Tripura is a state in northeastern India. The third-smallest state in the country, it covers 10,491 km2 and is bordered by Bangladesh to the north and west, the Indian states of Assam and Mizoram to the east. In 2011 the state had 3,671,032 residents, constituting 0.3% of the country's population. The area of modern Tripura—ruled for several centuries by the Tripuri dynasty—was part of an independent princely state under the protectorate of the British Empire; the independent Tripuri Kingdom joined the newly independent India in 1949. Ethnic strife between the indigenous Tripuri people and the migrant Bengali population—due to large influx of Bengali Hindu refugees and settlers from East Bengal—led to tension and scattered violence since Tripura's integration into India, but the establishment of an autonomous tribal administrative agency and other strategies have led to peace. Tripura lies in a geographically disadvantageous location in India, as only one major highway, the National Highway 8, connects it with the rest of the country.
Five mountain ranges—Boromura, Longtharai and Jampui Hills—run north to south, with intervening valleys. The state has a tropical savanna climate, receives seasonal heavy rains from the south west monsoon. Forests cover more than half of the area, in which cane tracts are common. Tripura has the highest number of primate species found in any Indian state. Due to its geographical isolation, economic progress in the state is hindered. Poverty and unemployment continue to plague Tripura. Most residents are involved in agriculture and allied activities, although the service sector is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product. According to 2011 census, Tripura is one of the most literate states in India with a literacy rate of 87.75%. Mainstream Indian cultural elements coexist with traditional practices of the ethnic groups, such as various dances to celebrate religious occasions and festivities; the sculptures at the archaeological sites Unakoti and Devtamura provide historical evidence of artistic fusion between organised and tribal religions.
The Great Chinmoy in Agartala was the former royal abode of the Tripuri king. The Sanskrit name of the state is linked to the Hindu goddess of beauty. Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhyu, who belonged to the lineage of Yayati, a king of the Lunar Dynasty. There have been suggestions to the effect that the origin of the name Tripura is doubtful, raising the possibility that the Sanskritic form is just due to a folk etymology of a Tibeto-Burman name. Variants of the name include Tripra and Tippera. A Kokborok etymology from twi and pra has been suggested. Although there is no evidence of lower or middle Paleolithic settlements in Tripura, Upper Paleolithic tools made of fossil wood have been found in the Haora and Khowai valleys; the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. An ancient name of Tripura is Kirat Desh referring to the Kirata Kingdoms or the more generic term Kirata. However, it is unclear; the region was under the rule of the Twipra Kingdom for centuries, although when this dates from is not documented.
The Rajmala, a chronicle of Tripuri kings, first written in the 15th century, provides a list of 179 kings, from antiquity up to Krishna Kishore Manikya, but the reliability of the Rajmala has been doubted. The boundaries of the kingdom changed over the centuries. At various times, the borders reached south to the jungles of the Sundarbans on the Bay of Bengal. There were several Muslim invasions of the region from the 13th century onward, which culminated in Mughal dominance of the plains of the kingdom in 1733, although their rule never extended to the hill regions; the Mughals had influence over the appointment of the Tripuri kings. Tripura became a princely state during British rule in India; the kings had an estate in British India, known as Tippera district or Chakla Roshnabad, in addition to the independent area known as Hill Tippera, the present-day state. Udaipur, in the south of Tripura, was the capital of the kingdom, until the king Krishna Manikya moved the capital to Old Agartala in the 18th century.
