favored by law enforcement for its low penetration and high stopping power. On the other hand, the hit potential of a defensive shotgun is overstated; the typical defensive shot is taken at close ranges, at which the shot charge expands no more than a few centimeters. This means. Balancing this is the fact that shot spreads further upon entering the target, the multiple wound channels of a defensive load are far more to produce a disabling wound than a rifle or handgun; some of the most common uses of shotguns are the sports of skeet shooting, trap shooting, sporting clays.
These involve shooting clay discs known as clay pigeons, thrown in by hand and by machine. Both skeet and trap competitions are featured at the Olympic Games; the shotgun is popular for bird hunting, it is used for more general forms of hunting in semi-populated areas where the range of rifle bullets may pose a hazard. Use of a smooth bore shotgun with a rifled slug or, alternatively, a rifled barrel shotgun with a sabot slug, improves accuracy to 100 m or more; this is well within the range of the majority of kill shots by experienced hunters using shotguns. However, given the low muzzle velocity of slug ammunition around 500 m/s, the blunt, poorly streamlined shape of typical slugs (which cause them to lose
Video game graphics
A variety of computer graphic techniques have been used to display video game content throughout the history of video games. The predominance of individual techniques have evolved over time due to hardware advances and restrictions such as the processing power of central or graphics processing units; some of the earliest video games were text games or text-based games that used text characters instead of bitmapped or vector graphics. Examples include MUDs, where players could read or view depictions of rooms, other players, actions performed in the virtual world; some of the earliest text games were developed for computer systems which had no video display at all. Text games are easier to write and require less processing power than graphical games, thus were more common from 1970 to 1990. However, terminal emulators are still in use today, people continue to play MUDs and explore interactive fiction. Many beginning programmers still create these types of games to familiarize themselves with a programming language, contests are held today on who can finish programming a roguelike within a short time period, such as seven days.
Vector graphics refers to the use of geometrical primitives such as points and curves instead of resolution-dependent bitmap graphics to represent images in computer graphics. In video games this type of projection is somewhat rare, but has become more common in recent years in browser-based gaming with the advent of Flash and HTML5 Canvas, since these support vector graphics natively. An earlier example for the personal computer is Starglider. Vector game can refer to a video game that uses a vector graphics display capable of projecting images using an electron beam to draw images instead of with pixels, much like a laser show. Many early arcade games used such displays, as they were capable of displaying more detailed images than raster displays on the hardware available at that time. Many vector-based arcade games used full-color overlays to complement the otherwise monochrome vector images. Other uses of these overlays were detailed drawings of the static gaming environment, while the moving objects were drawn by the vector beam.
Games of this type were produced by Atari and Sega. Examples of vector games include Asteroids, Armor Attack, Lunar Lander, Space Fury, Space Wars, Star Trek, Tac/Scan and Zektor; the Vectrex home console used a vector display. After 1985, the use of vector graphics declined due to improvements to sprite technology. Full motion video games are video games that rely upon pre-recorded television- or movie-quality recordings and animations rather than sprites, vectors or 3D models to display action in the game. FMV-based games were popular during the early 1990s as CD-ROMs and Laserdiscs made their way into the living rooms, providing an alternative to the low-capacity ROM cartridges of most consoles at the time. Although FMV-based games did manage to look better than many contemporary sprite-based games, they occupied a niche market; as a result, the format became a well-known failure in video gaming, the popularity of FMV games declined after 1995 as more advanced consoles started to become available.
A number of different types of games utilized this format. Some resembled modern music/dance games, where the player timely presses buttons according to a screen instruction. Others included early rail shooters such as Surgical Strike and Sewer Shark. Full motion video was used in several interactive movie adventure games, such as The Beast Within: A Gabriel Knight Mystery and Phantasmagoria. Games utilizing parallel projection make use of two-dimensional bitmap graphics as opposed to 3D-rendered triangle-based geometry, allowing developers to create large, complex gameworlds efficiently and with few art assets by dividing the art into sprites or tiles and reusing them repeatedly. Top-down perspective sometimes referred to in a while as bird's-eye view, Godview, overhead view or helicopter view, when used in video games refers to a camera angle that shows the player and the area around them from above. While not exclusive to video games that utilise parallel projection, it was at one time common in 2D role playing video games and construction and management simulation games such as SimCity, Pokémon, Railroad Tycoon, as well as in action and action-adventure games such as the early The Legend of Zelda and Grand Theft Auto games.
