Brathering is a simple and traditional German dish of fried marinated herring. It is typical for the cuisine in northern Germany either for lunch or as a snack at fast food stands or take-out restaurants; the green herrings with the heads and guts removed are either breaded or turned in flour fried, pickled in a marinade of white vinegar and boiled water, salt, spices like pepper, bay leaves, mustard seeds, a little sugar. The thin bones of the green herring are dissolved in the marinade, so that they hardly interfere with eating. If refrigerated, fried herrings may be preserved for up to two weeks. Brathering is available as a commercial product in cans. Brathering itself is served well pervaded and cold, together with warm fried potatoes or cold potato salad. Sometimes, Brathering is offered as part of fish sandwiches. Martin Luther once stated that Brathering served with cooked green peas and mustard was one of his favorite dishes; the dish Brathering was mentioned in the diary novel Lieber Niels by author Matthias Zschokke and criticised in it as "a weird recipe", for being "old fashioned" and tasting like mud.
Koios, Eloi Rylan: Brathering. List of Raw Fish Dishes and Seafood. TRACT. ISBN 978-613-8-59305-8. Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Multilingual Dictionary of Fish and Fish Products Page 147, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-140-5-15760-5
A herring buss was a type of seagoing fishing vessel used by Dutch and Flemish herring fishermen in the 15th through early 19th centuries. The buss ship type has a long history, it was known around the time of the Crusades in the Mediterranean as a cargo vessel, we see it around 1000 AD as a more robust development of the Viking longship in Scandinavia, known as a bǘza. The Dutch Buis was developed from this Scandinavian ship type; the Buis was first adapted for use as a fishing vessel in the Netherlands, after the invention of gibbing made it possible to preserve herring at sea. This made longer voyages feasible, hence enabled Dutch fishermen to follow the herring shoals far from the coasts; the first herring buss was built in Hoorn around 1415. The last one was built in Vlaardingen in 1841; the wooden ship was displaced between 60 and 100 tons. The ratio of length to beam was between 2.5:1 and 4.5:1, which made for a nimble ship, though still sufficiently stable to be seaworthy. It was a round-bilged keel ship with a round bow and stern, the latter high, with a gallery.
The broad deck provided space to process the catch on board. The ship had three masts; the mainmast and foremast could be lowered during fishing. It was square rigged on the main mast, with a gaff rig on the mizzen, it had up to three headsails. The main course and topsail could be reefed; the ships sailed in large fleets of 400 to 500 ships to the fishing grounds at the Dogger Bank and the Shetland isles. They were escorted by naval vessels, because the English looked askance at what they considered "poaching" in waters they claimed, were prone to arrest unescorted Dutch fishing vessels. In wartime the risk of fishing vessels being taken by privateers was large; the fleet would stay at sea for weeks at a time. The catch would sometimes be brought home by special ships; the busses used long drift nets to catch the herring. Such nets hang like curtains across the travel paths of the herring schools; the fish would catch with their gills behind the meshes of the net. The nets would be taken aboard at night and the crews of eighteen to thirty men would start the gibbing and barrelling immediately.
There would be three to four voyages per season. In the off-season the busses were used as normal cargo vessels, for instance to transport grain from the Baltic, or salt from Portugal; this multi-mode business model made the Great Fishery profitable, as there was far less downtime than with exclusive use as fishing vessel. A contemporary English account illustrates the efficiency and profitability of the business: The same author in 1614 estimated the cost of fitting out a Dutch herring buss for three voyages in Summer at £435. One hundred last of herring would bring £1000 in his opinion, for a clear profit of £565. In his pamphlet he states that at the end of May a fleet of a thousand busses would sail, with 20,000 sailors aboard, they would wait till after 14 June before starting to follow the shoals. He estimates the value of the catch at more than a million pounds sterling; this illustrates. Dogger Hansen, C. B. and Knuth, P. Lexikon der Segelschiffstypen. Gräfelfing, ISBN 3-924896-10-0 "Büse", in: Dudszua, A. and Köpcke, A. Das große Buch der Schiffstypen.