It was moved to the new city of Agartala in the 19th century. Bir Chandra Manikya modelled his administration on the pattern of British India, enacted reforms including the formation of Agartala Municipal Corporation. In 1926,it became a part of Pakokku Hill Tracts Districts of British Burma until 1948,January 4. Following the independence of India in 1947, Tippera district – the estate in the plains of British India – became a part of East Pakistan, Hill Tippera remained under a regency council until 1949; the Maharani Regent of Tripura signed the Tripura Merger Agreement on 9 September 1949
Vanga was an ancient kingdom and geopolitical division on the Ganges delta in the Indian subcontinent. The kingdom is one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, it was located in southern Bengal, with the core region including present-day southern West Bengal and southwestern Bangladesh. Vanga features prominently in the epics and tales of ancient India as well as in the history of Sri Lanka. Vanga was the center of the Gangaridai Empire mentioned by numerous Greco-Roman writers. Both Indian and Greco-Roman writers referred to the region's war elephants. In Indian history, Vanga is notable for its strong navy. There are numerous references to Vanga in the Hindu epic Mahabharata, one of the two major Sanskrit epics of India; the other epic, the Ramayana, mentions the kingdom as an ally of Ayodhya. According to Sinhalese chronicles, Vanga is the ancestral home of Prince Vijaya, who colonized and founded a kingdom in the island of Lanka; the Vanga kingdom emerged in the lower Ganges delta during the Northern Black Polished Ware Period.
It controlled many of the islands of the delta with its naval fleet and embarked on overseas exploration. Ancient Indian records refer to Vanga as a hub of sailors. In the 5th century BCE, the Vanga king Slhabahu's son prince Vijaya sailed across the Bay of Bengal and established a kingdom in what is now Sri Lanka; the religious traditions of the kingdom included Jainism and Hinduism. Vanga is recorded as an administrative unit in the Arthashastra written by Kautilya, it is described as a notable naval power by Kalidasa. There are records of subdivisions within Vanga, including an area called "Upa Vanga" which corresponds to Jessore and forested areas corresponding to the Sundarbans; the rulers of the Vanga kingdom remain unknown. After the 2nd century BCE, the territory became part of successive Indian empires and Bengali kingdoms, including Mauryans, Shashanka's reign, Palas, Chandras and Devas; the term Vangala was used to refer to the territory. For example, an inscription of the South Indian Chola dynasty referred to the region as Vangaladesha during a war with the Chandra dynasty.
After the Muslim conquest of Bengal, the region was referred to as Bangalah, which may have evolved from Vangala. The names are the precursors of the modern terms Bangla; the core region of Vanga lay between the Padma-Meghna river system in the east and the Bhagirathi-Hooghly river system in the west. In the east, it encompassed the modern Bangladeshi Khulna Division and Barisal Division, as well as the southwestern part of Dhaka Division. In the west, it included Presidency Division of West Bengal and may have extended to Burdwan Division and Medinipur division, its neighbors included Samatata in the east. The Vanga kingdom encompassed the many islands of the Ganges delta and the Sundarbans mangrove forest. Chandraketugarh is a major archaeological site in West Bengal associated with the Vanga kingdom. At, Anga and Kalinga were mentioned as close kingdoms in Bharata Varsha. All regions of sacred waters and all other holy palaces there were in Vanga and Kalinga, Arjuna visited all of them, during his pilgrimage lasting for 12 years throughout ancient India.
The founders of Angas, Kalingas and Suhmas shared a common ancestry. They were all adopted sons of a king named Vali, born by a sage named Gautama Dirghatamas, who lived in Magadha close to the city of Girivraja....then attacked the king of Vanga..... The Kashmiras, the Daradas, the Kuntis, the Kshudrakas, the Malavas, the Angas, the Vangas, the Kalingas, the Videhas, the Tamraliptakas, the Rakshovahas, the Vitahotras, the Trigartas, the Martikavatas were all vanquished by Bhargava Rama. Karna reduced the Angas, the Bangas, the Kalingas, the Mandikas, the Magadhas; the Karkakhandas. The Angas, the Vangas, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, the Kasis, the Kosalas, the Vatsyas, the Gargyas, the Karushas and the Paundras were mentioned to be vanquished by Vasudeva Krishna. Arjuna defeated the countries of the Bangas, the Pundras, the Kosalas in his military campaign after Kurukshetra War; the kings of Anga and Pundra were mentioned as attending the court of Yudhishthira at. The Vangas, Paundras, Cholas and Andhrakas were mentioned to be giving tribute to Yudhishthira.
