Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, the Gothic cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the largest church in Italy and the fifth largest in the world, the first cathedral, the new basilica dedicated to St Thecla, was completed by 355. It seems to share, on a smaller scale, the plan of the contemporaneous church recently rediscovered beneath Tower Hill in London. An adjoining basilica was erected in 836, the old octagonal baptistery, the Battistero Paleocristiano, dates to 335 and still can be visited under the Milan Cathedral. When a fire damaged the cathedral and basilica in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo, in 1386, Archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction of the cathedral. Before actual work began, three buildings were demolished, the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of St. Stephen at the Spring. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry, enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress.
The construction program was strictly regulated under the Fabbrica del Duomo, Orsenigo initially planned to build the cathedral from brick in Lombard Gothic style. Visconti had ambitions to follow the newest trends in European architecture, in 1389, a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its Rayonnant Gothic, a French style not typical for Italy. He decided that the structure should be panelled with marble. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica del Duomo exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes. Ten years another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, Mignot declared all the work done up till as in pericolo di ruina, as it had been done sine scienzia. In the following years Mignots forecasts proved untrue, but they spurred Galeazzos engineers to improve their instruments, work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete.
John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, in 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dellAmadeo and this is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church. During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained unfinished, and some bays of the nave. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build an organ for the north side of the choir
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe.
The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established and episkyros were Greek ball games.
An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. The memory of the Risorgimento is central to both Italian politics and Italian historiography, for short period is one of the most contested. Italian nationalism was based among intellectuals and political activists, often operating from exile, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Roman province of Italy remained united under the Ostrogothic Kingdom and disputed between the Kingdom of the Lombards and the Byzantine Empire. Following conquest by the Frankish Empire, the title of King of Italy merged with the office of Holy Roman Emperor. However, the emperor was a foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state, as a result. This situation persisted through the Renaissance but began to deteriorate with the rise of modern nation-states in the modern period. Italy, including the Papal States, became the site of proxy wars between the powers, notably the Holy Roman Empire and France.
Harbingers of national unity appeared in the treaty of the Italic League, in 1454, leading Renaissance Italian writers Dante Alighieri, Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini expressed opposition to foreign domination. Petrarch stated that the ancient valour in Italian hearts is not yet dead in Italia Mia, Niccolò Machiavelli quoted four verses from Italia Mia in The Prince, which looked forward to a political leader who would unite Italy to free her from the barbarians. I am an Italian, he explained, the French Republic spread republican principles, and the institutions of republican governments promoted citizenship over the rule of the Bourbons and Habsburgs and other dynasties. The reaction against any outside control challenged Napoleons choice of rulers, as Napoleons reign began to fail, the rulers he had installed tried to keep their thrones further feeding nationalistic sentiments. After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments, vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese priest, had suggested a confederation of Italian states under leadership of the Pope in his 1842 book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians.
Pope Pius IX at first appeared interested but he turned reactionary, Giuseppe Mazzini and Carlo Cattaneo wanted the unification of Italy under a federal republic. That proved too extreme for most nationalists, the middle position was proposed by Cesare Balbo as a confederation of separate Italian states led by Piedmont. One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carbonari, a political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century. After 1815, Freemasonry in Italy was repressed and discredited due to its French connections, a void was left that the Carbonari filled with a movement that closely resembled Freemasonry but with a commitment to Italian nationalism and no association with Napoleon and his government. The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals, the Carbonari disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty and fraternity. They developed their own rituals, and were strongly anticlerical, the Carbonari movement spread across Italy
Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan
Located close to the mediaeval Ticino gate, it is one of the oldest churches in Milan. It is near the city park called Basilicas Park, which both the Basilica of San Lorenzo and the Basilica of SantEustorgio, as well as the Roman Colonne di San Lorenzo. The basilica was built between the fourth and early fifth centuries. The exact date is uncertain, as are the name of who commissioned it, according to some scholars San Lorenzo was erected to coincide with the “Basilica Portiana”, which was built by the “Augusto of the West” to please the Bishop of Milan Aussenzzio of the Arian faith. If this were to be true, San Lorenzo would have preceded the foundation of the four Ambrosian basilicas, a second proposition gives the date of the foundation of the church to a period, between 390 and 402, and attributes its commissioning to Theodosius I or Stilicho. Evidence for this comes from archaeological investigations carried out between 2002 and 2004. What is certain is that at the time of its construction the basilica was the largest, the dedication of the temple to St.
