A barber is a person whose occupation is to cut, groom and shave men's and boys' hair. A barber's place of work is known as a "barbershop" or a "barber's". Barbershops are places of social interaction and public discourse. In some instances, barbershops are public forums, they are the locations of open debates, voicing public concerns, engaging citizens in discussions about contemporary issues. In previous times, barbers performed surgery and dentistry. With the development of safety razors and the decreasing prevalence of beards, in Anglophonic cultures, most barbers now specialize in cutting men's scalp hair as opposed to facial hair. In modern times, the term "barber" is used both as a professional title and to refer to hairdressers who specialize in men's hair. All hairdressers were considered barbers. In the 20th century, the profession of cosmetology branched off from barbering, today hairdressers may be licensed as either barbers or cosmetologists. Barbers differ with respect to where they work, which services they are licensed to provide, what name they use to refer to themselves.
Part of this terminology difference depends on the regulations in a given location. In the early 1900s an alternative word for barber, "chirotonsor", came into use in the U. S. Different states in the US vary on their licensing laws. For example, in Maryland, a cosmetologist cannot use a straight razor reserved for barbers. In contrast, in New Jersey both are regulated by the State Board of Cosmetology and there is no longer a legal difference in barbers and cosmetologists, as they are issued the same license and can practice both the art of straight razor shaving, other chemical work and haircutting if they choose. In Australia, the official term for a barber is hairdresser. Most would work in a hairdressing salon; the barber's trade has a long history: razors have been found among relics of the Bronze Age in Egypt. The first barbering services were performed by Egyptians in 5000 B. C. with instruments they had made from sharpened flint. In ancient Egyptian culture, barbers were respected individuals.
Priests and men of medicine are the earliest recorded examples of barbers. In addition, the art of barbering played a significant role across continents. Mayan, Iroquois and Mongolian civilizations utilized shave art as a way to distinguish roles in society and wartime. Men in Ancient Greece would have their beards and fingernails trimmed and styled by the κουρεύς, in an agora which served as a social gathering for debates and gossip. Barbering was introduced to Rome by the Greek colonies in Sicily in 296 BC, barbershops became popular centres for daily news and gossip. A morning visit to the tonsor became a part of the daily routine, as important as the visit to the public baths, a young man's first shave was considered an essential part of his coming of age ceremony. A few Roman tonsores became wealthy and influential, running shops that were favourite public locations of high society. Starting from the Middle Ages, barbers served as surgeons and dentists. In addition to haircutting and shaving, barbers performed surgery and leeching, fire cupping and the extraction of teeth.
Barber-surgeons began to form powerful guilds such as the Worshipful Company of Barbers in London. Barbers received higher pay than surgeons until surgeons were entered into British warships during naval wars; some of the duties of the barber included neck manipulation, cleansing of ears and scalp, draining of boils and lancing of cysts with wicks. Barbershops were influential at the turn of the 19th century in the United States as African American businesses that helped to develop African American culture and economy. According to Trudier Harris, "In addition to its status as a gathering place, the black barbershop functioned as a complicated and contradictory microcosm of the larger world, it is an environment that can bolster egos and be supportive as well as a place where phony men can be destroyed, or at least shamed, from participation in verbal contests and other contests of skill. It is an escape from nagging wives and the cares of the world, it is a place. It is a place, in contrast to Gordone's bar, to be somebody."
Barbershops from black barbers at first served wealthy caucasians. In the part of the century they opened barbershops in black communities for serving black people; the average shop cost $20 to equip in 1880. It was about ten by twelve feet. A hair cut in 1880 would cost shaving cost three cents. In the late 19th and early 20th century barbershops became a common business where people would go to have their hair cut by a professional barber with good equipment. People would play Board games, talk about recent events and farming business or gossip, they can sometimes be used for public debates or voicing public concerns. Most modern barbershops have special barber chairs, special equipment for rinsing and washing hair. In some barbershops, people can watch TV while the barber works. Despite the economic recession in 2008, the barbershop industry has seen continued positive growth. There was a trial that had barbers check high blood pressure in barbershops and have a pharmacist meet and treat the patient in the barbershop, w
Pietro Scoppetta or Scappetta was an Italian painter, painting in an Impressionist style using both oil and pastels. He moved in 1891 to Naples to study painting at the Istituto of Fine Arts under cavaliere Giacomo di Chirico moved to Paris and Rome for a number of years. In Naples, he frequented the Caffè Gambrinus, where he befriended Salvatore Di Giacomo, D'Annunzio and Matilde Serao, he painted landscapes. In 1920 at the Biennale of Venice, he merited a posthumous exhibition of 35 works, he designed the covers of various illustrated journals, for example Ilustrazione Italiana of the Milanese firm of Fratelli Treves. In 1875 at the Promotrice in Naples, he exhibits: Chi è là?, a painting once at the Royal Pinacoteca of Capodimonte. Media related to Pietro Scoppetta at Wikimedia Commons
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Francesco de Sanctis
Francesco de Sanctis was a leading Italian literary critic and scholar of Italian language and literature during the 19th century. De Sanctis was born in the southern Italian town of Morra Irpina to a family of middle-class landowners, his father was a doctor in law and his two paternal uncles, one a priest and the other a medic, were exiled for having participated in the Carbonari Uprisings of 1820-1821. After completing his high school studies in nearby Naples, he was educated at the Italian language institute in Naples founded by Marquis Basilio Puoti. De Sanctis opened his own private school where he soon became recognized in academic circles for his profound knowledge of Italian literature. In 1848, he held office under the revolutionary government and was imprisoned for three years in Naples. Following his release, de Sanctis' reputation as a lecturer in Turin, Italy, on such Italian authors as Dante led to his professorship in 1856 at the Zürich, Switzerland university of ETH Zürich. De Sanctis returned to Naples as minister of public instruction in 1860, filled the same post under the Italian monarchy in 1861, 1878 and 1879, having in 1861 become a deputy in the Italian chamber.
