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Gibberish called jibber-jabber or gobbledygook, is speech, nonsense. It may include speech sounds that are not actual words, or language games and specialized jargon that seems nonsensical to outsiders."Gibberish" is used as an imprecation to denigrate or tar ideas or opinions the user disagrees with or finds irksome, a rough equivalent of "nonsense", "folderol", or "claptrap". The implication is that the criticized expression or proposition lacks substance or congruence, as opposed to being a differing view; the related word jibber-jabber refers to rapid talk, difficult to understand. The etymology of gibberish is uncertain; the term was first seen in English in the early 16th century. It is thought to be an onomatopoeia imitative of speech, similar to the words jabber and gibber, it may originate from the word jib, the Angloromani variant of the Romani language word meaning "language" or "tongue". To non-speakers, the Anglo-Romany dialect could sound like English mixed with nonsense words, if those seemingly-nonsensical words are referred to as jib the term gibberish could be derived as a descriptor for nonsensical speech.

Another theory is that gibberish came from the name of a famous 8th century Persian alchemist, Jābir ibn Hayyān, whose name was Latinized as Geber. Thus, gibberish was a reference to the incomprehensible technical jargon and allegorical coded language used by Jabir and other alchemists. A discredited alternative theory asserts that it is derived from the Irish word gob or gab or from the Irish phrase Geab ar ais; the latter Irish etymology was suggested by Daniel Cassidy, whose work has been criticised by linguists and scholars. The terms geab and geabaire are Irish words, but the phrase geab ar ais does not exist, the word gibberish exists as a loan-word in Irish as gibiris; the term gobbledygook was coined by Maury Maverick, a former congressman from Texas and former mayor of San Antonio. When Maverick was chairman of the Smaller War Plants Corporation during World War II, he sent a memorandum that said: "Be short and use plain English.... Stay off gobbledygook language." Maverick defined gobbledygook as "talk or writing, long, vague, involved with Latinized words."

The allusion was to a turkey, "always gobbledygobbling and strutting with ridiculous pomposity." The term "gobbledygook" has a long history of usage in politics. Nixon's Oval Office tape from June 14, 1971, showed H. R. Haldeman describing a situation to Nixon as "... a bunch of gobbledygook. But out of the gobbledygook comes a clear thing: You can't trust the government. President Ronald Reagan explained tax law revisions in an address to the nation with the word, May 28, 1985, saying that "most didn’t improve the system. In 2017, US Supreme Court justice John Roberts dismissed quantitative sociological reasoning as "gobbledygook" in arguing against any numerical test for gerrymandering. Michael Shanks, former chairman to the National Consumer Council of Great Britain, characterizes professional gobbledygook as sloppy jargon intended to confuse nonspecialists: "'Gobbledygook' may indicate a failure to think a contempt for one's clients, or more a mixture of both. A system that can't or won't communicate is not a safe basis for a democracy."

Using gibberish whilst acting can be used as an exercise in performance art education. Another usage of gibberish is as part of Osho's "Gibberish meditation", derived from an old Sufi practice; the terms officialese or bureaucratese refer to language used by authorities. Legalese is a related concept, referring to language used by lawyers and others involved with the law; the language used in these fields may contain complex sentences and specialized jargon or buzzwords, making it difficult for those outside the field to understand. Speakers or writers of officialese or legalese may recognize that it is confusing or meaningless to outsiders, but view its use as appropriate within their organization or group. Bafflegab is a synonym, a slang term referring to confusing or a unintelligible use of jargon. A statistical gibberish generator based on Markov chains The Online Dictionary of Language Terminology


Dryfesdale is a civil parish of the council area of Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. It is part of the county of Dumfriesshire; the parish church of Dryfesdale, located in the centre of Lockerbie, was dedicated to St Cuthbert. In 1116 it belonged to the See of Galloway; the civil parish of Dryfesdale includes the town of Lockerbie which has existed since at least the days of Viking influence in this part of Scotland in the period around AD 900. The name means Lockard's Farm in Old Norse; the presence of the remains of a Roman camp a mile to the west of the town suggests its origins may be earlier. Lockerbie first entered recorded history, as Lokardebi, in 1306. Strong old towers were at Netherplace, Old Walls, Kirkton Mains and Daltonhook. Remains of eight camps, some square or Roman, others circular or Caledonian, occur in different places, chiefly on hilltops. Two of them and Caledonian, confront each other on hills to the north east of Bengall village. Dryfesdale Cemetery has the main UK memorial to the victims of the bombing Pan Am Flight 103, which occurred on 21 December 1988, over the town of Lockerbie.

