Christian ethics is a branch of Christian theology that defines virtuous behavior and wrong behavior from a Christian perspective. Systematic theological study of Christian ethics is called moral theology. Christian virtues are divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues. Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor, how women are to be treated, the morality of war. Christian ethicists, like other ethicists, approach ethics from different frameworks and perspectives; the approach of virtue ethics has become popular in recent decades due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas. The curriculum for seminary formation of Catholic priests includes multiple, required courses in Catholic moral theology. Required courses in moral theology or ethics are comparatively less common in Evangelical seminaries. In the Wesleyan tradition, Christian theology are informed by four distinguishable sources known as the Wesleyan Quadrilateral.
The four sources are scripture, tradition and Christian experience. According to D. Stephen Long, Jewish ethics and the life of Jesus figure prominently in Christian ethics, but "The Bible is the universal and fundamental source of Christian ethics", Long claims "Christian ethics finds its source in diverse means, but it emerges from the biblical narrative and the call of Abraham and Sarah and subsequent creation of the Jewish people". Childress and Macquarrie state that "Many Christian ethicists have claimed that Jesus Christ is the center of the biblical message in its entirety and the key to scripture". Other Christian ethicists "prefer a more Trinitarian rendering of the message of scripture"; some modern Christians "understand'liberation' or deliverance from oppression to be the message of scripture". Christians today "do not feel compelled to observe all 613 commandments" in the Torah, but the Ten Commandments figure prominently in Christian ethics."The Prophets ground their appeals for right conduct in God's demand for righteousness."
On the other hand, "It is not... true to say that for the OT writers righteousness is defined by what God does. Noted as ethical guidelines adhered to by Old Testament figures is "maintenance of the family", "safeguarding of the family property", "maintenance of the community". Much of Christian ethics derives from Biblical scripture and Christians have always considered the Bible profitable to teach, reprove and train in righteousness; the New Testament asserts that all morality flows from the Great Commandment, to love God with all one's heart, mind and soul, to love one's neighbour as oneself. In this, Jesus was reaffirming a teachings of Deut 6:4-9 and Lev 19:18. Christ united these commands together and proposed himself as a model of the love required in John 13:12, known as The New Commandment. Paul is the source of the phrase "Law of Christ", though its meaning and the relationship of Paul of Tarsus and Judaism are still disputed; the Pauline writings are the major source of the New Testament household code.
The Council of Jerusalem, as reported in Acts 15, may have been held in Jerusalem in about 50 AD. Its decree, known as the Apostolic Decree, was held as binding for several centuries and is still observed today by the Greek Orthodox. Christian ethics developed during Early Christianity as Christianity arose in the Holy Land and other early centers of Christianity while Christianity emerged from Second Temple Judaism. Early Christian ethics included discussions of how believers should relate to Roman authority and to the empire; the Church Fathers had little occasion to treat moral questions from a purely philosophical standpoint and independently of divine revelation, but in the explanation of Christian doctrine their discussions led to philosophical investigations. Writers, such as Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Ambrose and Augustine of Hippo all wrote on ethics from a distinctly Christian point of view, they made use of philosophical and ethical principles laid down by their Greek philosopher forebears and the intersection of Greek and Jewish thought known as Hellenistic Judaism.
Under the Emperor Constantine I, Christianity became a legal religion. With Christianity now in power, ethical concerns broadened and included discussions of the proper role of the state. Augustine in particular made use of the ethical principles of Greek philosophy and Hellenistic Judaism, he proceeded to develop along philosophical lines and to establish most of the truths of Christian morality. The eternal law, the original type and source of all temporal laws, the natural law, the ultimate end of man, the cardinal virtues, marriage, etc. were treated by him in the clearest and most penetrating manner. Augustine identified a movement in Scripture "toward the'City of God', from which Christian ethics emerges", as illustrated in chapters 11 and 12 of the book of Genesis. Broadly speaking, Augustine adapted the philosophy of Plato to Christian principles, his synthesis is called Augustinianism. He presents hardly a single portion of ethics to us but what he does present is enriched with his keen philosophical commentaries.