Laurence the martyr has been certified only from 590, when Milan was already controlled by the Lombards. By 1167, with the construction of the walls, the basilica was to be found within the city. The basilica of San Lorenzo remained throughout the Middle Ages a symbol of the legacy of the Roman Empire in Milan, painted references to the church from that era can be identified. On 5 June 1573 the dome of the basilica suddenly collapsed, construction of a new dome in a more modern style began immediately and were completed in 1619. Following this event, donations increased enabling more rapid progress in the reconstruction, in 1626, the Madonna del Latte was transferred to the high altar where it remains to this day. After the bombings of 1944-1945 the houses that had destroyed were not rebuilt enabling the park of the basilicas to be created. In 1934 in place of the houses a sort of a courtyard was formed. The building had a central plan approached by a four-sided portico, access to the portico was through a colonnade which in turn gave access to three portals leading to the main body of the building.
This consisted of a square hall inscribed as a building with four apses, around this space ran the ambulatory surmounted by a space used as a womens gallery. Towers rose at the four corners of the square building, the whole was topped by a dome of which we know little, this having been lost. The interior was lit by windows, and probably decorated with marble in the lower parts and with mosaics in the vaults. Of the two buildings, the smaller was in the east, opposite the entrance, a chapel in the shape of a Greek cross, on octagonal
Monkeys are haplorhine primates, a group generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species. There are two lineages of monkeys, New World Monkeys and catarrhines. Apes emerged within the catarrhines with the Old World monkeys as a sister group, traditionally apes are not considered monkeys, rendering this grouping paraphyletic. The equivalent monophyletic clade are the simians, many monkey species are tree-dwelling, although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are active during the day. Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, particularly Old World monkeys, lemurs and galagos are not monkeys, instead they are strepsirrhine primates. Like monkeys, tarsiers are haplorhine primates, they are not monkeys. There are two types of monkey, New World monkeys from South and Central America and Old World monkeys from Africa. Hominoid apes, which all lack tails, are catarrhines but are not considered monkeys and tarsiers emerged within haplorrhines some 60 million years ago.
New World monkeys and catarrhine monkeys emerged within the simians some 35 millions years ago, Old World monkeys and Hominoidea emerged within the catarrhine monkeys some 25 millions years ago. Extinct basal simians such as Aegyptopithecus or Parapithecus are considered monkeys by primatologists, according to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word monkey may originate in a German version of the Reynard the Fox fable, published circa 1580. In this version of the fable, a character named Moneke is the son of Martin the Ape, the terms monkey and ape are widely used interchangeably. Also, a few species have the word ape in their common name. Monkeys thus constituted a grade on the path to humans and were distinguished from apes, scientific classifications are now more often based on monophyletic groups, that is groups consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. The New World monkeys and the Old World monkeys are each monophyletic groups, thus the term monkey no longer refers to a recognized scientific taxon.
The smallest accepted taxon which contains all the monkeys is the infraorder Simiiformes, however this contains the hominoids, so that monkeys are, in terms of currently recognized taxa, non-hominoid simians. Colloquially and pop-culturally, the term is ambiguous and sometimes monkey includes non-human hominoids, in addition, frequent arguments are made for a monophyletic usage of the word monkey from the perspective that usage should reflect cladistics. A group of monkeys may be referred to as a tribe or a troop
English landscape garden
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. The work of Lancelot Capability Brown was particularly influential, by the end of the 18th century the English garden was being imitated by the French landscape garden, and as far away as St. Petersburg, Russia, in Pavlovsk, the gardens of the future Emperor Paul. It had a influence on the form of the public parks. These parks featured vast lawns and pieces of architecture and these gardens, modelled after the gardens of Versailles, were designed to impress visitors with their size and grandeur. William Kent was an architect and furniture designer who introduced Palladian style architecture to England and his gardens were designed to complement the Palladian architecture of the houses he built. He collaborated with Kent on several major gardens, providing the botanical expertise which allowed Kent to realize his architectural visions, Kent created one of the first true English landscape gardens at Chiswick House for Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington.
Between 1733 and 1736, he redesigned the garden, adding lawns sloping down to the edge of the river, for the first time the form of a garden was inspired not by architecture, but by an idealized version of nature. Rousham House in Oxfordshire is considered by some as the most accomplished, the patron was General Dormer, who commissioned Bridgeman to begin the garden in 1727, brought in Kent to recreate it in 1737. Bridgeman had built a series of gardens, including a grotto of Venus, on the slope along the river Cherwell, finally, he added cascades modelled on those of the garden of Aldobrandini and Pratolino in Italy, to add movement and drama. Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, was a more radical departure from the formal French garden. In the early 18th century, Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, had commissioned Charles Bridgeman to design a formal garden, bridgemans design included an octagonal lake and a Rotunda designed by Vanbrugh. In the 1730s, William Kent and James Gibbs were appointed to work with Bridgeman, Kent remade the lake in a more natural shape, and created a new kind of garden, which took visitors on a tour of picturesque landscapes.