The Angas, the Vangas, the Punras, the Sanavatyas, the Gayas—these good and well-born Kshatriyas distributed into regular clans and trained to the use of arms, brought tribute unto king Yudhishthira by hundreds and thousands. The Vangas, the Kalingas, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptas, the Supundrakas, the Dauvalikas, the Sagarakas, the Patrornas, the Saisavas, innumerable Karnapravaranas, were found waiting at the gate. Vanga army was skilled in handling war elephants, they sided with the Kauravas. Vangas sided with Duryodhana in the Kurukshetra War along with the Kalingas, they are mentioned as part of the Kaurava army at. Many foremost of combatants skilled in elephant-fight, belonging to the Easterners, the Southerners, the Angas, the Vangas, the Pundras, the Magadhas, the Tamraliptakas, the Mekalas, the Koshalas, the Madras, the Dasharnas, the Nishadas united with the Kalingas. Satyaki, pierced the vitals of the elephant belonging to the king of the Vangas. Bhagadatta was mentioned as the ruler of the Pragjyotisha kingdom that took part in the Kurukshetra War.
Behind Duryodhana proceeded the ruler of the Vangas, with ten thousand elephants, huge as hills, each with juice trickling down. The ruler of the Vangas (Bhagad
East Bengal was a geographically noncontiguous province of the Dominion of Pakistan covering Bangladesh. With its coastline on the Bay of Bengal, it bordered Burma, it was located near to, but did not share a border with, China, the Kingdom of Sikkim and the Kingdom of Bhutan. Its capital was Dacca; the Partition of British India, which divided Bengal along religious lines, established the borders of Muslim majority East Bengal. The province existed during the reign of two monarchs, including George VI and Elizabeth II, its provincial governors included several Pakistani statesmen. Its chief ministership was held by leading Bengali politicians. East Bengal was the most cosmopolitan province in the dominion. East Bengal was a hub of political movements, including the Bengali Language Movement and pro-democracy groups, it was dissolved and replaced by East Pakistan during the One Unit scheme implemented by Prime Minister Mohammad Ali of Bogra. The provincial legislature was the East Bengal Legislative Assembly.
Between 1905 and 1911, a province called Eastern Bengal and Assam existed in the region as part of the British Indian Empire. The All India Muslim League was founded in the British province in 1906; the All India Muslim League adopted the Lahore Resolution in 1940 which envisaged the creation of sovereign states in the Muslim majority areas of eastern and northwestern British India. The League won elections in Bengal in 1946; the Sylhet region in Assam voted to be part of East Bengal due to the campaign of the League. The Chittagong Hill Tracts, which had a 97% non-Muslim population, was awarded to Pakistan by the Boundary Commission due to it being inaccessible to India and to provide a substantial rural buffer to support Chittagong, a major city and port; as a result of these mandates, the Mountbatten Plan and Radcliffe Line established East Bengal as a province of the newly formed Dominion of Pakistan in August 1947. Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin, a former Prime Minister of Bengal, was the first Chief Minister of East Bengal after partition.
Nazimuddin was a senior leader of the Muslim League and a close confidante of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne was the first Governor of East Bengal. Partition resulted in making many Hindus to leave East Bengal while Muslims from different parts of the Indian subcontinent migrated to East Bengal; the East-West Bengal border did not see as much violence as seen in the Punjab border between North India and Pakistan. Jinnah made his sole visit to East Bengal as governor general in 1948. During a speech to students in Dhaka University, he resisted demands to make Bengali a federal language, his refusal sparked fierce protests among East Bengalis who comprised the majority of Pakistan's population. The proposal for Urdu as the sole national language met with strong opposition in East Bengal, where Urdu considered rather alien in light in Bengali's rich literary heritage; when Jinnah died in 1948, Nazimuddin became the Governor General of Pakistan. The conservative Muslim League leader Nurul Amin succeeded Nazimuddin as Chief Minister.
