Frank Williams Racing Cars
After Williams backed Courage in a successful 1968 Formula Two season, he purchased a Brabham Formula One car for Courage in 1969. This allegedly angered Jack Brabham, as the car had been sold to Williams with the expectation that it would be used in the Tasman Series, Courage in fact had a great year, taking second place at both the Monaco and US Grands Prix. Their efforts attracted the interest of Italian sports car manufacturer De Tomaso, the car was initially uncompetitive, failing to finish the first four races of the year. In the fifth, the Dutch Grand Prix, the De Tomaso 505/38 flipped and caught fire, the death of his friend seriously upset Williams, the subsequent distance the team principal placed between himself and his drivers has been attributed to this event. The team soldiered on, first with Brian Redman, with no results, the partnership with De Tomaso was dissolved. For 1971, Williams purchased a year-old March 701, and ran Frenchman Henri Pescarolo, the team upgraded to a new March 711, but results were difficult to come by.
The old car was entered for Max Jean at the French Grand Prix. After the success of 1969, Williams was now low on funds, Pescarolo did, keep the outfit ticking over with fourth place at the British Grand Prix and sixth in Austria. From the Brazilian Grand Prix, Carlos Pace was entered in the previous years March 711, the Len Bailey-designed Politoys FX3 was a conventional Cosworth-engined car with a Hewland FG400 gearbox. It debuted in the hands of Pescarolo at the British Grand Prix, but the steering failed, Pescarolo switched back to his March 721 while the Politoys was rebuilt. The Politoys FX3 was reworked as the Iso-Marlboro FX3B and a car was built. Two new drivers were signed, New Zealands Howden Ganley and Italys Nanni Galli, at the first race in Argentina, Galli qualified 16th with Ganley 19th and last on the grid. Gallis engine failed on the first lap, but Ganley finished the race, the team fared better in Brazil with Ganley finishing seventh and Galli ninth. Galli was injured testing a car and replaced for the following race in South Africa by local driver Jackie Pretorius.
Pretorius retired his FX3B at half-distance with overheating problems, but Ganley managed tenth, the FX3B had become obsolete by this time due to new deformable structure regulations and was replaced by the new Iso-Marlboro IR. However, the FX3B was raced in two races at this time, at the 1973 Race of Champions, Tony Trimmer raced an FX3B to fourth place while Ganley retired his car with handling problems. The New Zealander retired at the FX3Bs last race, the 1973 BRDC International Trophy, introduced at the 1973 Spanish Grand Prix, the Iso-Marlboro IR was driven by eight different drivers during the rest of the 1973 season. Ganley was the regular driver and he scored a point with the car at the Canadian Grand Prix towards the end of the season
Maserati is an Italian luxury vehicle manufacturer established on 1 December 1914, in Bologna. The companys headquarters are now in Modena, and its emblem is a trident and it has been owned by the Italian-American car giant Fiat Chrysler Automobiles and FCAs Italian predecessor Fiat S. p. A. since 1993. In May 2014, due to plans and product launches. This caused them to production of the Quattroporte and Ghibli models. Maserati is placing a production output cap at 75,000 vehicles globally, the Maserati brothers, Bindo, Carlo and Ernesto were all involved with automobiles from the beginning of the 20th century. Alfieri and Ernesto built 2-litre Grand Prix cars for Diatto, in 1926, Diatto suspended the production of race cars, leading to the creation of the first Maserati and the founding of the Maserati marque. One of the first Maseratis, driven by Alfieri, won the 1926 Targa Florio, Maserati began making race cars with 4,6,8 and 16 cylinders. The trident logo of the Maserati car company is based on the Fountain of Neptune in Bolognas Piazza Maggiore, in 1920, one of the Maserati brothers, artist Mario, used this symbol in the logo at the suggestion of family friend Marquis Diego de Sterlich.