Schiffe, Boote, Flöße unter Riemen und Segel, Motorschiffe, Augsburg Unger, R. W. Dutch Shipbuilding Before 1800, Amsterdam Michell, A. R. "The European Fisheries in Early Modern History", in: Rich, E. E. and Wilson, C. H. Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. 5. The Economic Organization of Early Modern Europe, Cambridge Vries, J. de, Woude, A. van der, The First Modern Economy. Success and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500-1815, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-57825-7 Fishing vessels B. Poulsen, Sources for Dutch herring fishery in the North Sea
The blueback herring or blueback shad is an anadromous species of herring from the east coast of North America, with a range from Nova Scotia to Florida. Blueback herring form schools and are believed to migrate offshore to overwinter near the bottom; these fish are silvery in color, have a series of scutes along their bellies, are characterized by deep bluish-green backs. They reach a maximum size of 40 centimetres and are believed to live up to 8 years; the most distinguishing characteristic of this species is the black to dusky in color of its peritoneum. It is one of the "typical" North American shads, they are confused with alewifes because blueback shad and alewives are difficult to distinguish from one another, together these two species are regarded collectively as "river herring". Alewives have larger eyes, greater body depth, pearly to white peritoneal linings; this fish has, in the past, been used as a baitfish for the lobster fishing industry. It is used for human consumption smoked.
It is caught using large dip nets to scoop the fish out of shallow, constricted areas on its migratory streams and rivers. The native range of this fish is found along the Atlantic Coast from Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, to the St. Johns River, Florida. During spawning season, it migrates into coastal rivers. Blueback shad were first collected in Lake Ontario in 1995, have been collected from the Tennessee River in Georgia and Tennessee. In North Carolina, blueback shad were introduced into the Savannah and Yadkin River basins, into non-native areas of the Cape Fear and Roanoke River basins, it has been introduced to an unspecified location in the Chesapeake Bay basin in Pennsylvania. They have been collected in Lake Jocassee, Lake Keowee, Picalet River, Broad River, Lake Murray in South Carolina. Stock obtained from the Cooper River, South Carolina, was released in Texas by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department in Lake Theo, Briscoe County, at an unidentified research site in North Texas in 1982.
Bluebacks have been collected from Lake Champlain and have been stocked in several inland reservoirs in Virginia, including Smith Mountain Lake, Occoquan Reservoir, Kerr Reservoir, Lakes Anna and Chesdin. It is established as a species in Texas, New York, North Carolina and Virginia; this fish is anadromous, living in marine systems and spawning in deep, swift freshwater rivers with hard substrates. It migrates to spawning grounds in the spring. In Connecticut, blueback shad spawn in 14 to 17 °C water later in the spring than the alewife. During spawning, many eggs are deposited over the stream bottom, where they stick to gravel, logs, or other objects. Juveniles spend three to seven months in fresh water migrate to the ocean; the blueback shad is a planktivorous forage species. Blueback herring spawn from late March depending on latitude. Females mature by age five and produce between 60,000 and 103,000 eggs. Males mature earlier at between 3 and 4 years of age and at a smaller size than the females.
For both species, adults migrate downstream after spawning and little is known about their life history while in the marine environment. Blueback populations have exhibited drastic declines throughout much of their range. There are several threats that have most contributed to their decline; these threats include: loss of habitat due to decreased access to spawning areas from the construction of dams and other impediments to migration. In response to the declining trend for river herring, the states of Alabama, Rhode Island, Connecticut and North Carolina have instituted moratoriums on taking and possession; the blueback herring is a U. S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. Species of Concern are those species about which the U. S. Government's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, has some concerns regarding status and threats, but for which insufficient information is available to indicate a need to list the species under the U.
S. Endangered Species Act. Faria, R.. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 298–304. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.008 http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=488 Froese and Pauly, eds.. "Alosa aestivalis" in FishBase. April 2006 version. Good, S. - Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pittsford, VT. Guest, W. C. 1983. Blueback herring evaluation. Federal Aid Project F-31-R-9. Hauser, M. 1998. Champlain Canal fish barrierTh study. Aquatic Nuisance Species Digest 2:26–27. Howells, R. G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp. Hurst, T. P. K. A. McKown, D. O. Conover. 2004. Interannual and long-term variation in the nearshore fish community of the mesohaline Hudson River Estuary. Estuaries, 27:659-669. Jenkins, R. E. and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. MacNeill, D. - New York Sea Grant, State University of New York at Brockport, Brockport, NY.