According to some sources, Amin had strained relations with the federal government, including Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan and Governor General Khawaja Nazimuddin. Historians have noted that Amin's government was not strong enough to administer the provincial state, his government did not enjoy enough power and lacked vision and initiatives. In 1949, Maulana Bhashani led left-wing elements in the Muslim League to break away and form the Awami Muslim League; the new party was joined by a former Prime Minister of British Bengal. The new party dropped the word Muslim, fashioned itself as secular and courted votes from East Bengal's large non-Muslim minorities; the language movement reached a climax in 1952. During the unrest, the police shot dead four student activists; this raised more opposition in the region to the Muslim League. Leading politicians in West and East Pakistan called for Amin's resignation. In subsequent provincial elections, Amin lost his seat in the legislative assembly. In the 1954, the United Front coalition resoundingly defeated the Muslim League with a landslide majority.
The coalition included the Awami League, the Krishak Praja Party, the Democracy Party and Nizam-e-Islam. The esteemed lawyer A. K. Fazlul Huq, popularly known as the Sher-e-Bangla, became Chief Minister. Huq called for greater provincial autonomy, he wanted the federal government's responsibilities limited to defense. King Saud of Saudi Arabia sent a plane to bring Huq to a meeting with the monarch; the New York Times published an article claiming. While visiting Calcutta and New Delhi, Huq was received by Indian leaders. A few months into office, Huq was dismissed by Governor General Ghulam Muhammad due to allegations against of Huq of inciting secession. After Governor General's rule was withdrawn in 1954, Abu Hussain Sarkar served as chief minister, before Governor General's rule was again imposed, he started the construction of Central Shaheed Minar. Governor General's rule was withdrawn in June 1955. Ataur Rahman Khan of the Krishak Sramik Party was the last Chief Minister, his government declared 21 February, the anniversary of the language
Partition of Bengal (1947)
The Partition of Bengal in 1947, part of the Partition of India, divided the British Indian province of Bengal based on the Radcliffe Line between India and Pakistan. Predominantly Hindu West Bengal became a state of India, predominantly Muslim East Bengal became a province of Pakistan. On 20 June 1947, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide the future of the Bengal Presidency, on whether it would be a United Bengal within India or Pakistan. At the preliminary joint session, the assembly decided by 120 votes to 90 that it should remain united if it joined the new Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. A separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal decided by 58 votes to 21 that the province should be partitioned and that West Bengal should join the existing Constituent Assembly of India. In another separate meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided by 106 votes to 35 that that province should not be partitioned and 107 votes to 34 that East Bengal should join Pakistan in the event of partition.
On 6 July 1947, the Sylhet referendum decided to sever Sylhet from Assam and merge it into East Bengal. The partition, with the power transferred to Pakistan and India on 14–15 August 1947, was done according to what has come to be known as the "3 June Plan" or "Mountbatten Plan". India's independence on 15 August 1947 ended over 150 years of British influence in the Indian subcontinent. East Bengal became the independent country of Bangladesh after the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War. In 1905, the first partition in Bengal was implemented as an administrative preference, making governing the two provinces and East Bengal, easier. While the partition split the province between West Bengal, in which the majority was Hindu, the East, where the majority was Muslim, the 1905 partition left considerable minorities of Hindus in East Bengal and Muslims in West Bengal. While the Muslims were in favour of the partition, as they would have their own province, Hindus were not; this controversy led to increased violence and protest and in 1911, the two provinces were once again united.
However, the disagreements between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal which had sparked the Partition of Bengal in 1905 still remained and laws, including the Partition of Bengal in 1947, were implemented to fulfill the political needs of the parties involved. As per the plan, on 20 June 1947, The members of the Bengal Legislative Assembly cast three separate votes on the proposal to partition Bengal: In the joint session of the house, composed of all the members of the Assembly, the division of the joint session of the House stood at 126 votes against and 90 votes for joining the existing Constituent Assembly Then the members of the Muslim-majority areas of Bengal in a separate session passed a motion by 106–35 votes against partitioning Bengal and instead joining a new Constituent Assembly as a whole; this was followed by the separate meeting of the members of the non-Muslim-majority areas of Bengal who by a division of 58–21 voted for partition of the province. Under the Mountbatten Plan, a single majority vote in favour of partition by either notionally divided half of the Assembly would have decided the division of the province, hence the house proceedings on 20 June resulted in the decision to partition Bengal.