Writers followed in his footsteps. A sharper line of separation between philosophy and theology, in particular between ethics and moral theology, is first met within the works of the great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages of Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus. Phi
Roman Catholic Diocese of Treviso
The Italian Catholic Diocese of Treviso is in the Veneto. It is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Venice. Through the intercession of Bishop Felix the city of Treviso was spared during the Lombard invasion and became the seat of a duchy. Charlemagne made it a marquisate, extending from Belluno to Ceneda, from the Adige to the Tagliamento. In 922 Treviso, under episcopal jurisdiction, was sacked by the Hungarians. Treviso was Christianized from Aquileia; the first bishop of certain date was Jucundus, who in 421 took part in the consecration of the church of the Rialto in Venice. The bishops of Treviso who participated in the schism of the Three Chapters were: Felix. In 905 Bishop Adelbert received from Berengar I of Italy the temporal jurisdiction of the city, which extended to Rozo and Rolando who adhered to the schism of Clement III. Bishop Tiso suffered from the tyranny of Ezzelino, Alberto Ricco, O. M. was imprisoned for preaching against him. Other bishops were: Loto Gambacurta, exiled by the Florentines from his archbishopric of Pisa.
In 1818 Treviso passed from the metropolitan see of Aquileia to the archdiocese of Venice. Bishop Giuseppe Grasser healed the conflicts caused by the interregnum. Bishop Giovanni Antonio Farina conferred sacred orders on Giuseppe Sarto Pope Pius X. United with Treviso is the ancient Diocese of Asolo, the bishops of which are unknown from 587 until 1049. Twenty-six bishops are known, from 814 until the union of the see with Treviso, 1440. Erected: 4th CenturyLatin Name: Dioecesis TarvisinaMetropolitan: Patriarchate of Venice Lodovico Barbo, O. S. B. Ermolao Barbaro Marino Contarini Marco Barbo Teodoro de Lellis Francesco Barozzi Pietro Riario, O. F. M. Conv. Lorenzo Zanni Giovanni Dacri, O. F. M. Niccolò Franco Bernardo de' Rossi Francesco Pisani Giorgio Cornaro Francesco Cornaro Alvise Molino Francesco Giustiniani Vincenzo Giustiniani Silvestro Morosini Marco Morosini Antonio Lupi Bartolomeo Gradenigo Giovanni Battista Sanudo Fortunato Morosini, O. S. B. Augusto Antonio Zacco Benedetto De Luca Paolo Francesco Giustiniani, O.
F. M. Cap. Bernardino Marin, C. R. L...... Giuseppe Grasser Sebastiano Soldati St. Giovanni Antonio Farina Federico Maria Zinelli Giuseppe Callegari Giuseppe Apollonio Bl. Andrea Giacinto Bonaventura Longhin, O. F. M. Cap. Antonio Mantiero Egidio Negrin Antonio Mistrorigo Paolo Magnani Andrea Bruno Mazzocato Gianfranco Agostino Gardin, O. F. M. Conv. Timeline of Treviso This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Novalja is a town in the north of the island of Pag in the Croatian part of Adriatic Sea. In recent times, Novalja has become famous; the earliest settlers on the island were an Illyrian tribe that came to the region in the Bronze Age. In the 1st century BC, the Romans took possession, have left numerous archeological and cultural artifacts. Novalja is the successor of a Roman city called Cissa, considered by most scholars to be the seat of an ancient Christian bishopric of that name. Others prefer to identify the see with an island city of the same name in Istria, close to present-day Rovinj. A bishop of Cissa named Vindemius took part in some year between 571 and 577 in a schismatic synod in Grado called by Patriarch Elias of Aquileia. Arrested by the Exarch of Ravenna he was forced to abjure his views on the controversy of the Three Chapters, but once free from Byzantine Empire control reaffirmed his position and took part in another schismatic synod in 590. A bishop of Cissa called Ursinus signed the acts.
Soon after, Cissa ceased to exist because of an earthquake. No longer a residential bishopric, Cissa is today listed by the Catholic Church; the Croats settled in the area. The island was for some time under the rule of the Croatian kingdom, yet the island was always fought over, in the 11th and 12th centuries was divided between the communities of Rab and of Zadar. Novalja was given to the community and diocese of Rab by Croatian King Petar Krešimir IV. From the 12th to 14th centuries, along with other Dalmatian towns and islands, was fiercely contested between the Republic of Venice and the Croatian-Hungarian rulers. For four centuries from the start of the 15th century it was held by Venice, until Venice lost its independence. Austria and France fought over the Dalmatian area with victory going to the Austrians; the island passed from Austria to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia after World War I, to the Independent State of Croatia. After the Second World War it returned to Yugoslavia and, when this broke up, it became part of the new state of Croatia.