Gwamegi is a Korean half-dried Pacific herring or Pacific saury made during winter. It is eaten in the region of North Gyeongsang Province in places such as Pohang and Yeongdeok, where a large amount of the fish are harvested. Guryongpo Harbor in Pohang is the most famous. Fresh herring or saury is frozen at -10 degrees Celsius and is placed outdoors in December to repeat freezing at night and defreezing in the day; the process continues until the water content of the fish drops to 40%. There are records of gwamegi in the Joseon era document Ohjuyeonmunjangjeonsango which mentions: "herring is smoked in order to prevent rotting". In another document Gyuhapcheongseo, it is written: "herring with clear eyes are chosen to be dried, which give an unusual taste"; the city of Pohang holds an annual Gwamegi Festival to promote the local specialty food. It started in 1997 to boost local economies, it is held in November every year and hosts various programs, such as a specialty product contest, free tasting events, playing traditional Korean music.
Some of the major events include a surprise auction of gwamegi, scraping off the skin of gwamegi, fitting the weight of a gwamegi. Pohang's Young-Il Bay, full of seaweed, was a place where herring herds scattered in the winter; the herring was a major food item when it was thrown into a net, but the problem was how to keep it so that it could be eaten at all times. However, someone hung the herring in a kitchen window, which had a smoking effect because the smoke was coming from the kitchen. Since people have all hung herring in the kitchen window and started to spend the winter; the herring was frozen in the cold winter winds melted and dried during the cooking cycle, leaving half dry. The tooth tasted great; the Young-Il Bay people who learned how to freeze and dry the fish further developed by doing this by placing herring on the beach of Guryongpo, where the sun was blazing during the day and the cool sea breeze was hanging at night. Since the 1960s, herring has drastically decreased in the Younh-Il Bay, making gwamegi with mackerel pike caught in large quantities, it tasted as good as herring.
Today, GwamegI is still made from mackerel pike. "Gwamegi". Invil: Information Network Village. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Korea Tourism Organization. 바람이 고이 빚어낸 생선회! 포항 구룡포 과메기. The Chosun Ilbo. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Jo Seong-ha. "과메기 익는 마을" 포항시 구룡포. Dong-a Ilbo. Retrieved 2008-08-17. Jang In-seok. 제철 만난 구룡포 과메기. Women Dong-a. Festivals in Pohang
Opisthonema, the thread herrings, is a genus of herring found in tropical waters of the Western Hemisphere. They get their name from a filamentous nature of the last ray of the dorsal fin. There are five members of this genus. Opisthonema berlangai Berry & Barrett, 1963 Opisthonema bulleri Opisthonema libertate Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett, 1963 Opisthonema oglinum Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. Species of Opisthonema in FishBase. June 2011 version
Rollmops are pickled herring fillets, rolled into a cylindrical shape around a savoury filling. The filling consists of sliced pickled gherkin, or green olive with pimento. Rollmops are skewered with a cocktail skewer. Rollmops are bought ready-to-eat, in jars or tubs; the brine additionally consists of water, white vinegar, salt. Rollmops can be eaten cold, on bread. After the jar has been opened, they will keep for two to three weeks if kept cool or refrigerated. Rollmops are sometimes served with Labskaus; the name "rollmops" is German in origin, derived from Mops. The form Rollmops is singular, the plural is Rollmöpse. In English, the term "rollmops" is treated as the plural of the singular "rollmop"; the form "rollmop herrings" is attested. Pickled herrings have been a staple in Northern Europe since Medieval times, being a way to store and transport fish necessary in meatless periods like Lent; the herrings would be prepared packed in barrels for storage or transportation. Rollmops grew popular throughout Germany during the Biedermeier period of the early 19th century and were known as a particular specialty of Berlin, like the similar pickled herring dish Bismarckhering.
A crucial factor in their popularity was the development of the long-range railway network, which allowed the transport of herring from the North and Baltic seas to the interior. The fish was transported in wooden barrels. In pubs in Old Berlin, it was common to have high-rising glass display cases known as Hungerturm on the bar to present ready-to-eat dishes like lard bread, salt eggs, mettwurst, of course rollmops. Nowadays rollmops are served as part of the German Katerfrühstück, believed to restore some electrolytes. Rollmops are eaten in South America, as well as in areas of the United States and Canada. Battle of the Herrings – A battle during the Hundred Years' War Brathering
Dussumieriidae is a family of clupeiform fishes popularly called the "round herrings". It is now recognized by Fishbase as a family in its own right, it contains two extant genera, one extinct genus from the Ypresian of Monte Bolca. Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Dussumieriidae" in FishBase. August 2012 version