Smith Thompson was a United States Secretary of the Navy from 1819 to 1823, a United States Supreme Court Associate Justice from 1823 until his death in 1843. Born in Amenia, New York, Thompson graduated from Princeton University in 1788, taught for a short period thereafter studied law under James Kent and subsequently set up a law practice, he practiced in Troy, New York from 1792 to 1793, in Poughkeepsie, New York from 1793 to 1802. Smith Thompson was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1800, attended the New York Constitutional Convention of 1801, he was appointed to the New York State Supreme Court in 1802, serving as Associate Justice from 1802 to 1814, Chief Justice from 1814 to 1818. His wife Susanna was a member of the Livingston family, he was appointed the 6th Secretary of the Navy by U. S. President James Monroe in 1819, in 1823–1824, he campaigned for the Democratic-Republican Party presidential nomination for the 1824 U. S. presidential election from which he would withdraw when outcompeted by other candidates.
Thompson only reluctantly accepted his appointment to the United States Supreme Court. Thompson received a recess appointment from President James Monroe on September 1, 1823, to a seat vacated by Henry Brockholst Livingston. Formally nominated on December 5, 1823, Thompson was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 1823, received his commission the same day, he did not give up his political ambitions there, took the — now considered unusual, but quite common — step of running for political office from the bench. Thereafter he exited political life, on the court was a staunch opponent of Chief Justice John Marshall. In May 1816, Smith Thompson was a founding vice president of the American Bible Society and provided a copy to every officer and enlisted man in the Navy while he was Secretary of the Navy. In 1919, the USS Smith Thompson was named in honor of him on the occasion of the 100th Anniversary of Smith Thompson becoming the Secretary of the Navy. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States List of U.
S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office United States Supreme Court cases during the Marshall Court United States Supreme Court cases during the Taney Court Abraham, Henry J.. Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3. Cushman, Clare; the Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995.. ISBN 1-56802-126-7. Flanders, Henry; the Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States Supreme Court. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. 1874 at Google Books. Frank, John P.. Friedman, Leon; the Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4. Hall, Kermit L. ed.. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505835-6. Martin, Fenton S.. The U. S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0-87187-554-3. Urofsky, Melvin I.. The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary.
New York: Garland Publishing. P. 590. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1. White, G. Edward; the Marshall Court & Cultural Change, 1815–35. Published in an abridged edition, 1991. Smith Thompson at Find a Grave Smith Thompson at the Naval Historical Center
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Joseph Story was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1812 to 1845, during the Marshall Court and early-Taney Court eras. He is most remembered for his opinions in Martin v. Hunter's Lessee and The Amistad case, for his magisterial Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, first published in 1833. Dominating the field in the 19th century, this work is a cornerstone of early American jurisprudence, it is the second comprehensive treatise on the provisions of the U. S. Constitution and remains a critical source of historical information about the forming of the American republic and the early struggles to define its law. Story opposed Jacksonian democracy, saying it was "oppression" of property rights by republican governments when popular majorities began to restrict and erode the property rights of the minority of rich men. R. Kent Newmyer presents Story as a "Statesman of the Old Republic" who tried to be above democratic politics and to shape the law in accordance with the republicanism of Alexander Hamilton and John Marshall and the New England Whigs of the 1820s and 1830s, including Daniel Webster.
Historians agree that Justice Joseph Story reshaped American law—as much or more than Marshall or anyone else—in a conservative direction that protected property rights. He was uniquely honored in the historical Steven Spielberg film Amistad when he was portrayed by retired Associate Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court Harry Blackmun. Justice Blackmun portrays Justice Story reading the Supreme Court's decision in the case in which the film was based, for which Justice Story is most remembered, United States v; the Amistad Africans, et al. This is the only time in known film history that an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court has portrayed another Associate Justice. Story was born at Massachusetts, his father was Dr. Elisha Story, a member of the Sons of Liberty who took part in the Boston Tea Party in 1773. Dr. Story moved from Boston to Marblehead during the American Revolutionary War, his first wife, Ruth died and Story remarried in November 1778, to Mehitable Pedrick, the daughter of a wealthy shipping merchant who lost his fortune during the war.