A side-scrolling game or side-scroller is a video game in which the viewpoint is taken from the side, the onscreen characters can only move, to the left or right. Games of this type make use of scrolling computer display technology, sometimes parallax scrolling to suggest added depth. In many games the screen follows the player character such that the player character is always positioned near the center of the screen. In other games the position of the screen will change according to the player character's movement, such that the player character is off-center and more space is shown in front of the character than behind. Sometimes, the screen will scroll not onl
Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff using sewers. It encompasses components such as receiving drains, pumping stations, storm overflows, screening chambers of the combined sewer or sanitary sewer. Sewerage ends at the entry to a sewage treatment plant or at the point of discharge into the environment, it is the system of pipes, manholes, etc. that conveys the sewage or storm water. It is an alternate noun for the word sewage. In American colloquial English, "sewer system" is applied more to the large infrastructure of sewers that British speakers more refer to as "sewerage"; the main part of such a system is made up of large pipes that convey the sewage from the point of production to the point of treatment or discharge. Types of sanitary sewer systems that all are gravity sewers include: Combined sewer Simplified sewerage Storm drainSanitary sewers not relying on gravity include: Vacuum sewer Effluent sewer Severe constraints are applied to sewerage, which may result in premature deterioration.
These include root intrusion, joint displacement and hole formations that lead to a significant volume of leakage with an overall risk for the environment and public health. For example, it is estimated that 500 million m3 of contaminated water per year can leak into soil and ground-water in Germany; the rehabilitation and replacement of damaged sewers is costly. Annual rehabilitation costs for Los Angeles County are about €400 million, in Germany, these costs are estimated to be €100 million. Hydrogen sulfide is indirectly responsible for biogenic sulfide corrosion and sewers need rehabilitation work. Various repair options are available to owners over a large range of potential durability. One option is the application of a cementitious material based on calcium aluminate cement, after a cleaning of the corroded structure to remove loose material and contaminants in order to expose a sound and clean substrate. Depending on the concrete condition and contamination, the cleaning can range from simple high pressure jet water cleaning up to real hydro-demolition.
One method to ensure sound concrete is exposed is to verify that the surface pH is superior to 10. As for any concrete repair, the state-of-the-art rules must be followed. After this cleaning step, the cementitious material is applied to the saturated-surface-dry substrate using either: Low pressure wet spray: this method is the more common because it does not produce dust and no material is lost by rebound, it utilizes classical facade rotor pump available in the market. The main drawback is the limited pumping distance. Spinning head wet spray: this method is similar to the first, but the manual spraying is replaced by a spinning head projecting the mortar onto the repaired surface; this method is fast and suited for cylindrical chambers such as manholes. When a structure is so corroded that human entry is a risk, spinning head application permits an “un-manned” consolidation of the manhole. High pressure dry spray: this method called “shotcrete” or “gunite” is allowing a faster rate of rehabilitation, to make a thicker application in a single pass.
The main interest of dry shotcrete is the capacity to pump the mortar over a long distance and this is needed when the access points are distant. The longest dry shotcrete distance is a job site in Australia in 2014, where 100% calcium aluminate mortar was air transported over 800 meters before being sprayed; the main drawback with dry shotcrete is the generation of rebound. Sewer system infrastructure reduces the water table in areas in densely populated areas where rainwater is directly piped into the system, as opposed to being allowed to be absorbed by the soil. In certain areas it has resulted in a significant lowering of the water table. In the example of Belgium, a lowering of the water table by 100 meters has been the result; the freshwater, accumulated by the system is piped to the sea. In areas where this is a concern, vacuum sewers may be used instead, due to the shallow excavation, possible for them. In many European countries, citizens are obliged to connect their home sanitation to the national sewerage where possible.