In 1871 he was made professor of comparative literature at Naples University. De Sanctis was a supporter of Darwinism, lectured on the subject; as a literary critic, De Sanctis took a high place, notably with his Storia della letteratura italiana and with his critical studies, published in several volumes, some of them posthumously, at Naples in 1883. De Sanctis had many faithful disciples, among, his chief contribution as philosopher was to aesthetics. Saggi critici, Napoli 1849 La prigione, Torino 1851 Saggi critici, Napoli, 1869 Storia della letteratura italiana, Morano, 1870 Un viaggio elettorale, Napoli 1876 Studio sopra Emilio Zola, Roma, XVI 1878 Nuovi saggi critici, Napoli, 1879 Zola e l'assommoir, Milano 1879 Saggio sul Petrarca, Napoli 1883 Studio su G. Leopardi, a cura di R. Bonari, Napoli 1885 La giovinezza di Francesco De Sanctis, a cura di Pasquale Villari, Napoli 1889 Purismo illuminismo storicismo, scritti giovanili e frammenti di scuola, lezioni, a cura di A. Marinari, 3 voll.
Einaudi, Torino 1975 La crisi del romanticismo, scritti dal carcere e primi saggi critici, a cura di M. T. Lanza, introd. Di G. Nicastro, Torino 1972 Lezioni e saggi su Dante, corsi torinesi, zurighesi e saggi critici, a cura di S. Romagnoli, Torino 1955, 1967 Saggio critico sul Petrarca, a cura di N. Gallo, introduzione di Natalino Sapegno, Torino 1952 Verso il realismo, prolusioni e lezioni zurighesi sulla poesia cavalleresca, frammenti di estetica e saggi di metodo critico, a cura di N. Borsellino, Torino 1965 Storia della letteratura italiana a cura di N. Gallo, introd. Di N. Sapegno, 2 voll. Einaudi, Torino 1958 Manzoni, a c. di C. Muscetta e D. Puccini, Torino 1955 La scuola cattolica-liberale e il romanticismo a Napoli, a cura di C. Muscetta e G. Candeloro, Torino 1953 Mazzini e la scuola democratica, a cura degli stessi, Torino 1951, 1961 Leopardi, a cura di C. Muscetta e A. Perna, Torino 1961 L'arte, la scienza e la vita, nuovi saggi critici, conferenze e scritti vari, a c. di M. T. Lanza, Torino 1972 Il Mezzogiorno e lo Stato unitario, scritti e discorsi politici dal 1848 al 1870, a c. di F. Ferri, Torino 1960 I partiti e l'educazione della nuova Italia, a c. di N. Cortese, Torino 1970 Un viaggio elettorale, seguito da discorsi biografici, dal taccuino elettorale e da scritti politici vari, a cura di N. Cortese, Torino 1968 Epistolario a c. di G. Ferretti, M. Mazzocchi Alemanni e G. Talamo, 4 voll.
1956-69 Lettere a Pasquale Villari, a c. di F. Battaglia, Torino 1955 Lettere politiche a c. di A. Croce e G. B. Gifuni, Milano-Napoli 1970 Lettere a Teresa, a cura di A. Croce, Milano-Napoli 1954 Lettere a Virginia, a cura di Benedetto Croce, Bari 1917 Mazzini, a cura di Vincenzo Gueglio, Fratelli Frilli, 2005. ISBN 88-7563-148-4 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Sanctis, Francesco de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 129. B. Croce, Gli scritti di Francesco De Sanctis e la loro varia fortuna, Bari 1917 C. Muscetta, nel vol. F. De Sanctis, Pagine sparse, Bari 1944 G. Contini, Varianti e altra linguistica. Una raccolta di saggi, Einaudi 1970 pp. 499–531. R. Wellek, Storia della critica moderna, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1969, IV, pp. 123–74 (il saggio originario è del 1956. M. Fubini, "Francesco De Sanctis e la critica letteraria", in Romanticismo italiano. Saggi di storia della critica e della letteratura, Laterza, 1971 pp. 295–319.
