Private browsing, privacy mode or incognito mode is a privacy feature in some web browsers to disable browsing history and the web cache. This allows a person to browse the Web without storing local data that could be retrieved at a date. Privacy mode will disable the storage of data in cookies and Flash cookies; this privacy protection is only within the browser application as it may leave traces on the hard drive and memory of the device, or via websites by associating the IP address at the web server. The earliest reference to private browsing was in May 2005, was used to discuss the privacy features in the Safari browser bundled with Mac OS X Tiger; the feature has since been adopted in other browsers, led to popularization of the term in 2008 by mainstream news outlets and computing websites when discussing beta versions of Internet Explorer 8. However, privacy modes operate as shields because browsers do not remove all data from the cache after the session. Plug-ins, like Silverlight, are able to set cookies.
The common web browser plugin Adobe Flash Player began supporting privacy mode in Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari with the release of version 10.1 in June 2010.. Some browsers allow users to select the privacy mode for single tabs, whereas others create a more isolated environment protected by password and cryptography. Private browsing has multiple uses, including: Reducing history, including autofill and personal information. Performing "pure searches" that are not influenced by prior browsing history or networks or friends' recommendations, which may weight and more rank certain results than others. Preventing accidental saving of login credentials to accounts. Signing into multiple accounts via multiple tabs. Testing websites. Preventing other users of the computer from finding one's search history. Viewing explicit material without outside knowledge; the Mozilla Foundation performed a study about the user behavior when the feature is switched on and how long the session lasts. The results were that most sessions last only about 10 minutes, though there are periods where activation increases.
Private browsing is known by different names in different browsers. In 2012, Brazilian researchers published the results of a research project where they applied forensic techniques to extract information about the users browsing activities on Internet Explorer and Firefox browsers with their private mode enabled, they were able to collect enough data to identify pages visited and partially reconstruct them. This research was extended to include Chrome and Safari browsers; the gathered data proved that browsers' private mode implementations are not able to hide users' browsing activities and that browsers in private mode leave traces of activities in caching structures and files related to the paging process of the operating system. Another independent security analysis, performed by a group of researchers at Newcastle University in 2014, shows a range of security vulnerabilities in the implementation of the private mode across four major browsers; the results are summarized below. Browser extensions are potential threats to the user privacy.
By design, existing browsers choose to enable extensions in the private mode by default. This however allows an installed extension to secretly record the visited websites without the user's awareness. Newer versions of Chrome disable extensions in the private mode by default, but allow the private and the normal modes to run in parallel; this makes it possible for an installed extension in the normal mode to learn the user activities in the private mode by measuring the usage of shared computing resources. Data erasure by the browser alone is found to be insufficient. For example, the records of visited websites during the private session can be retained in memory for a long time after the private session is closed. In addition, the visited website records are kept by the operating system in the local DNS cache. Furthermore, the modified timestamps of certain profile files saved on the disk may reveal if the private mode was turned on and when it was turned on. Software bugs present in some browsers are found to degrade the security of the private mode.
For example, in some earlier versions of Safari, the browser retained private browsing history records if the browser program was not closed or if the user acted to add a bookmark within the private mode. Depending on whether the session is in the private or the normal mode, web browsers exhibit different user interfaces and traffic characteristics; this allows a remote website to tell if the user is in the private mode, for example, by checking the color of the hyperlinks or measuring the time of writing cookies. In 2010, professors at Stanford University found that while Firefox won't record your history during a private browsing session, it still records the sites on which you've installed SSL certificates and allows specific permissions. If you download an SSL certificate from a website or told that site to stop displaying pop-ups and downloading cookies, all of that information is still stored on Firefox. In 2015, researchers from Pennsylvania State University found that a cons
Colorfulness and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity. As defined formally by the International Commission on Illumination they describe three different aspects of chromatic intensity, but the terms are used loosely and interchangeably in contexts where these aspects are not distinguished. Colorfulness is the "attribute of a visual perception according to which the perceived color of an area appears to be more or less chromatic". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that the perception of colorfulness evoked by an object depends not only on its spectral reflectance but on the strength of the illumination, increases with the latter unless the brightness is high. Chroma is the "colorfulness of an area judged as a proportion of the brightness of a illuminated area that appears white or transmitting". A note accompanying this definition in effect implies that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant chroma for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high.