Alfieri Maserati died in 1932, but three brothers, Bindo and Ettore, kept the firm going, building cars that won races. The brothers continued in engineering roles with the company, Racing successes continued, even against the giants of German racing, Auto Union and Mercedes. In back-to-back wins in 1939 and 1940, a Maserati 8CTF won the Indianapolis 500, the war intervened, Maserati abandoned car making to produce components for the Italian war effort. During this time, Maserati worked in fierce competition to construct a V16 town car for Benito Mussolini before Ferry Porsche of Volkswagen built one for Adolf Hitler and this failed, and the plans were scrapped. Once peace was restored, Maserati returned to making cars, the Maserati A6 series did well in the racing scene. Key people joined the Maserati team, alberto Massimino, an old Fiat engineer, with both Alfa Romeo and Ferrari experiences oversaw the design of all racing models for the next ten years. With him joined engineers Giulio Alfieri, Vittorio Bellentani, and Gioacchino Colombo, the focus was on the best engines and chassis to succeed in car racing.
These new projects saw the last contributions of the Maserati brothers and this new team at Maserati worked on several projects, the 4CLT, the A6 series, the 8CLT, pivotally for the future success of the company, the A6GCS. Other racing projects in the 1950s were the 200S, 300S, 350S, Maserati retired from factory racing participation because of the Guidizzolo tragedy during the 1957 Mille Miglia, though they continued to build cars for privateers. Maserati became more and more focused on building road-going grand tourers, the 1957 Maserati 3500 GT marked a turning point in the marques history, as its first ground-up grand tourer design and first series produced car
Ferrari N. V. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1939 as Auto Avio Costruzioni, the company built its first car in 1940, however the companys inception as an auto manufacturer is usually recognized in 1947, when the first Ferrari-badged car was completed. Ferrari is the worlds most powerful according to Brand Finance. In May 2012 the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO became the most expensive car in history, Fiat S. p. A. acquired 50 percent of Ferrari in 1969 and expanded its stake to 90 percent in 1988. In October 2014 Fiat Chrysler Automobiles announced its intentions to separate Ferrari S. p. A. from FCA, through the remaining steps of the separation, FCAs interest in Ferraris business was distributed to shareholders of FCA, with 10 percent continuing to be owned by Piero Ferrari. The spin-off was completed on 3 January 2016, Ferrari road cars are generally seen as a symbol of speed and wealth. Enzo Ferrari was not initially interested in the idea of producing road cars when he formed Scuderia Ferrari in 1929, Scuderia Ferrari literally means Ferrari Stable and is usually used to mean Team Ferrari.
Ferrari bought and fielded Alfa Romeo racing cars for gentlemen drivers, in September 1939 Enzo Ferrari left Alfa Romeo under the provision that he would not use the Ferrari name in association with races or racing cars for at least four years. A few days he founded Auto Avio Costruzioni, headquartered in the facilities of the old Scuderia Ferrari, the new company ostensibly produced machine tools and aircraft accessories. In 1940 Ferrari did in fact produce a race car – the Tipo 815 and it was the first Ferrari car and debuted at the 1940 Mille Miglia, but due to World War II it saw little competition. In 1943 the Ferrari factory moved to Maranello, where it has remained ever since, the factory was bombed by the Allies and subsequently rebuilt including a works for road car production. The first Ferrari-badged car was the 1947125 S, powered by a 1.5 L V12 engine, Enzo Ferrari reluctantly built, the Scuderia Ferrari name was resurrected to denote the factory racing cars and distinguish them from those fielded by customer teams.