This set the stage for the creation of West Bengal as a province of the Union of India and East Bengal as a province of the Dominion of Pakistan. In accordance with the Mountbatten Plan, in a referendum held on 7 July, the electorate of Sylhet voted to join East Bengal. Further, the Boundary Commission headed by Sir Cyril Radcliffe decided on the territorial demarcation between the two newly created provinces. Power was transferred to Pakistan and India on 14 and 15 August under the Indian Independence Act 1947. After it became apparent that the division of India on the basis of the Two-nation theory would certainly result in the partition of the Bengal province along religious lines, Bengal provincial Muslim League leader Suhrawardy came up with a new plan to create an independent Bengal state that would join neither Pakistan nor India and remain unpartitioned. Suhrawardy realised that if Bengal was partitioned, it would be economically disastrous for East Bengal as all coal mines, all jute mills but two and other industrial plants would go to the western part since these were in an overwhelmingly Hindu majority area.
Most important of all, Calcutta the largest city in India, an industrial and commercial hub and the largest port, would go to the western part. Suhrawardy floated his idea on 24 April 1947 at a press conference in Delhi. However, the plan directly ran counter to that of the Muslim League's, which demanded the creation of a separate Muslim homeland on the basis of the two-nation theory. Bengal provincial Muslim League leadership opinion was divided. Barddhaman's League leader Abul Hashim supported it. On the other hand, Nurul Amin and Mohammad Akram Khan opposed it, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah realised the validity of Suhrawardy's argument and gave his tacit support to the plan. After Jinnah's approval, Suhrawardy started gathering support for his plan. On the Congress side, only a handful of leaders agreed to the plan. Among them was the influential Bengal provincial congress leader Sarat Chandra Bose, the elder brother of Netaji and Kiran Shankar Roy; however most other BPCC leaders and Congress leadership including Nehru and Patel rejected the plan.
The Hindu nationalist party Hindu Mahasabha under the leadership of Shyama Prasad Mukherjee vehemently opposed it. Their opinion was that the plan is nothing but a ploy by Suhrawardy to stop the partition of the state so that the industrially developed western part includi
Bengali Christians are adherents of Christianity among the Bengali people. They are native to Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. Christianity took root in Bengal after the arrival of Portuguese voyagers in the 16th century, it witnessed further conversions among the Bengali elite during the 19th century Bengali renaissance. After that it continued by generations by generations. Bengali Christians have made significant contributions to Bengali culture and society; the region is home to venerable Christian missionary institutions, including the Missionaries of Charity founded by Mother Teresa. Christianity was established in Bengal by the Portuguese in the 16th century; the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong hosted the first Vicar Apostolic in Bengal. Jesuit missionaries established churches in Bandel and Dhaka. In 1682, there were 14,120 Roman Catholics in Bengal. William Carey translated the Bible into Bengali in 1809. Many upper-class Bengalis in the British Indian capital Calcutta converted to Christianity during the Indian Renaissance.
The Missionaries of Charity was founded by the Ottoman-born nun Mother Teresa in Calcutta in 1950. It played a major role in supporting and sheltering refugees during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971; the Catholic Church in Bangladesh is based in the Archdiocese of Dhaka, with dioceses in Dinajpur, Mymensingh and Rajshahi and Archdiocese of Chittagong, witj dioceses on Barisal and Khulna. Province of Dhaka: Metropolitan Archdiocese of Dhaka Diocese of Dinajpur Diocese of Mymensingh Diocese of Rajshahi Diocese of SylhetProvince of Chittagong: Metropolitan Archdiocese of Chittagong Diocese of Barisal Diocese of KhulnaThe Roman Catholic Church in West Bengal is based in the Archdiocese of Calcutta. Province of Calcutta: Metropolitan Archdiocese of Calcutta Diocese of Asansol Diocese of Bagdogra Diocese of Baruipur Diocese of Darjeeling Diocese of Jalpaiguri Diocese of Krishnagar Diocese of Raiganj There are three dioceses of the Anglican Church of Bangladesh: Diocese of Barisal Diocese of Dhaka Diocese of KushtiaSt.