The garden attracted visitors from all over Europe, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau and it became the inspiration for landscape gardens in Britain and on the Continent. Stourhead, in Wiltshire, created by banker Henry Hoare, was one of the first picturesque gardens, Hoare had travelled to Italy on the Grand Tour and had returned with a painting by Claude Lorrain. He sought to create an ideal landscape out of the English countryside and he created artificial lakes and used dams and canals to transform streams or springs into the illusion that a river flowed through the garden. He compared his own role as a designer to that of a poet or composer. Here I put a comma, when its necessary to cut the view, I put a parenthesis, there I end it with a period, the most important were, Petworth in 1752, Chatsworth in 1761, Bowood in 1763, Blenheim Palace in 1764. Humphry Repton was the last great English landscape designer of the eighteenth century, to help clients visualize his designs, Repton produced Red Books with explanatory text and watercolors with a system of overlays to show before and after views
Zone 1 of Milan
The Zone 1 of Milan is one of the 9 administrative zones of Milan, Italy. The zone includes the center of the city. It is the least populated of the zones and one of the smallest by area, a significant part of which is occupied by the Piazza del Duomo. Much of the remainder of the zone is dedicated to museums, the main landmark of this area is the Sforza Castle, which dominates the Simplon Park, the largest and most important city park in the centre of Milan. The park houses other renowned monuments and places of interest, such as the Branca Tower, the Palazzo dellArte, sculptures by Giorgio de Chirico, thanks to its central position, the Zona 1 houses some prominent educational institutions. In this area there are the buildings of two universities, University of Milan, founded in 1924, is located not so far from the Piazza del Duomo. At the end of the Second World War, the old Ospedale dei Poveri building, known as la Cà Granda, was assigned to the University. The building, one of the first Italian examples of civil architecture - commissioned in the 15th century by the Sforza family, the dukes of Milan - was seriously damaged by the bombings of 1943.
In 1958, after a series of reconstruction and renovation works, it became home to the University Rectors Office, the administrative offices. Brera Academy of Fine Arts, founded in 1776 by Maria Theresa of Austria, is located in the Brera district. These were housed in the Palazzo Brera, which was built in about 1615 to designs by Francesco Maria Richini and until the suppression of the Jesuits in 1773 had been a Jesuit college. Stations of Milan Metro in the Zona 1, Cairoli, Duomo, Porta Venezia, San Babila, Lanza, Crocetta, Missori, Porta Romana, Turati. The ZTL encompasses about 8.2 km2 and 77,000 residents, the area is accessible through 43 gates, monitored by video cameras. Area C started as an 18-month pilot program based on the implementation of the results of a referendum that took place on June 2011. Area C was definitively approved as a permanent program on 27 March 2013, media related to Zone 1 of Milan at Wikimedia Commons Zone 1 of Milan
Indro Alessandro Raffaello Schizogene Montanelli Knight Grand Cross OMRI was an Italian journalist and historian. He distinguished himself for his approach to writing history in books such as History of the Greeks. Indro Montanelli Bassi was born at Fucecchio, near Florence, throughout his career he retained an idiosyncratic and particularly undiplomatic style, even when this made him very unpopular among his peers and employers. It was during this experience, in 1977 that the Red Brigade terrorists shot him four times in the legs in the streets of Milan. Montanellis career began with a Law degree from the University of Florence in the early 1920s, where he wrote a thesis on the electoral reform of Benito Mussolinis fascism. Allegedly, in this thesis, he maintained that rather than a reform it amounted to the abolition of elections, which goes some way to illustrate the ambiguous nature of the Italian fascist censorship. According to him, it was an experience of the French cultural atmosphere in Grenoble, while he was taking language lessons.
But it was in 1934, in Paris that Montanelli began to write for the pages of the daily newspaper Paris Soir, as foreign correspondent in Norway. From there he began a collaboration with Webb Miller of the United Press in New York, while working for the United Press he learned to write for the lay public in an uncomplicated style that would distinguish him within the realm of Italian journalism. One lesson he took to heart from Miller was to write as if writing to a milkman from Ohio. This open and approachable style was something he never forgot and hed often recall that very quote during his long life, another indelible American moment occurred while teaching a course. Someone had asked him to explain the composition that Montanelli had just read, Montanelli told him hed repeat it since he clearly didnt understand. Hitting the table, the red-faced student cut him off and angrily told him, as a matter of fact and it was that he realized that he, who had come from the authoritarian regime of fascist Italy, had just had a confrontation with democracy.