Thus if a uniformly colored object is unevenly lit, it will exhibit greater colorfulness where it is most lit, but will be perceived to have the same chroma over its entire surface. While colorfulness is an attribute of the color of the light reflected from different parts of the object, chroma is an attribute of the color seen as belonging to the object itself,and describes how different from a grey of the same lightness such an object color appears to be. Saturation is the "colorfulness of an area judged in proportion to its brightness", which in effect is the perceived freedom from whitishness of the light coming from the area. A note accompanying this definition in effect indicates that an object with a given spectral reflectance exhibits constant saturation for all levels of illumination, unless the brightness is high. Since the chroma and lightness of an object are its colorfulness and brightness judged in proportion to the same thing, the saturation of the light coming from that object is in effect the chroma of the object judged in proportion to its lightness.
On a Munsell hue page, lines of uniform saturation thus tend to radiate from near the black point, while lines of uniform chroma are vertical. As colorfulness and saturation are defined as attributes of perception they can not be physically measured as such, but they can be quantified in relation to psychometric scales intended to be perceptually for example the chroma scales of the Munsell system; the saturation of a color is determined by a combination of light intensity and how much it is distributed across the spectrum of different wavelengths. The purest color is achieved by using just one wavelength at a high intensity, such as in laser light. If the intensity drops as a result the saturation drops. To desaturate a color of given intensity in a subtractive system, one can add white, gray, or the hue's complement. Various correlates of saturation follow. CIELUV and CIELABIn CIELUV, saturation is equal to the chroma normalized by the lightness: s u v = C u v ∗ L ∗ = 13 2 + 2 where is the chromaticity of the white point, chroma is defined below.
By analogy, in CIELAB this would yield: s a b = C a b ∗ L ∗ = a ∗ 2 + b ∗ 2 L ∗ The CIE has not formally recommended this equation since CIELAB has no chromaticity diagram, this definition therefore lacks direct connection with older concepts of saturation. This equation provides a reasonable predictor of saturation, demonstrates that adjusting the lightness in CIELAB while holding fixed does affect the saturation, but the following formula is in agreement with the human perception of saturation: The formula proposed by Eva Lübbe is in agreement with the verbal definition of Manfred Richter: Saturation is the proportion of pure chromatic color in the total color sensation. S a b = C a b ∗ C a b ∗ 2 + L ∗ 2 100 % where Sab is the saturation, L* the lightness and C*ab is the chroma of the color. CIECAM02In CIECAM02, saturation equals the square root of the colorfulness divided by the brightness: s = M / Q This definition is inspired by experimental work done with the intention of
Cascading Style Sheets
This cascading priority scheme is predictable. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium. Internet media type text/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318; the W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents. In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, XUL. CSS has a simple syntax and uses a number of English keywords to specify the names of various style properties. A style sheet consists of a list of rules; each rule or rule-set consists of one or more selectors, a declaration block. In CSS, selectors declare which part of the markup a style applies to by matching tags and attributes in the markup itself. Selectors may apply to the following: all elements of a specific type, e.g. the second-level headers h2 elements specified by attribute, in particular: id: an identifier unique within the document class: an identifier that can annotate multiple elements in a document elements depending on how they are placed relative to others in the document tree.
Classes and IDs are case-sensitive, start with letters, can include alphanumeric characters and underscores. A class may apply to any number of instances of any elements. An ID may only be applied to a single element. Pseudo-classes are used in CSS selectors to permit formatting based on information, not contained in the document tree. One example of a used pseudo-class is:hover, which identifies content only when the user “points to” the visible element by holding the mouse cursor over it, it is #elementid: hover. A pseudo-class classifies document elements, such as:link or:visited, whereas a pseudo-element makes a selection that may consist of partial elements, such as::first-line or::first-letter. Selectors may be combined in many ways to achieve great flexibility. Multiple selectors may be joined in a spaced list to specify elements by location, element type, id, class, or any combination thereof; the order of the selectors is important. For example, div.myClass applies to all elements of class myClass that are inside div elements, whereas.myClass div applies to all div elements that are in elements of class myClass.
The following table provides a summary of selector syntax indicating usage and the version of CSS that introduced it. A declaration block consists of a list of declarations in braces; each declaration itself consists of a property, a colon, a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon must be inserted to separate each declaration. Properties are specified in the CSS standard; each property has a set of possible values. Some properties can affect any type of element, others apply only to particular groups of elements. Values may be keywords, such as "center" or "inherit", or numerical values, such as 200px, 50vw or 80%. Color values can be specified with keywords, hexadecimal values, RGB values on a 0 to 255 scale, RGBA values that specify both color and alpha transparency, or HSL or HSLA values. Before CSS, nearly all presentational attributes of HTML documents were contained within the HTML markup. All font colors, background styles, element alignments and sizes had to be explicitly described repeatedly, within the HTML.