This has resulted in large percentages of the population being connected. For example, the Netherlands have 99% of the population connected to the system, 1% has an individual sewage disposal system or treatment system, e.g. septic tank. Others have lower percentages. History of water supply and sanitation List of water supply and sanitation by country Sanitary sewer overflow Sanitation Sewer mining Media related to Sewerage at Wikimedia Commons
Video game programmer
A game programmer is a software engineer, programmer, or computer scientist who develops codebases for video games or related software, such as game development tools. Game programming has many specialized disciplines, all of which fall under the umbrella term of "game programmer". A game programmer should not be confused with a game designer. In the early days of video games, a game programmer took on the job of a designer and artist; this was because the abilities of early computers were so limited that having specialized personnel for each function was unnecessary. Game concepts were light and games were only meant to be played for a few minutes at a time, but more art content and variations in gameplay were constrained by computers' limited power; as specialized arcade hardware and home systems became more powerful, game developers could develop deeper storylines and could include such features as high-resolution and full color graphics, advanced artificial intelligence and digital sound.
Technology has advanced to such a great degree that contemporary games boast 3D graphics and full motion video using assets developed by professional graphic artists. Nowadays, the derogatory term "programmer art" has come to imply the kind of bright colors and blocky design that were typical of early video games; the desire for adding more depth and assets to games necessitated a division of labor. Art production was relegated to full-time artists. Next game programming became a separate discipline from game design. Now, only some games, such as the puzzle game Bejeweled, are simple enough to require just one full-time programmer. Despite this division, most game developers have some say in the final design of contemporary games. A contemporary video game may include advanced physics, artificial intelligence, 3D graphics, digitised sound, an original musical score, complex strategy and may use several input devices and may be playable against other people via the Internet or over a LAN; each aspect of the game can consume all of one programmer's time and, in many cases, several programmers.
Some programmers may specialize in one area of game programming, but many are familiar with several aspects. The number of programmers needed for each feature depends somewhat on programmers' skills, but are dictated by the type of game being developed. Game engine programmers create the base engine of the game, including the simulated physics and graphics disciplines. Video games use existing game engines, either commercial, open source or free, they are customized for a particular game, these programmers handle these modifications. A game's physics programmer is dedicated to developing the physics. A game will only simulate a few aspects of real-world physics. For example, a space game may need simulated gravity, but would not have any need for simulating water viscosity. Since processing cycles are always at a premium, physics programmers may employ "shortcuts" that are computationally inexpensive, but look and act "good enough" for the game in question. In other cases, unrealistic physics are employed to allow easier gameplay or for dramatic effect.
Sometimes, a specific subset of situations is specified and the physical outcome of such situations are stored in a record of some sort and are never computed at runtime at all. Some physics programmers may delve into the difficult tasks of inverse kinematics and other motions attributed to game characters, but these motions are assigned via motion capture libraries so as not to overload the CPU with complex calculations. For a role-playing game such as World of Warcraft, only one physics programmer may be needed. For a complex combat game such as Battlefield 1942, teams of several physics programmers may be required; this title belonged to a programmer who developed specialized blitter algorithms and clever optimizations for 2D graphics. Today, however, it is exclusively applied to programmers who specialize in developing and modifying complex 3D graphic renderers; some 2D graphics skills have just become useful again, for developing games for the new generation of cell phones and handheld game consoles.
A 3D graphics programmer must have a firm grasp of advanced mathematical concepts such as vector and matrix math and linear algebra. Skilled programmers specializing in this area of game development can demand high wages and are a scarce commodity, their skills can be used for video games on any platform. An AI programmer develops the logic of time to simulate intelligence in opponents, it has evolved into a specialized discipline, as these tasks used to be implemented by programmers who specialized in other areas. An AI programmer may program pathfinding and enemy tactic systems; this is one of the most challenging aspects of game programming and its sophistication is developing rapidly. Contemporary games dedicate 10 to 20 percent of their programming staff to AI; some games, such as strategy games like Civilization III or role-playing video games such as The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, use AI while others, such as puzzle games, use it sparingly or not at all. Many game developers have created entire languages that can be used to program their own AI for games via scripts.