R. Wellek, "The critical realism of Francesco De Sanctis", in Comparative Criticism: a Yearbook, vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 1979 ISBN 0-521-22296-6 pp. 17–35. C. Dionisotti, Geografia e storia della letteratura italiana, Einaudi, 1967 pp. 12–15 e 27-30 C. Muscetta, "'Francesco De Sanctis", in Lett. it. L. VIII/I, pp. 355–462 M. Mirri, Francesco De Sanctis politico e storico della civiltà moderna, Messina-Firenze, D'Anna, 1961 S. Landucci, Cultura e ideologia in Francesco De Sanctis, Feltrinelli, 1963 C. Mus
Venosa is a town and comune in the province of Potenza, in the southern Italian region of Basilicata, in the Vulture area. It is bounded by the comuni of Barile, Lavello, Montemilone, Palazzo San Gervasio and Spinazzola; the city was known as Venusia to the Romans, who credited its establishment—as Aphrodisia —to the Homeric hero Diomedes. He was said to have moved to Magna Graeca in southern Italy following the Trojan War, seeking a life of peace and building the town and its temples to appease the anger of Aphrodite for the destruction of her beloved Troy; the town became a colony. No fewer than 20,000 men were sent owing to its military importance. Throughout the Hannibalic wars it remained faithful to Rome, had a further contingent of colonists sent in 200 BC to replace its losses in war. In 190 BC the Appian way was extended to the town; some coins of Venusia of this period exist. It took part in the Social War, was recaptured by Quintus Metellus Pius. Horace was born here in 65 BC, it remained an important place under the Empire as a station on the Via Appia, though Theodor Mommsen's description of it as having branch roads to Aequum Tuticum and Potentia, Kiepert's maps annexed to the volume, do not agree with one another.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Venusia was sacked by the Heruls, in 493 AD it was turned into the administrative centre of the area in the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy, although this role was moved to Acerenza. The Lombards made it a gastaldate in 570/590. In 842 Venosa was sacked by the Saracens, who were ousted by Emperor Louis II. Next rulers in the 9th century were the Byzantines, who lost control of it after their defeat in 1041 by the Normans. Under the latter, Venosa was assigned to Drogo of Hauteville. In 1133 the town was set on fire by Roger II of Sicily, his successor Frederick II had a castle built here where a Lombard outpost existed before, to house the Treasury of the Kingdom of Sicily. Frederick's son, Manfred of Sicily, was born here in 1232. After the latter's fall, the Hohenstaufens were replaced by the Angevines. After a series of different feudal lords, Venosa became a possession of the Orsini in 1453. Count Pirro Del Balzo, who had married Donata Orsini, built a cathedral.
Under the Aragonese domination, followed the Gesualdo family. Despite the plague that had reduced its population from the 13,000 of 1503 to 6,000, Venosa had a flourishing cultural life under the Gesualdos: apart from the famous Carlo, other relevant figures of the period include the poet Luigi Tansillo and the jurist Giovanni Battista De Luca. Venosa took part in the revolt of Masaniello in 1647; the Gesualdos were in turn followed by the Caracciolo families. Home to a traditionally strong republican tradition, Venosa had a role in the peasant revolts and the Carbonari movement of the early 19th century. A true civil war between baronial powers and supporters of the peasants' rights broke out in 1849, being harshly suppressed by the Neapolitan troops. In 1861, after the fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies during the Italian unification, Venosa was occupied by some bands of brigands under the command of Carmine Crocco in order to restore the Bourbon power in Basilicata; the Aragonese castle, built in 1470 by Pirro del Balzo Orsini.
It has a square plan with four cylindrical towers. The shining sun, the del Balzo coat of arms, is visible on the western towers, it was turned into a residence by Carlo and Emanuele Gesualdo, who added an internal loggia, the north-western wing and bastions used as prisons. From 1612 it was the seat of the Accademia dei Rinascenti, it is now home to the National Museum of Venosa, inaugurated in 1991, with ancient Roman and other findings up to the 9th century. The entrance is preceded by a fountain conceded by King Charles I of Anjou. Many fragments of Roman workmanship are built into the walls of the cathedral, due to Pirro del Balzo also; the abbey church of SS. Trinità is interesting. In the central aisle is the tomb of Alberada, the first wife of Robert Guiscard and mother of Bohemund. An inscription on the wall commemorates the great Norman brothers William Iron Arm, Drogo and Robert Guiscard; the bones of these brothers rest together in a simple stone sarcophagus opposite the tomb of Alberada.
The church contains some 14th-century frescoes. Behind it is a larger church, begun for the Benedictines about 1150, from the designs of a French architect, in imitation of the Cluniac church at Paray-le-Monial, but never carried beyond the spring of the vaulting; the ancient amphitheatre adjacent furnished the materials for its walls. Baroque Church of the Purgatory The Archaeological Area of Notarchirico, in the communal territory, it covers the Palaeolithic period with eleven layers dating from 600,000 to 300,000 years ago. Remains of ancient wildlife, including extinct species of elephants and rhinoceroses, have been found, as well as a fragment of a femur of Homo erectus. Jewish catacombs with inscriptions in Hebrew and Latin show the importance