Paul's Cathedral, Kolkata is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of Calcutta of the Church of North India. Diocese of Barrackpore Diocese of Durgapur Diocese of Calcutta Other denominations include: Armenian Apostolic Church Bengal Orissa Bihar Baptist Convention Brethren in Christ Church Church of God El Shaddai New Life Fellowship Association United Missionary Church of India The Salvation Army Victory Family Centre Assembly of God Bengali Christians are considered a model minority in South Asia and enjoy a high literacy rate, low male-female sex ratio and a better socio-economic status. Christian missionaries operate many schools and shelters for the poor, they receive support from the Bangladeshi governments. Dhaka, Barisal, Khulna & Northern District Side have significant Christian populations. Many Catholic Bengali Christians have Portuguese surnames. In a tradition similar to Bengali Muslims, Bengali Christians adopted Portuguese surnames due the early influence of Portuguese missionaries in spreading Christianity.
Common Catholic Bengali Christian surnames include Gomes, Rozario, D'Costa, Cruze, Dias, D’Silva and D’Souza among others. Christmas is a public holiday in both Bangladesh and Indian West Bengal. Easter is another main event of Christians around the World & Bangladeshi Churches celebrating this Spiritual Occasion with so much respectfully. Many Churches jointly arranged an Open Services - called Sunrise Services with the Believers. Poulinous Costa, Archbishop Michael Rosario, Archbishop Krishna Mohan Banerjee, Thinker Michael Madhusudan Dutt, 19th century poet and playwrightToru Dutt, poet Indu Chatterjee, classical dancer Samar Das, musician Andrew Kishore, playback singer Kumar Bishshojit, singer Jewel Aich and bansuri player Robin Ghosh, playback singer and film music composer Tony Dias, Bangladeshi television actor and director Piya Dias and Model Anima Mukti Gomes, Singer of Bangla Folk Songs Liton D'Costa, Musician - Rhythmer Gorge Lincoln D'Costa, Musician Jeffry Jude Purification, Musician Samson Chowdhury, founder of Square Pharmaceuticals Topon Chowdhury Samuel S Chowdhury Allen Joseph, founder of Antioch Chandramukhi Basu, first female graduate of British India Ashis Nandy, renowned Indian sociologist Kaberi Gain, Bangladeshi women's rights scholar and activist Anil Kumar Gain, Cambridge mathematician Hubert Costa, Bangladeshi-Polish Member of Parliament Promode Mankin, First Catholic and first member of the country's among Christian community to become a government minister in Bangladesh and representing Mymensingh-1.
Jewel Areng, son of Promode Mankin. He is the youngest member of parliament and the only Catholic representing Mymensingh-1. Harendra Coomer Mukerjee First Governor of West Bengal Gloria Jharna Sarker Bangladesh’s first Christian Woman MP brigedier John Gomez Christianity in Bangladesh Christianity in West Bengal 7. Http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Bangladesh’s-first-Catholic-woman-MP-dedicates-her-victory-to-all-Christians-46249.html
The Bangladeshi diaspora consists of people of Bangladeshi descent who have immigrated to or were born in another country. First generation migrants may have moved abroad from Bangladesh for better living conditions, to escape poverty, to support their financial condition or to send money back to families in Bangladesh. Annual remittances received in Bangladesh were 15.4 billion dollars as of 2015. There is a large Bangladeshi diaspora population in Saudi Arabia, where there are 1.2 million. There are significant migrant communities in various Arab states of the Persian Gulf the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, where Bangladeshis are classified as foreign workers; the United Kingdom's 2001 census found 300,000 British Bangladeshi concentrated in east London boroughs. Besides the UK and Middle East, Bangladeshis have a significant presence in the United States in New York City and Paterson in New Jersey, in East and Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, South Korea and Japan, in other Western countries such as Italy and Australia.