These languages are less technical than the language used to implement the game, will be used by the game or level designers to implement the world of the game. Many studios make their games' scripting available to players
The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order. In many states, the aristocracy included the upper class of people with hereditary rank and titles. In some—such as ancient Greece and India—aristocratic status came from belonging to a military caste, although it has been common, notably in African societies, for aristocrats to belong to priestly dynasties. Aristocratic status can involve legal privileges, they are below only the monarch of a country or nation in its social hierarchy. In modern European societies, the aristocracy has coincided with the nobility, a specific class that arose in the Middle Ages, but the term "aristocracy" is sometimes applied to other elites, is used as a more generic term when describing earlier and non-European societies; the term aristocracy derives from the Greek ἀριστοκρατία (aristokratia from ἄριστος "excellent," and κράτος "power." In most cases, aristocratic titles are hereditary. The term "aristokratia" was first used in Athens with reference to young citizens who led armies at the front line.
Due to martial bravery being regarded as a virtue in ancient Greece, it was assumed that the armies were being led by "the best." This virtue was called arete. Etymologically, as the word developed, it produced a more political term: aristoi; the term aristocracy is a compound word stemming from the singular of aristoi and the Greek word for power, kratos. From the ancient Greeks, the term passed to the European Middle Ages for a similar hereditary class of military leaders referred to as the nobility; as in Greece, this was a class of privileged men and women whose familial connections to the regional armies allowed them to present themselves as the most "noble" or "best" of society. The status and privileges of the aristocracy in Europe were below royalty and above all non-aristocrats; the French Revolution attacked aristocrats as people who had achieved their status by having been born in a wealthy family rather than by merit, this was considered unjust. In the United Kingdom and other European countries, such as Spain and Denmark, in which hereditary titles are still recognised, aristocrat still refers to the descendant of one of 7,000 families with hereditary titles, many still in possession of considerable wealth.
In the United Kingdom, members of the highest echelon of the aristocracy, the hereditary peers were, until 1999, members of the House of Lords—the upper house of the legislature, the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In 1999, most ceased to be members. However, the Duke of Norfolk, who always serves as Earl Marshal, the hereditary peer who serves as Lord Great Chamberlain, a further 90 Representative Hereditary Peers elected by the Hereditary Peers retained membership. Since 1958, non-hereditary "life peers" have been created, who are automatically members of the House of Lords for life with the right to be known by their title. For example, John Gummer became Lord Deben. However, life peers are not considered part of the aristocracy, nor are knights, unless born into an aristocratic or landed gentry family. Examples include James Douglas-Hamilton, Baron Selkirk of Douglas, Sir Winston Churchill—all born into aristocratic families. Besides the hereditary peers, the gentry are considered part of the aristocracy.
Unlike the Continental untitled nobility, British untitled families that belong to the gentry have no legal recognition of their aristocratic position. Under the rule of the Mughal Empire, the titles for those under a king were borrowed from Persia; these titles of landed aristocracy include jagirdar, thikanadar and zamindar. Many landholding families either held legal or administrative offices, were sometimes considered the Indian version of the Nobility of the Robe; the princes appointed officers, such as dewan and other state level ministers, to run their administrations, who were considered members of the regional nobility. Most of these officers were either relatives of the princes who appointed them, or were themselves substantial landlords under the sovereignty of the Princely States, most held hereditary titles. Sometimes, educated men belonging to the British Imperial Services were appointed to the high offices of the Princely States, but their positions were not hereditary and they were seen as career bureaucrats rather than noblemen by their employers.
Today, aristocratic titles like Taluqdar, Rao, Naidu, Thevar, Zaildar, Tarafdar, Nair, [[Madampi |Madampi, Chettiar of are still used in the Indian Subcontinent. Deriving from the pre-colonial states of the region that would become known as Nigeria, the recognised titles of the Nigerian aristocracy range from king to the ubiquitous chief, they give their bearers no political authority in theory, but in practice allow them to serve as immensely powerful patrons of the country's political leaders due to their control of popular opinion within its various tribes. Along with those of their titled relatives and courtiers, they serve as the guiding forces behind Nigerian cultural and religious ceremonies. Titles such as Oba, Mai, Sarki and Obi are used by the dynastic heads, while prince and princess are either used in their English forms or in their native ones by the dynasts of their houses, their privy counsellors, tend to be called either chiefs or elders depending on what their monarch