Joseph was the first-born of eleven children of the second marriage. As a boy, Joseph studied at the Marblehead Academy until the fall of 1794, where he was taught by schoolmaster William Harris president of Columbia University. At Marblehead he chastised a fellow schoolmate and Harris responded by beating him in front of the school. Story was accepted at Harvard University in January 1795, he graduated from Harvard in 1798, second in his class behind William Ellery Channing. He read law in Marblehead under Samuel Sewall a congressman and chief justice of Massachusetts, he read law under Samuel Putnam in Salem. He was admitted to the bar at Salem, Massachusetts in 1801; as the only lawyer in Essex County aligned with the Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans, he was hired as counsel to the powerful Republican shipping firm of George Crowninshield & Sons. Story was writing poetry and, in 1804, published "The Power of Solitude", one of the first long poems by an American. In 1805 he was elected to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, serving until 1808, when he succeeded a Crowninshield son to represent Essex County in the Congress, serving from December 1808 to March 1809.
There he led the effort to end the'Jefferson' embargo of maritime commerce. He re-entered private practice in Salem. Story's young wife, Mary F. L. Oliver, died in June 1805, shortly after their marriage and two months after the death of his beloved father. In August 1808, he married the daughter of Judge William Wetmore of Boston, they had seven children but only two and William Wetmore Story, would survive to adulthood. Their son became a noted poet and sculptor—his bust of his father was mounted in the Harvard Law School Library—who would publish The Life and Letters of Joseph Story. Volume I and Volume II Story was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1810, a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1814, he would serve as that society's vice-president from 1831 to 1845. In November 15, 1811, at the age of 32 years, 58 days, Story became—and, as of 2018 remains—the youngest person nominated to serve on the U. S. Supreme Court, he was chosen by President James Madison to succeed William Cushing.
Madison's previous nominee for the seat, John Quincy Adams, was confirmed by the United States Senate, but had declined to serve. The Senate confirmed Story's nomination and Madison signed his commission on November 18, 1811. Story swore his oath and assumed office on February 3, 1812. Story joined the Court at a critical time, as it was just beginning to assert its Constitutional authority over state courts and state legislation. Chief Justice John Marshall led this effort, but Story had a large share in the remarkable decisions and opinions issued from 1812 until 1832. From Story's early days on the Court he became one of Justice Marshall's strongest allies. Of the opinions issued at this time, Story wrote more than any justice but Marshall. Story's early jurisprudence mimicked that of the chief justice; the most significant of his early opinions were those o
William Wirt (Attorney General)
William Wirt was an American author and statesman, credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence. He was the longest serving Attorney General in U. S. history. He was the Anti-Masonic nominee for president in the 1832 election. Wirt grew up in Maryland but pursued a legal career in Virginia, passing the Virginia bar in 1792. After holding various positions, he served as the prosecutor in Aaron Burr's trial for treason, he won election to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1808 and was appointed as a United States Attorney in 1816. The following year, President James Monroe appointed him to the position of United States Attorney General. Wirt remained in that office for the next twelve years, serving under John Quincy Adams, he continued his law career after leaving office, representing the Cherokee in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. Though Wirt was himself a former Freemason, the Anti-Masonic Party nominated him for president in 1832. Wirt did not campaign for office and refused to publicly speak against Masonry.