Bangladeshis in the Middle East form the largest part of the worldwide Bangladeshi diaspora. 2,820,000 live within the Middle East, with half of them in Saudi Arabia, a quarter of them in the United Arab Emirates. Bangladeshis who come to the Middle East are guest workers or day labourers. Saudi Arabia has over two million Bangladeshis, making it the largest Bangladeshi diaspora community. Bangladesh is one of the largest labour suppliers to Saudi Arabia, in 2007 Bangladeshi workers obtained the biggest share, with 23.50 per cent of the 1.5 million Saudi Arabia visas issued. There are over a million Bangladeshis residing in the United Arab Emirates as of 2013. Qatar has about 280,000 Bangladeshis as of the end of 2015. According to the Maldivian foreign ministry. Bangladeshis in Malaysia form a large proportion of Malaysia's foreign labour force, their population was estimated to total 221,000 persons one-eighth of all the foreign workers in Malaysia as of 2017. In South Korea, there are more than 13,000 Bangladeshi foreign workers in the country.
A few of them include illegal immigrants. This has led to some prejudice towards Bangladeshi immigrants, an issue tackled by the 2009 Korean film Bandhobi, directed by Sin Dong-il. Bangladeshis in Japan form one of the smaller populations of foreigners in Japan; as of 2005, Japan's Ministry of Justice recorded 11,055 Bangladeshi nationals among the total population of registered foreigners in Japan. The British Bangladeshi community is one of the largest immigrant communities in the United Kingdom, is well established in many parts of the UK, most notably London in the East London boroughs, of which the Tower Hamlets has the highest percentage of Bangladeshis with about 33% of the borough's total population. Other boroughs include Newham, where 12% of the boroughs population is Bangladeshi, with 7%, Barking and Dagenham, with 5%, in North London is Camden, where 7% of the borough is Bangladeshi; the national census of ethnicity and identity found over 400,000 people had Bangladeshi heritage in Britain.
There is a significant community in and around Westminster. Sylhetis residing in London are referred to as Londonis. Sylheti is the third most spoken language after English and Polish. Outside London, the Bangladeshi diaspora lies in areas such as Birmingham, with a population over 35,000 Bangladeshis, Sandwell with over 7,000 residents wards such as St Pauls. Tipton, West Bromwich, with over 15,000, with over 13,000, Bradford with over 10,000, Manchester, with over 10,000 British Bangladeshis. Other smaller populations include Portsmouth with over 6,000, Sunderland and Newcastle upon Tyne with over 3,000 people each, St Albans with 2,200, Leeds with 4,500, Leicester with 3,500; the British Bangladeshi has grown drastically, has grown from 283,000 residents, to 451,000 residents of Bangladeshi descent. Mass migration started since the days of the British Raj, where lascars from Sylhet were sent to the United Kingdom; some of these lascars lived in the United Kingdom in port cities, married British women.
Since mass migration has occurred from Sylhet. The British Bangladeshi community come from all Districts of Sylhet, such as Sylhet, Sunamganj and Moulvibazar. Specific wards, or Upazilas that many of the Bangladeshis come from are Bishwanath, Sylhet Sadar, Beanibazar, Juri, Habiganj Sadar, Chhatak Upazila, many others; the street of Brick Lane in East London, has a large history of Bangladeshis and has been dubbed as "Banglatown", has hundreds of "Indian" restaurants nearly all owned by Sylheti Bangladeshis. Many British Bangladeshis have made their presence in the UK becoming doctors and lawyers, but many have become politicians for the Labour and Conservative Parties, such as Rushanara Ali, Tulip Siddiq, as well as London Borough Mayors, such as Lutfur Rahman and Nasim Ali; the census in 2000, found up to 95,300 were born in Bangladesh, therefore it is estimated there are at least 150,000 Bangladeshis in t
Bengali Muslims are an ethnic and religious population who make up the majority of Bangladesh's citizens and the largest minority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. They are Bengalis who speak the Bengali language, they form the second largest Muslim ethnic group in the world. Bengal was a leading power of the medieval Islamic East; the endogamous Bengali Muslim population emerged as a synthesis of Bengali cultures. After the Partition of India in 1947, they comprised the demographic majority of Pakistan until the independence of East Pakistan as Bangladesh in 1971. A Bengali is a person of ethnic and linguistic heritage from the Bengal region in South Asia speaking the Indo-Aryan Bengali language. Islam influenced the native Bengali culture; the influx of Persian, Turkic and Mughal settlers contributed further diversity to the cultural development of the region. However, historians including Richard Maxwell Eaton, Ahmed Sharif, Muhammad Mohar Ali and Jadunath Sarkar are in agreement that the bulk of Muslims are descended from Buddhists who were converted to Islam by missionaries.
