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Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum metamonada that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between an infective, resistant cyst. Giardia were first described by the Dutch microscopist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1681; the genus is named after French zoologist Alfred Mathieu Giard. Like other diplomonads, Giardia have two nuclei, each with four associated flagella, were thought to lack both mitochondria and a Golgi apparatus; however they are now known to possess a complex endomembrane system as well as mitochondrial remnants, called mitosomes, through mitochondrial reduction. The mitosomes are not used in ATP synthesis the way mitochondria are, but are involved in the maturation of iron-sulfur proteins; the synapomorphies of genus Giardia include cells with duplicate organelles, absence of cytostomes, ventral adhesive disc. About 40 species have been described from different animals, but many of them are synonyms.

Five to six morphologically distinct species are recognised. Giardia lamblia infect humans and other mammals, G. muris is found from other mammals, G. ardeae and G. psittaci from birds, G. agilis from amphibians and G. microti from voles. Other described, species include: Many different species of Giardia exist, so in order to differentiate between species specific PCR have been developed to detect specific Giardia spp. Gene probe-based detection is used to differentiate between species of Giardia. A more common and less time-consuming means of identifying different species of Giardia includes microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques. Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed the heterogeneity of Giardia lamblia, which contains at least eight lineages or cryptic species. A Giardia isolate was the first diplomonad to have its genome sequenced, its 11.7 million basepair genome is compact in structure and content with simplified basic cellular machineries and metabolism. The genomes of several other Giardia isolates and diplomonads are being sequenced.

A second isolate from humans has been sequenced along with a species from a pig. There are ~5000 genes in the genome; the E assemblage is more related to the A assemblage than is the B. A number of chromosomal rearrangements are present. Giardia lives in the intestines of infected humans or other animals, individuals of which become infected by ingesting or coming into contact with contaminated foods, soil, or water tainted by the feces of an infected carrier; the symptoms of Giardia, which may begin to appear 2 days after infection, include violent diarrhoea, excess gas, stomach or abdominal cramps, upset stomach, nausea. Resulting dehydration and nutritional loss may need immediate treatment. A typical infection can be slight, resolve without treatment, last between 2–6 weeks, although it can sometimes last longer and/or be more severe. Coexistence with the parasite is possible, but an infected individual can remain a carrier and transmit it to others. Medication containing tinidazole or metronidazole decreases symptoms and time to resolution.

Albendazole is used, has an anthelmintic property as well, ideal for certain compounded issues when a general vermicidal agent is preferred. Giardia causes a disease called giardiasis, which causes the villi of the small intestine to atrophy and flatten, resulting in malabsorption in the intestine. Lactose intolerance can persist after the eradication of Giardia from the digestive tract. List of parasites "Giardia". Parasites. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 2011. Mahbubani MH, Bej AK, Perlin MH, Schaefer FW, Jakubowski W, Atlas RM. "Differentiation of Giardia duodenalis from other Giardia spp. by using polymerase chain reaction and gene probes". J. Clin. Microbiol. 30: 74–8. PMC 264999. PMID 1734070. LaCour, Michelle. "Who Is Giardia?". GIARDIA. Stanford University. "Giardia". NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 5740

Sethi Town (Haji Camp)

Sethi Town is a neighborhood in Haji Camp, Pakistan located in the east of historic Peshawar city near "Haji Camp Bus Terminal" of Peshawar. Sethi Town is the first Union Council of Pakistan because it is represented in the legislative assembly as UC1,PK1,NA1; the township is located at the east of Peshawar city at its entrance. At its South-East, the three main routes GT Road, Ring Road and Motorways of Pakistan join; this rendre the township as strategically important area. Ethnic groups in Sethi Town include Pakhtuns, Hindkowans & Afghan refugees Hazaras & Tajiks. More than 99% of the population of Sethi Town is Muslim; this endows the township with a substantial cultural diversity. In a single street, it is common to find people speaking Urdu, Pashto and Farsi; the famous tribe of Khalisa are the descendants of Abdul Qadir Khan and his sons Abdul Jalil Khan and Abdul Rashid Khan. This township was developed in early 90s after the settlement of Afghan refugees in this area; this resulted in an increase of the rent in the region.