CSS lets authors move much of that information to another file, the style sheet, resulting in simpler HTML. For example, sub-headings, sub-sub-headings, etc. are defined structurally using HTML. In print and on the screen, choice of font, size and emphasis for these elements is presentational. Before CSS, document authors who wanted to assign such typographic characteristics to, all h2 headings had to repeat HTML presentational markup for each occurrence of that heading type; this made documents more complex and more error-prone and difficult to maintain. CSS allows the separation of presentation from structure. CSS can define color, text alignment, borders, spacing and many other typographic characteristics, can do so independently for on-screen and printed views. CSS defines non-visual styles, such as reading speed and emphasis for aural text readers; the W3C has now deprecated the use of all presentational HTML markup. For example, under pre-CSS HTML, a heading element defined with red text would be written as: Using CSS, the sam
Daily Record (Scotland)
The Daily Record is a Scottish tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow. It is published six days a week, its sister paper is the Sunday Mail; as part of Reach plc, it has a close kinship with the British-based Daily Mirror, with major stories of British significance being reported in both titles. The Daily Record had a print circulation in December 2016 of a drop of 9.7 % year on year. According to NRS PADD figures, the Daily Record is by far the leading news brand in Scotland with a total audience of 3.1 million. This compares with The Scottish Sun's audience in Scotland of 1.41 million and The Scotsman at 1.13 million. The Daily Record's print sales are dropping at a rate of over 20,000 a year, its January 2010 circulation was 323,831. This has dropped to a January 2017 circulation of 155,772; the Daily Record was founded in 1895. The North British Daily Mail ceased publication in 1901 and was incorporated into the Daily Record, renamed the Daily Record and Mail. Lord Kemsley bought the paper for £1 million in 1922, forming a controlling company known as Associated Scottish Newspapers Limited.
Production was transferred from Renfield Lane to 67 Hope Street in 1926. In 1971 the Daily Record became the first European newspaper to be printed with run-of-paper colour, was the first British national to introduce computer page make-up technology, it was purchased from the estate of Robert Maxwell. A Daily Record newspaper archives website expected to be launched in 2019 will the first edition in 1895 to most recent will be online. Historical copies of the Daily Record from the years 1914 to 1918 are available to search and view in digitised form at The British Newspaper Archive. In August 2006, the paper launched afternoon editions in Glasgow and Edinburgh entitled Record PM. Both papers had a cover price of 15p, but in January 2007, it was announced that they would become freesheets, which are distributed on the streets of the city centres, it was announced that new editions were to be released in Aberdeen and Dundee. The PM is no longer published by the Daily Record. Politically, the Daily Record supported the conservative Unionist Party until the 1964 general election, when it switched its allegiance to the Labour Party.
The paper continues to support the Labour Party and has a close relationship with it, including donating £10,000 to the party in 2007. It opposes both Scottish independence. On the day of the 2007 Scottish Parliament election, it ran a front-page editorial attacking the SNP. Since Murray Foote became editor in February 2014, the publication's stance has become less clear cut. For many years there has been a close relationship between Daily Record journalists and Labour Party politicians in Scotland, a revolving door between newspaper staff and Labour advisers. Helen Liddell went from being General Secretary of the Scottish Labour Party to being Robert Maxwell’s Head of Corporate Affairs at the Daily Record. Tom Brown worked as one of the Daily Record’s highest-profile columnists and served as its political editor, before advising his friend, First Minister Henry McLeish. Paul Sinclair was political editor of the Daily Record, before becoming a special advisor to Douglas Alexander, to Gordon Brown.
He has been Johann Lamont's special adviser and official spokesperson since 2011. Labour peer, former MP and MSP, Lord Watson of Invergowrie has reflected that ‘the one paper no Labour MP or MSP can afford to ignore is the Daily Record'; the Daily Record, along with Brian Souter, spearheaded the "Keep the Clause" campaign which aimed to prevent the Scottish Parliament from repealing Section 28. This law prevented local authorities from promoting "the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship" in state schools. Section 28 was repealed in Scotland in 2000 by 99 votes to 17 in the Scottish Parliament, was repealed in England and Wales in 2003. Former Scottish Labour Leader Kezia Dugdale is a weekly columnist in the paper, every Monday 1937: Clem Livingstone 1946: Alistair M. Dunnett 1955: Alex Little 1967: Derek Webster 1984: Bernard Vickers 1988: Endell Laird 1994: Terry Quinn 1998: Martin Clarke 2000: Peter Cox 2003: Bruce Waddell 2011: Allan Rennie 2014: Murray Foote 2016 Sports Production: Allan Bryce, Darren Cooney 2018: David Dick Mhairi Black - Member of Parliament for SNP.