In 1960 the company was restructured as a corporation under the name SEFAC S. p. A. Early in 1969, Fiat took a 50 percent stake in Ferrari, new model investment further up in the Ferrari range received a boost. In 1988, Enzo Ferrari oversaw the launch of the Ferrari F40, the last new Ferrari to be launched before his death that year, in 1989 the company was renamed as Ferrari S. p. A. From 2002 to 2004, Ferrari produced the Enzo, their fastest model at the time and it was to be called the F60, continuing on from the F40 and F50, but Ferrari was so pleased with it, they called it the Enzo instead. It was initially offered to loyal and reoccurring customers, each of the 399 made had a tag of $650,000 apiece. On 15 September 2012,964 Ferrari cars (worth over $162 million attended the Ferrari Driving Days event at Silverstone Circuit, on 29 October 2014, the FCA group, resulting from the merger between manufacturers Fiat and Chrysler, announced the split of its luxury brand, Ferrari
Midland F1 Racing
Midland F1 Racing was a Formula One constructor and racing team. It competed in the 2006 Formula One season with drivers Christijan Albers, the team was created by the renaming of Jordan Grand Prix after its purchase by Canadian businessman, and owner of the Midland Group, Alex Shnaider. The team was registered as the first Russian Formula One team, reflecting Shnaiders roots, although it continued to be based in the United Kingdom, at Jordans Silverstone factory. Towards the end of the 2006 season, the team was sold to Spyker Cars N. V. the team raced in its last three Grands Prix under the official name Spyker MF1 Racing. In 2007, the team competed as Spyker F1, and in 2008 was sold to Indian businessman Vijay Mallya and was renamed Force India F1. The Midland Groups interest in Formula One involvement began in 2004 when they confirmed plans to create a team to race in the 2006 season. As a result, the team would be a continuation of Jordan. It allowed Midland to claim the television revenue generated by Jordans subsequent ninth place in the constructors championship, the team retained Jordans name for the 2005 season but struggled at the back of the grid with rookie drivers Narain Karthikeyan and Tiago Monteiro.
Some media reports at this time began to speculate that Midland were unhappy with their purchase, team principal Trevor Carlin quit the team after seven races, and chief engineer and designer Mark Smith before the end of the season. There were consistent reports that the team was linked with a buy-out by former Formula One driver Eddie Irvine, the name of the team was changed to MF1 Racing for the 2006 Formula One season. In the UK a joke emerged regarding this form being written in the same way as economy furniture manufacturer MFI. Over the winter Russian driver Roman Rusinov tested a new car, motoGP motorcyclist Max Biaggi had a test in the car at Silverstone in January. The team had failed in a bid to sign Takuma Sato. Much of that progress was down to tyre development from Bridgestone coupled with significant improvements in aerodynamics and handling. The improved performance saw the team begin to make it into the qualifying session on an occasional basis - eight times out of a possible 36 overall - with a best qualifying position of 14th.
The team went from being around four seconds off the pace per lap in 2005 to around 2 seconds per lap at the time of its sale to Spyker cars in September 2006. Rumours had been floating about in the paddock throughout the mid-season about the sale of the team. Reports suggested a price tag of $128 m, and that Shnaider was seriously considering the possibility of the sale, Formula One teams had become more valuable, because no more teams could enter after 2008, with the maximum of 12 places already filled
ORECA is a French racing team, founded in 1973 and run by Hugues de Chaunac, former team manager of F1 team AGS. In the 2000s, Oreca assisted Renault Sport in building the new Megane V6 for the Renault Eurocup Megane Sport, for 2006 Oreca ran the Saleen S7R in the Le Mans Series. The Oreca Saleen S7R had already won the 2006 Spa-Francorchamps Le Mans race, Oreca worked closely with Dodge on the Dodge Viper Competition Coupe, producing well over 100 customer cars in the period 2006–2007 to GT3 specification. In 2011, Oreca won the 12 Hours of Sebring race despite still using a 2010-spec car versus the new for 2011 Peugeot 908s, in 2012 Oreca was selected to run the Toyota TS030 Hybrid LMP1 car with support from Toyota Motorsport GmbH in the FIA World Endurance Championship. The car showed promising speed but did not finish at Le Mans due to a crash involving one car. In 2008 Oreca became a sports manufacturer, producing the Oreca 01. The 01 was made for the LMP1 category and was first raced at the 20091000 km of Spa with two entries, during 2009 Oreca started producing the Formula Le Mans FLM09.