There is a semicircular stone wall in the garden of remembrance with the names and nationalities of all the victims along with individual funeral stones and memorials. Inside the chapel there is a book of remembrance. List of civil parishes in Scotland List of places in Dumfries and Galloway Civil Parish Map of Dumfriesshire, showing the Civil Parish of Dryfesdale in Dumfriesshire within the District Council Region of Dumfries and Galloway Popular Rymes. Pub. 1842 by William and Robert Chambers. Pp.10-11

Australian Boardriders Battle

Australian Boardriders Battle is an event held by Surfing Australia. The event is held every year at Cronulla Beach in Australia. Fox Sports airs the Australian Boardriders Battle live on Australia Day. Snapper Rocks Surfriders 3780 Elouera Boardriders 3250 Merewether Surfboard Club 3020 Queenscliff Boardriders 2870 Yallingup Boardriders 2860 North Narrabeen Boardriders 2660 Seaford Boardriders 2650 Kirra Surfriders 2550 Werri Boardriders 2490 Avoca Boardriders 2470 Cronulla Sharks Boardriders 2450 Torquay Boardriders 2350 13th Beach Boardriders 2150 D-Bah Boardriders 2150 Margaret River Boardriders 2150 South Arm Boardriders 2050 1. Snapper Rocks Boardriders, 5525 2. Coffs Harbour Boardriders, 4800 3. Culburra Boardriders, 4262 4. North Narrabeen, 4250 5. Avoca Boardriders, 4174 6. Merewether Surfboard Club, 4062 7. Point Lookout Boardriders, 4050 8. Bondi Boardriders, 3862 9. Byron Bay Boardriders, 3851 10. Le Ba Boardriders, 3850 11. Scarborough Boardriders, 3762 12. Margaret River Boardriders, 3750 13.

Kirra Surfriders, 3674 14. South Coast Boardriders, 3550 15. Cronulla Sharks Boardriders, 3362 16. Philip Island Boardriders, 3162 17. Peninsula Surfriders, 3063 18. Burleigh Boardriders, 3062 19. Coolum Boardriders, 2750 20. South Arm Boardriders, 2550 Surfing in Australia Official website

Hannah Hobley

Hannah Hobley is an English actress and classical singer. She is best known for playing Chantelle "Telle" Garvey in ITV's Benidorm, she appeared in Cranford on BBC One, PBS in the United States. Hannah was born in Burnley, lived in Colne, Lancashire during her early life, attending Ss John Fisher and Thomas More RC High School, she was Soprano 1 in the Halle Youth Choir for two years, including performing at 2005 BBC Proms at the Royal Albert Hall. Television Cranford as Bertha Benidorm as Chantelle GarveyStage Sleeping Beauty as Fairy Liquid at Oswaldtwistle Civic Theatre, Prince of Wales Centre – Cannock, Colne Municipal Hall ””Dick Whittington”” as Alice Fitzwarren at Gracie Fields Theatre, Rochdale. Hannah Hobley on IMDb Facebook Fan Page

Thomas A. Parker House

The Thomas A. Parker House was built as a private residence and is located at 975 East Jefferson Avenue in Detroit, Michigan; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. It is the law offices of Liddle & Dubin, P. C. Thomas Augustus Parker was born in New York and came to Detroit with his brother in 1845; the two established a successful wholesale grocery business. After his retirement, he invested most of his grocery profits in real estate, was said to be worth $750,000 in 1895. Parker bought the land on which this house sits in 1867 and, in 1868, commissioned architect Gordon W. Lloyd to build what is now a rare example of a Gothic Revival house in Detroit. Parker lived in the house until his death in 1901. In the 1920s, the house was leased to the Advertisers Bureau by Parker's daughter, in 1928 it was sold; the building was used as an artist studio, offices and an apartment building. In 1957 it was sold again, used as offices, a reading room, a hospital record room and four apartments.

It was turned into the law offices of Macuga, Liddle & Dubin, P. C; the house is built with sandstone from Amherst used as trim. The front façade is asymmetric, with three bays; the central bay holds an arched double-door entranceway on the first floor, above, double French doors leading to a balcony. The side bays have transverse gables, with the east bay containing a first-floor bay window. Liddle & Dubin, P. C

Craig Dunain Hospital

Craig Dunain Hospital was a mental health facility near Inverness in Scotland. The former hospital is a Category B listed building; the hospital, designed by James Matthews, opened as the Inverness District Asylum in May 1864. Additional male and female hospital wards were completed in 1898, a large new recreation hall was added in 1927 and a new chapel, designed by William Mitchell, was completed in 1963. After the introduction of Care in the Community in the early 1980s, the hospital went into a period of decline and closed in 2000. Although the main building was badly damaged in an arson attack in 2007, remedial work was carried out, including replacement of one of the towers in spring 2019, to allow the building to be converted for residential use as "Great Glen Hall". A modern facility, known as New Craigs Psychiatric Hospital, was built to the north of the old hospital