However, most of the residents of this township are now Pakistanis. Muhammad Shoaib, one of the top three winners of Pakistan idol and the young singer lives in Sethi Town. Several other distinguished professional resides in the township e.g. at least four faculty members working at University of Agriculture, Peshawar. As for cultural diversity, the area has a large diversity for the political support for Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf and ANP with limited support JUI-F; however majority of the young and most of elders are strong supporters of the PTI. Several senior PTI leaders has visited the area. During 90s, most of the Afghan refugees settled in the area were craftspeople weaving handmade carpets; this became a major livelihood for these refugees in Sethi Town. However, in 2013, the law and order situation and the return of refugees to Afghanistan, had adversely affected the industry. - Hussain Chawk - Sir Buland Pura - Ghalib Street - Pakistan International Public School - Nasim Masjid - Khan Colony

Bodleian-Douce Atlas

The Bodleian-Douce Atlas is an early 15th-century nautical atlas by an anonymous Italian cartographer held by the Bodleian Library in Oxford, UK. The atlas was made by an anonymous Italian cartographer in the early 15th century. No attribution to known cartographers or place of origin. Venice and Genoa have been suggested; the Bodleian-Douce Atlas is held by the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford in Oxford, UK. The Bodleian-Douce atlas is composed of six portolan charts, with each chart covering two folios: P.1 - Black Sea. P.2 - East Mediterranean P.3 - Adriatic Sea and Sicily P.4 - Central Mediterranean p. 5 - West Mediterranean and northwest Africa down to Mogador p. 6. - North Atlantic "Bodleian-Douce atlas": exhibition of MS Douce 390 at Bodleian Library, Oxford. Campbell, T. "Anonymous works and the question of their attribution to individual chartmakers or to their supposed workshops"

Mazda Titan

The Mazda Titan is a commercial truck produced by Japanese automaker Mazda since 1971. From the fourth and sixth generation model, the vehicle had become a rebadged Isuzu Elf truck. Mazda's original entry into the mid-sized truck class was the Mazda E2000 in January 1964. This, in turn had replaced the earlier D series; the E2000 came with a standard bed, with a three-way dropside bed, as a long-wheelbase dropside. The truck had an 81 PS, 2.0 litres, used in the earlier D2000. At the time of introduction, the production target was 1,900 units per month. In 1970 a version called, it was fitted with the Perkins-developed "XA", a 2.5 litres diesel engine which produces 77 PS. Its chassis code is "EXA"; the first Titan was presented in 1971, as a successor to the two-ton Mazda E2000. The box-section chassis rails were unusual for the class. Receiving the chassis code "EXB", the tilt-cab Titan retained the 2.5-litre "XA" diesel engine of the earlier E2000 without any change. For heavier duty usage, there was the XB-engined Titan T2700: a 2.7 litres diesel version with four more horsepower.

A 2-litre petrol four was available. In 1977, the Titan underwent a minor facelift. Along with a new grille and bumpers, the turn signals were bigger and more squared off and incorporated vents for the cabin. Most the old round "M" logo was replaced by the new corporate "MAZDA" logo; the larger, 3.7-litre XC-engine became available for heavier yet versions, offering 100 PS. This generation Titan was the first to provide the basis for the Australian-market 3-tonne truck badged "Ford Trader"; the second generation was announced in October 1980. Engine capacity increased to 4052 cc with the introduction of the new, six-cylinder ZB diesel engine. 2.0, 2.5, 3-liter four-cylinder models were available. This model received a dual range transmission, marketed as the "Two Way Shift." In 1982 the second generation Mazda Parkway bus version was introduced, based on the new Titan. May 1984: Minor change, with a new front grille. Japanese market models were now compliant with the 1983 emissions regulations. 1987: Minor change.