Unusually, the island is divided between two counties, with Novalja and Stara Novalja being part of the northern Lika-Senj County. Caska Gajac Kustići Lun Metajna Novalja Potočnica Stara Novalja Vidalići Zubovići Official website
Order of Friars Minor Conventual
The Order of Friars Minor Conventual known as the Conventual Franciscans, or Minorites, is a branch of the Catholic Order of Friars Minor, founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209. The Order of Friars Minor Conventual, is a mendicant Catholic religious order, it is one of three separate fraternities that make up the First Order of St. Francis, that is, the friars; the Second Order is an order of women. It is not clear how the term "Conventual" arose. In the Bull "Cum tamquam veri" of 5 April, 1250, Pope Innocent IV decreed that Franciscan churches where convents existed might be called Conventual churches, some have maintained that the name "Conventual" was first given to the religious residing in such convents. Another view holds that word Conventualis was used to distinguish the residents of large convents from those who lived more after the manner of hermits; the Order of Friars Minor Conventual is spread throughout the world, as of August 2018 includes 30 provinces, 18 custodies, 460 friaries and 4048 friars.
There are four provinces of Conventual Franciscans in the United States. Friars serve in parishes, for other religious orders. Particular characteristics of the Conventuals' tradition are community life and the apostolate in the cities. During the early days of the Franciscans a difference of opinion developed in the community concerning the interpretation of the rule regarding poverty. Towards the end of Francis' life, there was a growing trend for the brothers to live in larger communities and to be engaged in pastoral work in the cities; as the order grew, the literal and unconditional observance of this came to appear impracticable by the great expansion of the order, its pursuit of learning, the accumulated property of the large cloisters in the towns. Some favored a relaxation in the rigor of the rule as regards the observance of poverty, other preferred to keep to its literal strictness; the tendency towards relaxation became more marked after the death of Francis in 1226, was encouraged by his successor, Brother Elias.
A long dispute followed in which the “Friars of the Community”, who had adopted certain mitigations came to be called Conventuals, while those who were zealous for the strict observance of the rule were called Zelanti, afterwards named Observants. Notwithstanding this division in the order formally sanctioned in 1415 by the Council of Constance, both Observants and Conventuals continued to form one body under the same head until 1517. In that year Pope Leo X called a general chapter of the whole order at Rome, with a view to effecting a reunion between the Observants and Conventuals; the former requested permission to observe the rule without any dispensation. Leo X thereupon incorporated with the Observants all the Franciscan friars who wished to observe the rule without dispensation, abolishing the different denominations of Clareni, etc.. Those who continued to live under dispensations were constituted a separate body with the name of Conventuals and given the right to elect a master general of their own, whose election, had to be confirmed by the Minister General of the Friars Minor.
The latter appears never to have availed himself of this right, the Conventuals may be regarded as an independent order from 1517, but it was not until 1580 that they obtained a special cardinal protector of their own. In 1565 the Conventuals accepted the Tridentine indult allowing mendicant orders to own property corporately, their chapter held at Florence in that year drew up statutes containing several important reforms which Pope Pius IV subsequently approved. In 1625 new constitutions were adopted by the Conventuals; these constitutions, which were subsequently promulgated by Pope Urban VIII are known as the "Constitutiones Urbanæ" and are of importance, since at their profession the Conventuals vow to observe the Rule of St. Francis in accordance with them, to say, by admitting the duly authorized dispensations therein set forth. In 1897, Pope Leo XIII reorganized the Franciscan Orders. Friars are different from monks in that they are called to live the evangelical counsels in service to society, rather than through cloistered asceticism and devotion.
In the life of the friar, the exercise of public ministry is an essential feature, for which the life of the cloister is considered as but an immediate preparation. Whereas monks live in a self-sufficient community, friars work among laypeople and were supported, at least by donations or other charitable support. A monk or nun takes an additional vow of "stability", committing themselves to a particular com
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012