Kezia Dugdale - Former Scottish Labour leader. Des Clarke - Comedian & Radio Host, works include. Nicola Sturgeon - Leader of SNP. Coleen Nolan - Singer and TV Host, works include. List of newspapers in Scotland List of newspapers in the United Kingdom by circulation Daily Record
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
Mozilla Firefox is a free and open-source web browser developed by The Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, Mozilla Corporation. Firefox is available for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, BSD, illumos and Solaris operating systems, its sibling, Firefox for Android, is available. Firefox uses the Gecko layout engine to render web pages, which implements current and anticipated web standards. In 2017, Firefox began incorporating new technology under the code name Quantum to promote parallelism and a more intuitive user interface. An additional version, Firefox for iOS, was released on November 12, 2015. Due to platform restrictions, it uses the WebKit layout engine instead of Gecko, as with all other iOS web browsers. Firefox was created in 2002 under the codename "Phoenix" by the Mozilla community members who desired a standalone browser, rather than the Mozilla Application Suite bundle. During its beta phase, Firefox proved to be popular with its testers and was praised for its speed and add-ons compared to Microsoft's then-dominant Internet Explorer 6.
Firefox was released on November 9, 2004, challenged Internet Explorer's dominance with 60 million downloads within nine months. Firefox is the spiritual successor of Netscape Navigator, as the Mozilla community was created by Netscape in 1998 before their acquisition by AOL. Firefox usage grew to a peak of 32% at the end of 2009, with version 3.5 overtaking Internet Explorer 7, although not Internet Explorer as a whole. Usage declined in competition with Google Chrome; as of January 2019, Firefox has 9.5% usage share as a "desktop" browser, according to StatCounter, making it the second-most popular such web browser. Firefox is still the most popular desktop browser in a few countries including Cuba and Eritrea with 72.26% and 83.28% of the market share, respectively. According to Mozilla, in December 2014, there were half a billion Firefox users around the world; the project began as an experimental branch of the Mozilla project by Dave Hyatt, Joe Hewitt, Blake Ross. They believed the commercial requirements of Netscape's sponsorship and developer-driven feature creep compromised the utility of the Mozilla browser.
To combat what they saw as the Mozilla Suite's software bloat, they created a stand-alone browser, with which they intended to replace the Mozilla Suite. On April 3, 2003, the Mozilla Organization announced that they planned to change their focus from the Mozilla Suite to Firefox and Thunderbird; the community-driven SeaMonkey was formed and replaced the Mozilla Application Suite in 2005. The Firefox project has undergone several name changes, it was titled Phoenix, which carried the implication of the mythical firebird that rose triumphantly from the ashes of its dead predecessor, in this case from the "ashes" of Netscape Navigator after it had been killed off by Microsoft Internet Explorer in the "First Browser War". Phoenix was renamed due to trademark issues with Phoenix Technologies. In response, the Mozilla Foundation stated that the browser would always bear the name Mozilla Firebird to avoid confusion. After further pressure, on February 9, 2004, Mozilla Firebird became Mozilla Firefox.
The name Firefox was said to be derived from a nickname of the red panda, which became the mascot for the newly named project. For the abbreviation of Firefox, Mozilla prefers Fx or fx, though it is abbreviated as FF; the Firefox project went through many versions before version 1.0 was released on November 9, 2004. In 2016, Mozilla announced a project known as Quantum, which sought to improve Firefox's Gecko engine and other components to improve Firefox's performance, modernize its architecture, transition the browser to a multi-process model; these improvements came in the wake of decreasing market share to Google Chrome, as well as concerns that its performance was lapsing in comparison. Despite its improvements, these changes required existing add-ons for Firefox to be made incompatible with newer versions, in favor of a new extension system, designed to be similar to Chrome and other recent browsers. Firefox 57, released in November 2017, was the first version to contain enhancements from Quantum, has thus been named Firefox Quantum.
Firefox supported add-ons using the XUL and XPCOM APIs, which allowed them to directly access and manipulate much of the browser's internal functionality. As they are not compatible with its m