The idea was to give a platform for smaller teams to get into endurance racing. The Oreca 03 was launched to accommodate the new LMP2 regulations for 2011, in 2015, the Oreca 05 was unveiled, winning the LMP2 class at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Oreca was selected as one of the four 2017 LMP2 manufacturers, and launched the Oreca 07
Campos Racing is a Spanish motor racing team, run by former Formula One driver Adrián Campos. The team has been successful in Formula Three and the GP2 Series, after retiring from racing, Campos formed his own team at the end of 1997, under the name Campos Motorsport. In 1998 the team began by competing in the new Open Fortuna by Nissan, with Marc Gené, Gené won the championship and García finished fifth, with Campos taking the teams title. Gené stepped up to Formula One in 1999, and his place in the team was taken by karting driver Fernando Alonso, Alonso went on to win the Euro Open Movistar by Nissan as it was renamed, with García finishing fifth again and Campos retaining the teams title. With Alonso moving onto International Formula 3000, García led the team in 2000, winning the championship, the series became the World Series by Nissan in 2002. In 2004 the team switched its focus to the Spanish Formula Three Championship, under the name of Campos Grand Prix, the team finished third in the GP2 drivers and teams championships, with Giorgio Pantano and Vitaly Petrov as drivers.
In 2008, they won the championship and finished third in the drivers championship with Lucas di Grassi. They won their first overall Spanish F3 crown in 2008 with Germán Sánchez, after the 2008 season, Campos passed control of his GP2 team to Spanish businessman Alejandro Agag, who renamed it Addax Team. In 2009, Campos was awarded a Formula One entry for his team to race in the 2010 season, originally under the Campos Grand Prix name, but the name was soon changed to Campos Meta. After financial struggles, the team was out in February 2010 by majority shareholder José Ramón Carabante. Campos will return to GP2 in 2014 replacing the Addax Team on the grid, with drivers Arthur Pic, Alexander Rossi replaced Sato at the Hockenheimring due to Sato competing in an Auto GP race. Pic will be retained for the 2015 season with Rio Haryanto joining the team, as of 2015, Campos will partake the GP3 Series in place of Hilmer Motorsport. † Alexander Rossi raced for Caterham Racing for 10 races in 2014 scoring 10 of his 12 points, in 2008, the team raced under the Barwa International Campos Team banner.
In 2016, the team raced under the Jagonya Ayam Campos Racing banner
Giotto Bizzarrini is an Italian automobile engineer active from the 1950s through the 1970s. Bizzarrini was chief engineer at Ferrari in the 1950s, working on such projects as the Ferrari 250 GTO. He split from the company in an upheaval in 1961, worked first with ATS. In addition to producing the exotic Bizzarrini 5300 GT, Bizzarini worked for other makers including Iso, several concept cars in the 2000s bear his name. Bizzarrini was the son of a landowner from Livorno. Bizzarrini received a degree from the University of Pisa in 1953. His design thesis in his year was a complete redesign of a used Fiat Topolino, in which he modified the engine for increased power. After graduation, he briefly before joining Alfa Romeos Servizio Esperimenze Principali unit under Ing. He was assigned to the development of the Alfa Romeo Giulietta chassis, I always needed to know why something fails, so I can invent a solution. Bizzarrini left Alfa Romeo in 1957 and went to Ferrari when that company needed a test driver and he was quickly promoted to controller of experimental, Sports and GT car development.
Some legends refers Mr. Ferrari when he saw Bizzarrinis first car and he worked five years at Ferrari as chief engineer. He worked as developer and skilled test driver, the Ferrari 250 GT 2+2/GTE, the 3 litre Testa Rossa V12 engine, the Ferrari 250 TR or Testa Rossa and the Ferrari 250 GT SWB were influenced by his ideas and technical solutions. For one of the most successful Ferrari racing series, the Ferrari 250, Bizzarrini worked hard to develop the chassis and his masterpiece at Ferrari was the 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO. He was first involved with the 250 GTO project in 1960, Ferrari wanted a GT racer with better aerodynamics than the previous 250 GT SWB. The SWB was a racer but had considerable aerodynamic drag. Tests started secretly with a Ferrari 250 GT unit, bodied by Mario Boano, with chassis number #2643GT and this car was developed and was used as a test mule for technical solutions seen in the GTO. Bizzarrini moved the engine back into the chassis and lowered it to improve weight distribution.