As part of the facelift, the four round headlights were changed to four square units of standard type. A DIN-standard audio space is provided; the Mazda Titan appeared in export markets as the Mazda T2000, T2500, T3000, or the Mazda T4100. It was license built in India as the Swaraj Mazda, beginning in 1985 and 1986; the company was renamed SML Isuzu in 2010 and they still market this truck as an SML Isuzu. This generation had been made under license by Kia during the'90s, badged Kia Titan in the domestic market and K3500 for export; the third generation Titan was announced in 1989. The car received all-new bodywork, albeit still rather similar looking; the biggest difference is that the side windows received a pronounced dip at the leading edge, to allow the driver better visibility. The "Titan" logos were changed to all-caps; the new Titan received mudguards, with prominent "Titan" script. In 1992 the Titan underwent a minor facelift. In 1995 there was another facelift, although there were some mechanical changes this time: To be compliant with the stricter 1994 emissions standards, Mazda had to replace the higher output engines with Isuzu's 4HF1 and 4HG1 engines.

The Mazda logo was made larger. In October 1997 there was another modernization; the front was rounded off, with the windscreen made to look larger by placing a piece of black plastic beneath it. The four square lamps were replaced by more irregularly shaped single units which wrap around the corners; the Titan logo was changed from red to white characters. In May 1999, the 1998 emissions standards were met - except for the four-litre version, which did not become compliant until November. In export markets, the Titan was sold as Ford Trader. Buyers had a choice of rear ends that included ute bed, tray top, a box which included a hydraulic lifting tray; the choice of motor was either a four or six-cylinder diesel or a petrol engine with either four or six cylinders. The fourth generation Titan was launched on May 4, 2000. October 25, 2000: the 1-ton payload Titan Dash is launched, replacing the Bongo Brawny truck. November 21, 2000: CNG versions are added to the range. June 24, 2004: the Titan moves to the fifth generation, built by Isuzu.

The Titan is now a rebadged Isuzu Elf. The 1-ton Titan Dash carries on. December 3, 2004: Diesel versions adopt the Bongo's DPF-equipped 2.0 litre diesel turbo engine, in order to meet new short-term emission regulations. A driver's seat airbag is now standard equipment across the Titan Dash range. August 2007: Diesel versions now comply with the new long-term emission regulations for compact vans & trucks with a loading capacity of 1 ton or less, thanks to changes in the compression ratio and DPF capacity. August 2010: the Titan Dash is discontinued. In June 2004 the lighter Titan Dash became the only truck to be built in-house by Mazda, as the fifth generation Titan was an OEM-supplied Isuzu Elf; the fourth generation Titan was the last 1.5-4t truck developed by Mazda, saw an uncommonly short production run of only four years - the model life of a truck in the Japanese market being around 10 years. The Isuzu-built Titan featured three Diesel options, 3.1 L, 4.8 L & 4.8 L turbo, in addition to LPG and CNG engines.

4-wheel drive versions and crew cabs were now available. 10 January 2007: Remodeled, Isuzu Elf 6-generation vehicle OEM suppl

Old Al Hitmi

Old Al Hitmi is a mixed-use district in Qatar, located in the municipality of Ad Dawhah. The name is derived from Al-Hitmi family, a branch of the main Al Bin Ali tribe. Together with Al Rufaa, it forms Zone 17, which has a population of 6,028; the district was first settled around 1930 by a branch of the Al Bin Ali tribe. Most residential units here date back to the early-to-mid 20th century; as a result of many years of neglect, most of the older buildings have fell into state of disrepairs. After Qatar began profiting from oil extraction in the 1970s and 1980s, many modernistic high-rise buildings were constructed; the neighborhood suffers from cluttered roads and a shortage of sidewalks, pedestrian crossings and parking spaces. New Al Hitmi

South Carolina Highway 707

South Carolina Highway 707 is a highway in Georgetown and Horry counties, South Carolina in the Myrtle Beach metropolitan area that begins at U. S. Highway 17 Business in Murrells Inlet to US 17 across from Farrow Parkway near Socastee, South Carolina. SC 707 begins at the intersection of Sunnyside Avenue and US 17 Bus. in the Georgetown County census-designated place of Murrells Inlet. The state highway heads west along the two-lane Sunnyside Avenue through a residential neighborhood before curving to the north and intersecting US 17 / Ocean Highway in a commercialized area. Upon crossing US 17, SC 707 continues north into Horry County where construction is proceeding to widen the highway to two lanes in each direction; the highway heads through the community of Burgess where housing developments consisting of a mix of townhouses and single family houses line the road. Some commercial businesses including restaurants and banks front the road. SC 707 curves to the northeast and heads through a more wooded area where it passes trailer parks and St. James High School.