Today, most Bengali Muslims live in the modern state of Bangladesh, the world's third largest Muslim-majority country, along with the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. The dominant majority of Bengali Muslims are Sunnis. There are minorities of Shias and Ahmadiyas, as well as people who identify as non-denominational. Rice-cultivating communities existed in Bengal since the second millennium BCE; the region was home to a large agriculturalist population influenced by Indian religions, but was not integrated into the caste system. Buddhism influenced the region in the first millennium; the Bengali language developed from Apabhramsa and Magadhi Prakrit between the 7th and 10th centuries. It once formed a single Indo-Aryan branch with Assamese and Oriya, before the languages became distinct. Early Muslim traders and merchants visited Bengal while traversing the Silk Road in the first millennium. One of the earliest mosques in South Asia is under excavation in northern Bangladesh, indicating the presence of Muslims in the area around the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.
Starting in the 9th century, Muslim merchants increased trade with Bengali seaports. Coins of the Abbasid Caliphate have been discovered in many parts of the region; the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place between the 16th centuries. Bengal became a province of the Delhi Sultanate in 1204. In the 14th century the Sultanate of Bengal emerged as a regional power, it adopted Bengali as one of its official languages, alongside Persian, the diplomatic language of the Islamic world, Arabic, the liturgical language of the religion. The Sultanate ruled parts of Arakan and Assam; the Sur Empire overtook the region in the 16th century. During the sultanate period, Hindu aristocrats occupied prominent positions in the administration; the Mughal Empire controlled the region under its Bengal Subah viceregal province. The Mughal Emperors considered Bengal their most prized province. Emperor Akbar redeveloped the Bengali calendar. Emperor Aurangazeb called Bengal the Paradise of Nations. Two Bengal viceroys – Muhammad Azam Shah and Azim-us-Shan – assumed the imperial throne.
Mughal Bengal became independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. Significant rural populations of Bengali Muslims rose in the late 1500s; the agrarian reforms of the Mughal Empire played a crucial role in developing Bengali Muslim society. According to historian Richard M. Eaton, Islam became the religion of the plough in the Bengal delta. Islam's emergence in the region was intimately tied with agriculture; the delta was the most fertile region in the empire. Mughal development projects cleared forests and established thousands of Sufi-led villages, which became industrious farming and craftsmanship communities; the projects were most evident in the Bhati region of East Bengal, the most fertile part of the delta. Islam did not grow with conversions of Hindus. Instead non-Hindu inhabitants of the forests developed an Islamic identity over a period of time. People from various parts of the Muslim world settled in the region. Settlers intermarried with the local population; this made East Bengal a thriving melting pot with cultural networks.
It was the most prosperous part of the subcontinent. East Bengal became the center of the Muslim population in the eastern subcontinent and corresponds to modern-day Bangladesh; the region fell to the control of the British Empire in 1757. British-ruled Bengal was a hotbed of anti-colonial rebellion. In the early 19th century, Titumir led a peasant uprising against colonial rule. Haji Shariatullah led the Faraizi movement; the Faraizis sought to create a caliphate and cleanse the region's Muslim society of what they deemed "un-Islamic practices". They were successful in galvanizing the Bengali peasantry against colonial authorities. However, the movement suffered crackdowns after the Mutiny of 1857 and lost impetus after the death of Haji Shariatullah's son Dudu Miyan. After 1870, Muslims began seeking English education increasingly. Under the leadership of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan the promotion the English language among Muslims of India influenced Bengali Muslim society. Social and cultural leaders among Bengali Muslims during this period included Munshi Mohammad Meherullah, who countered Christian missionaries, writers Ismail Hossain Siraji and Mir Mosharraf Hossain.