The result was the Ferrari 250 GTO, one of the greatest sport cars ever, in 1962, when the GTO was launched, it was the ultimate in aerodynamics
The Dallara F191 was a Formula One car designed by Gian Paolo Dallara and Nigel Couperthwaite for use by the BMS Scuderia Italia team during the 1991 Formula One season. Its best finish was at the San Marino Grand Prix when JJ Lehto drove it to third place, the Dallara F191 car was designed by Gian Paolo Dallara and Nigel Couperthwaite was an entirely new albeit conventional car rather than simply a development of the previous years car. Like the cars of most other teams, the car had a high nose configuration, the Cosworth DFR from 1990 was discarded and instead an exclusive supply of Judd V10 engines was sourced from Engine Developments Limited. The new engine, developed by John Judd, generated plenty of power, at the start of the year it was achieving 660 bhp and by the end of the season it was putting out over 700 bhp. For 1991, Emanuele Pirro, who drove for the team the year, was retained while Andrea de Cesaris was replaced by JJ Lehto. While pre-qualifying was no barrier for Lehto, Pirro had failed three times, when he qualified for races, Pirro enjoyed relatively good reliability in contrast to Lehto who only finished five races all year.
Pirros best race was at the Monaco, where he scored a point for sixth place
The Dallara 3087 is a Formula 3000 car with which the BMS Scuderia Italia team competed in the first race of the 1988 Formula One season. Driven by Alex Caffi, it failed to pass pre-qualifying with its fastest time being 18 seconds slower than the set by Ayrton Senna for pole position. It was replaced for the next race by the Dallara F188 which was specifically designed for Formula One. However, in order to fulfil its obligations to participate in the World Championship, for the first race in Brazil, Scuderia Italia brought a chassis designated the 3087. This was Dallaras Formula 3000 car, adapted to meet the FIA rules and it was equipped with a 3-litre Cosworth DFV engine with the rev limiter removed, all other normally aspirated cars in Formula One had larger 3. 5-litre engines. It was driven by Italian Alex Caffi who had driven in Formula One for Osella. The car passed scrutineering and Caffi took part in pre-qualifying and he predictably finished in last place,18 seconds slower than the pole position time of Ayrton Senna and did not qualify for the race.
The F188 chassis, fitted with the Cosworth DFZ3.5 litre engine, was ready in time for the race in San Marino. It would be used for the remainder of the 1988 Formula One season, the Dallara 3087 is the last non-Formula One car to enter a Formula One Grand Prix. Dallara 3087 at histomobile 1988 Brazilian Grand Prix qualifying
Formula One is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de lAutomobile. The FIA Formula One World Championship has been the form of racing since the inaugural season in 1950. The formula, designated in the name, refers to a set of rules, the F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, held worldwide on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a system to determine two annual World Championships, one for drivers, one for constructors. The racing drivers are required to be holders of valid Super Licences, the races are required to be held on tracks graded 1, the highest grade a track can receive by the FIA. Most events are held in locations on purpose-built tracks, but there are several events in city centres throughout the world. Formula One cars are the fastest road racing cars in the world. Formula One cars race at speeds of up to approximately 375 km/h with engines currently limited in performance to a maximum of 15,000 RPM, the cars are capable of lateral acceleration in excess of five g in corners.
The performance of the cars is very dependent on electronics – although traction control and other driving aids have been banned since 2008 – and on aerodynamics, the formula has radically evolved and changed through the history of the sport. F1 had a global television audience of 425 million people during the course of the 2014 season. Grand Prix racing began in 1906 and became the most popular internationally in the second half of the twentieth century. The Formula One Group is the holder of the commercial rights. Its high profile and popularity have created a major merchandising environment, since 2000 the sports spiraling expenditures and the distribution of prize money favoring established top teams have forced complaints from smaller teams and led several teams to bankruptcy. On 23 January 2017 it was confirmed that Liberty Media had completed its $8 billion acquisition of Delta Topco, the Formula One series originated with the European Grand Prix Motor Racing of the 1920s and 1930s.