Continuing north, a small business district is built up around the intersection of SC 707 and Holmestown Road. After passing the entrances to additional housing developments, the highway reaches an interchange for the terminus of SC 31; the road continues to travel northeast through a mix of treed areas and housing complexes. Entering the CDP of Socastee, SC 707 reaches the ramps to and from southbound SC 544. SC 707 curves to the east. At the next intersection, Dick Pond Road, access is provided to and from the northbound lanes of SC 544. SC 707 continues east on the five-lane Socastee Boulevard past Socastee High School, numerous businesses, Socastee Elementary School, trailer parks. Nearing the end, the highway curves to the south at Macklen Road, enters the city limits of Myrtle Beach, shortly thereafter ends at an interchange with US 17 outside of the Market Common; the roadway continues as Farrow Parkway. SC 707 began as an unpaved cow path in an area, once rural. In the late 1970s, the route that SC 707 takes was signed as SC 544 from Murrells Inlet to the current intersection of Dick Pond Road in Socastee.

At that time, SC 707 began at Socastee, followed Socastee Boulevard and parts of the then-unbuilt US 17 bypass north of the Myrtle Beach International Airport before terminating at US 501 on the route of the current Robert Grissom Parkway. Much of the landscape traversed through the area was farmland until the 1980s when suburban growth began to occur outside of Myrtle Beach. Most of the growth around the area has continued into the 2000s, with development of golf courses and subdivisions being common in pockets along the length of the road; because the area has experienced rapid growth within recent years, because of increased traffic expected from the completion of SC 31 to SC 707, the South Carolina Department of Transportation has decided to widen the highway from near Enterprise Road south of SC 544 to US 17 near the Horry–Georgetown county line. Much of the 9.2-mile project is being funded through the one-percent Horry County sales tax increase by the'Riding on a Penny' program. The first public meeting on the road project was held in August 2008.

Right of way acquisitions were set to begin late in 2010 with construction starting in spring or summer of 2011. However, the SC 31 extension and the SC 707 widening were combined into one project in 2010, in March of that year changes were made to plans for the parkway. After many delays, a groundbreaking for both projects took place November 6, 2013 at the future interchange of SC 31/SC 544; the $105 million SC 707 project was expected to be finished in Spring 2017. Due to delays stemming from weather, both the SC 31 extension and SC 707 widening projects were expected to be completed in the summer of 2018; the intersection of SC 707 with US 17 at Farrow Parkway, known as the "back gate" of the former Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, has seen increased traffic with the construction of The Market Common, expansion of the Myrtle Beach International Airport and other development on and near the former base. One of the first priorities for Horry County's program'Riding on a Penny' was to build a grade-separated interchange connecting the two roads together.

The projected cost of the project was $49,500,000. The recommended configuration of the interchange, due to limiting right-of-way space and heavy traffic demands, is a single-point urban interchange. US 17 must go over a 35-foot-high, 1,200-foot-long bridge because the soil cannot support a stronger bridge without work that would have delayed the project; as of April 2010, the projected cost had more than doubled to $107 million. Interchange construction began June 6, 2011, the projected completion date was August 2014. Soil conditions and weather caused many delays. On October 23, 2014, a ribbon cutting took place for the completion of what became a $121.7 million project. The southbound lanes opened earlier that week, the northbound lanes were opening the next week. Pavement markings and other details would not be complete until November; the project included more turn lanes on US 17, frontage roads, the addition of Coventry Boulevard as an alternate route around the interchange. South Carolina Hwy Index - SC 707