Nonetheless, the ticket of Wirt and Amos Ellmaker carried the state of Vermont, becoming the first third party presidential ticket to win a state. After the election, Wirt continued to practice law until his death in 1834. Wirt County, West Virginia, is named in Wirt's honor. William Wirt was born in Bladensburg, Maryland to a German mother, a Swiss German father, Jacob Wirt. Both parents died before he was eight years old and Jasper Wirt, his uncle, became his guardian. Between his seventh and his eleventh year Wirt was sent to several classical schools and to one kept by the Rev. James Hunt in Montgomery County, where he received over the course of 4 years the chief part of his education. For two years he boarded with Hunt, in whose library he spent much of his time, reading with a keen and indiscriminate appetite. In his fifteenth year the school was disbanded, his inheritance nearly exhausted. Ninian Edwards had been Wirt's schoolmate, Edwards's father, Benjamin Edwards, thought Wirt had more than ordinary natural ability and invited him to reside in his family as tutor to Ninian and two nephews, offering him the use of his library for his own studies.
Wirt accepted the offer and stayed twenty months, pursuing his own classical and historical studies and preparing for the bar. Wirt was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1792, he began practice at Culpeper Courthouse. Wirt had the advantages of a vigorous constitution and a good carriage, but the drawbacks of meager legal equipment, constitutional shyness, brusque and indistinct speech. In 1795, he married Mildred, daughter of Dr. George Gilmer, moved to Pen Park, where Gilmer lived, near Charlottesville. There he made the acquaintance of many persons of eminence, including Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe. For a time, Wirt took advantage of the hospitality of the country gentlemen and the convivial habits of the members of the bar so that he was regarded by other attorneys as a bon vivant, a fascinating and lively, rather than as an ambitious lawyer. In 1799 his wife died, he moved to Richmond, where he became clerk of the Virginia House of Delegates chancellor of the Eastern District of Virginia, resigning after six months.
In 1802, he married the daughter of Colonel Robert Gamble of Richmond. In the winter of 1803/04, Wirt moved to Norfolk, but in 1806, wishing for a wider field of practice, returned to Richmond. In 1807, President Thomas Jefferson asked him to be the prosecutor in Aaron Burr's trial for treason, his principal speech, four hours in length, was characterized by eloquent appeal, polished wit, logical reasoning. It extended his fame; the passage in which he depicted in glowing colors the home of Harman Blennerhassett and "the wife of his bosom, whom he permitted not the winds of summer'to visit too roughly'", as "shivering at midnight on the wintry banks of the Ohio, mingling her tears with the torrents that froze as they fell", was for many years a favorite piece for academic declamation. Wirt was nicknamed the "Whip Syllabub Genius" by his enemies for the frothy, over-the-top nature of his oratory. In 1808, Wirt was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates. In 1816 he was appointed U. S. Attorney for the District of Virginia, in 1817 President James Monroe named him the ninth Attorney General of the United States, a position he held for 12 years, through the administration of John Quincy Adams, until 1829.
William Wirt has the record for the longest tenure in history of any U. S. attorney general. In 1824, Attorney General Wirt argued for the United States against Daniel Webster in Gibbons v. Ogden that the federal patent laws preempted New York State's patent grant to steamboat inventor Robert Fulton's successor, Aaron Ogden, of the exclusive right to operate a steamboat between New York and New Jersey in the Hudson River. Wirt argued "that a power in the States to grant exclusive patents, is utterly inconsistent with the power given to the national government to grant such exclusive patents: and hence, that the power given to Congress is one, exclusive from its nature." Although the Gibbons Court declined to decide the question, 140 years the Supreme Court confirmed Wirt's view in Sears, Roebuck & Co. v. Stiffel Co. In June 1830, a delegation of Cherokee led by Chief John Ross selected Wirt on the urging of Senators Webster and Frelinghuysen to defend Cherokee rights before the U. S. Supreme Court.
Wirt argued, in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, that the Cherokee Nation was "a foreign nation in the sense of our constitution and law" and was therefore not subject to Georg
Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor, credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat. In 1807 that steamboat traveled on the Hudson River with passengers, from New York City to Albany and back again, a round trip of 300 miles, in 62 hours; the success of his steamboat changed river trade on major American rivers. In 1800, Fulton had been commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte, leader of France, to attempt to design a submarine. Fulton is credited with inventing some of the world's earliest naval torpedoes for use by the British Royal Navy. Fulton became interested in steam engines and the idea of steamboats in 1777 when he was around age 12 and visited state delegate William Henry of Lancaster, interested in this topic. Henry had learned about inventor James Watt and his Watt steam engine on an earlier visit to England. Robert Fulton was born on a farm in Little Britain, Pennsylvania, on November 14, 1765, he had three sisters – Isabella and Mary, a younger brother, Abraham.