The formula is a set of rules that all cars must meet. Formula One was a new formula agreed upon after World War II during 1946, the first world championship race was held at Silverstone, United Kingdom in 1950. A championship for constructors followed in 1958, national championships existed in South Africa and the UK in the 1960s and 1970s. Non-championship Formula One events were held for years, but due to the increasing cost of competition
Polytechnic University of Milan
The Politecnico di Milano is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 42,000 students. It offers undergraduate and higher education courses in engineering, founded in 1863, it is the oldest university in Milan. The central offices and headquarters are located in the campus of Città Studi in Milan. The university was ranked the best for Engineering and among the top big universities in Italy in the CENSIS-Repubblica Italian University rankings for 2014-2015. According to the QS World University Rankings, it is the 20th best technical university in the world, ranking 11th for Design, 24th for Engineering and its notable alumni include Giulio Natta, Nobel laureate in chemistry in 1963. The Politecnico was founded on 29 November 1863 by Francesco Brioschi, secretary of the Ministry of Education and it is the oldest university in Milan. Its original name was Istituto Tecnico Superiore and only Civil and Industrial Engineering were taught, the second main line of study at Politecnico, was introduced in 1865 in cooperation with the Brera Academy.
There were only 30 students admitted in the first year, over the decades, most of students were men, the first female graduate from the university was in 1913. In 1927 the Politecnico moved to piazza Leonardo da Vinci, in the now known as Città studi. At the time, it was named Regio Politecnico, the word Regio was removed as Italy was proclaimed a republic at the end of World War II. The historical building still in use today was designed and built by engineers, the present logo, based on a detail of the preparatory sketch of Raphaels School of Athens, was adopted in 1942. Until then, there was no official logo for the institution, in 1954, the first European centre of electronic computation was opened in Politecnico by Gino Cassinis and Ercole Bottani. In 1963 Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on crystalline polymers, in 1977, the satellite Sirio, jointly developed by Politecnico and other companies, was launched. Since the end of the 1980s, the Politecnico has begun a process of expansion that would have resulted in the opening of its satellite campuses in Lombardy.
A university programme in industrial design was started in 1993, in April 2012, the university announced that, beginning in 2014, all graduate courses would be taught only in English. The University is spread over seven campuses, two campuses in Milan and another five satellite campuses across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. Milan Leonardo is the oldest of the Politecnico campuses still in use, the first buildings on Piazza Leonardo da Vinci were inaugurated in 1927. Over the years, the complex has expanded and is now generally referred to as Città Studi, City of Studies
Parma listen is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto, architecture and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world, Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente, Parmas Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma. The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci wrote, As a capital city it had to have a river, as a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry. Parma was already an area in the Bronze Age. In the current position of the city rose a terramare, the terramare were ancient villages built of wood on piles according to a defined scheme and squared form, constructed on dry land and generally in proximity to the rivers. During this age the first necropolis were constructed, diodorus Siculus reported that the Romans had changed their rectangular shields for round ones, imitating the Etruscans.
Whether the Etruscan encampment was so named because it was round, like a shield, the Roman colony was founded in 183 BC, together with Mutina,2,000 families were settled. Parma had an importance as a road hub over the Via Aemilia. It had a forum, in what is today the central Garibaldi Square, in 44 BC, the city was destroyed, and Augustus rebuilt it. During the Roman Empire, it gained the title of Julia for its loyalty to the imperial house, the city was subsequently sacked by Attila, and given by the Germanic king Odoacer to his followers. During the Gothic War, Totila destroyed it and it was part of the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and, from 569, of the Lombard Kingdom of Italy. Under Frankish rule, Parma became the capital of a county, like most northern Italian cities, it was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire created by Charlemagne, but locally ruled by its bishops, the first being Guibodus. In the subsequent struggles between the Papacy and the Empire, Parma was usually a member of the Imperial party, two of its bishops became antipopes, Càdalo, founder of the cathedral, as Honorius II, and Guibert, as Clement III.
An almost independent commune was created around 1140, a treaty between Parma and Piacenza of 1149 is the earliest document of a comune headed by consuls, the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines was a feature of Parma too. In 1213, her podestà was the Guelph Rambertino Buvalelli, after a long stance alongside the emperors, the Papist families of the city gained control in 1248. The city was besieged in 1247–48 by Emperor Frederick II, who was crushed in the battle that ensued. Parma fell under the control of Milan in 1341, after a short-lived period of independence under the Terzi family, the Sforza imposed their rule through their associated families of Pallavicino, Sanvitale and Da Correggio