During this time Montanelli conducted his first interview with a celebrity, during the interview, surrounded by American art depicting pastoral and frontier subjects, Ford began to reverentially talk about the Founding Fathers. Looking at the decor, Montanelli astutely asked him how he felt about having destroyed their world, Ford asked what he meant. Undaunted, Montanelli pressed on that the automobile and Fords revolutionary assembly line system had transformed the country. Ford looked shocked, and Montanelli realized that, like all geniuses, in spite of these initial passions, it was this very experience that led to Montanellis biggest change of mind with regards to Italian fascism. With few exceptions, such as the defense of Gondar, the conquest had been uneven and uneventful
San Vincenzo in Prato
The basilica of San Vincenzo in Prato is a church in Milan, northern Italy. It is the one in city which has entirely maintained its original Palaeo-Christian appearance. The first church was founded by the Lombard king Desiderius in 770, it was entitled to St. Vincent, when the latters relics were found in an urn in the crypt, together with those of St. Quirinus and St. Nicomedes and St. Abundius. The name in Prato derives from its location in the area owned by bishop Odelpertus. The convent was suppressed in 1520 and in 1598 the church was restored and turned into a parish, the basilica measures c.40 x 20 m, and is in brickwork. The interior is on a nave and two aisles with wooden spans ceiling, the columns are from different ages. The elevated choir ends with a large apse, under the presbytery is the crypt, which has a nave and two aisles divided by ten small columns with sculpted capitals. San Vincenzo lies on the founding of a Roman temple or oratory built along the way to Vigevano probably dedicated to Juppiter, page on medieval art in Italy Milano - Battistero S.
Vincenzo in Prato A short documentary about the Basilica from chiesadimilano. it site
An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. Unlike cages, aviaries allow birds a larger living space where they can fly, aviaries often contain plants and shrubbery to simulate a natural environment. Large aviaries are often found in the setting of a zoological garden, spacious walk-in aviaries exist in bird parks such as Jurong BirdPark in Singapore. Pittsburgh is home to the USAs National Aviary, perhaps the most prominent example in North America of an aviary not set inside a zoo, the Tracy Aviary is an example of a bird park within a public urban park, Liberty Park in Salt Lake City, Utah. Some public aquaria, such as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, Oregon, the Raven Cage in 1829, is regarded as one of the oldest structures in the London Zoo. The first large aviary inside a garden was established in 1880 in the setting of the [[Diergaarde Blijdorp|Rotterdam Zoo by white girl isabella fields. In 1902, a cage was completed in the setting of the National Zoological Park of the Smithsonian Institution.
A new Great Flying Cage was built in 1964, the Saint Louis Zoo is home to the 1904 Worlds Fair Flight Cage. It is one of two permanent structures built for the Worlds Fair which still remain. In 1904, it was the largest bird cage ever built and it remains one of the worlds largest free-flight aviaries. The 69 m long,26 m wide, and 15 m high cage was built by the Smithsonian Institution specifically for the St. Louis Worlds Fair, local pride in the giant cage motivated St. Louis to finally establish a zoo in 1910. In 1937, the San Diego Zoos aviary designed by architect Louis John Gill opened, with the Antwerp cage system, birds are only separate from public with a light system used indoor the Bird Building at Antwerp Zoo. At the Frankfurt Zoo, the house was built in 1969. Its Bird Halls presented birds for the first time in large glassed miniature habitats, in diving exhibits and kingfishers could be seen hunting under water, and in the free-flight hall visitors still walk amongst tropical birds in dense vegetation.
The Snowdon Aviary in London Zoo was designed by Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, Cedric Price and Frank Newby, the Bronx Zoos World of Birds, a two-story bird house completed in 1972, is a huge, indoor free-flight exhibit. The one-way flow pattern in the moves the visitors through twenty-five birds habitats. Each setting recreates with impressive fidelity the microculture of the birds that fly merrily about within their diorama world, five of the aviaries are completely open, in two of the largest the uncaged public walks through the habitat with birds freely overhead. The Henry Doorly Zoos Simmons Aviary opened in 1983 and is one of the worlds largest free-flight aviaries, about 500 birds from all parts of the world occupy the area of the aviary