For six years, he lived in Philadelphia, where he painted portraits and landscapes, drew houses and machinery, was able to send money home to help support his mother. In 1785, Fulton bought a farm at Hopewell Township in Washington County near Pittsburgh for £80, moved his mother and family into it. At the age of 23, Fulton traveled to Europe, he went to England in 1786, carrying several letters of introduction to Americans abroad from prominent individuals he had met in Philadelphia. He had corresponded with artist Benjamin West. West took Fulton into his home, where Fulton studied painting. Fulton gained many commissions painting portraits and landscapes, which allowed him to support himself, he continued to experiment with mechanical inventions. Fulton became caught up in the enthusiasm of the "Canal Mania". In 1793 he began developing his ideas for tugboat canals with inclined planes instead of locks, he obtained a patent for this idea in 1794 and began working on ideas for the steam power of boats.
He patented a dredging machine and several other inventions. In 1794, he moved to Manchester to gain practical knowledge of English canal engineering. While there he became friendly with Robert Owen, a cotton manufacturer and early socialist. Owen agreed to finance the development and promotion of Fulton's designs for inclined planes and earth-digging machines, but Fulton was not successful at this practical effort and he gave up the contract after a short time. As early as 1793, Fulton proposed plans for steam-powered vessels to both the United States and British governments; the first steamships had appeared earlier. The earliest steam-powered ship, in which the engine moved oars, was built by Claude de Jouffroy in France. Called the Palmipède, it was tested on the Doubs in 1776. In 1783, de Jouffroy built the Phyroscaphe, the first paddle steamer, which sailed on the Saône; the first successful trial run of a steamboat in America had been made by inventor John Fitch, on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787.
William Symington had tried steamboats in 1788, it seems probable that Fulton was aware of these developments. In England, Fulton met the Duke of Bridgewater, Francis Egerton, whose canal, the first to be constructed in Britain, was being used for trials of a steam tug. Fulton became enthusiastic about the canals, wrote a 1796 treatise on canal construction, suggesting improvements to locks and other features. Working for the Duke of Bridgewater between 1796 and 1799, Fulton had a boat constructed in the Duke's timber yard, under the supervision of Benjamin Powell. After installation of the machinery supplied by the engineers Bateman and Sherratt of Salford, the boat was duly christened Bonaparte in honour of Fulton having served under Napoleon. After expensive trials, because of the configuration of the design, the team feared the paddles might damage the clay lining of the canal and abandoned the experiment. In 1801, Bridgewater instead ordered eight vessels for his canal based on Charlotte Dundas, constructed by Symington.
In 1797 Fulton went to Paris. He studied German, along with mathematics and chemistry. In Paris, Fulton met James Rumsey, an inventor from Virginia with an interest in steamboats, who in 1786 ran his own first steamboat up the Potomac River. Fulton exhibited the first panorama painting to be shown in Paris, Pierre Prévost's Vue de Paris depuis les Tuileries, on what is still called Rue des Panoramas today. While living in France, Fulton designed the first working muscle-powered submarine, between 1793 and 1797, he experimented with torpedos. When tested, his submarine operated underwater for 17 minutes in 25 feet of water, he asked the government to subsidize its construction. He approached the Minister of Marine and in 1800 was granted permission to build; the shipyard Perrier in Rouen built it, the submarine sailed first in July 1800 on the Seine River in the same city. In France, Fulton met Robert R. Livingston, appointed as U. S. Ambassador to France in 1801, he had a scientifically curious mind, the two men decided to collaborate on building a steamboat and to try operating it on the Seine.
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a