A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the authors research and findings. In some contexts, the thesis or a cognate is used for part of a bachelors or masters course, while dissertation is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts. The term graduate thesis is used to refer to both masters theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, the word dissertation can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term thesis is used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work. The term thesis comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning something put forth, Dissertation comes from the Latin dissertātiō, meaning path. A thesis may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers, an ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters, and a bibliography or a references section.
They differ in their structure in accordance with the different areas of study. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory, Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the research literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used. Degree-awarding institutions often define their own style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. Other applicable international standards include ISO2145 on section numbers, ISO690 on bibliographic references, some older house styles specify that front matter uses a separate page-number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals. They therefore avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the size and the page formatting. A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a students dissertation, the committee members are doctors in their field and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense.
Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student, all the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach. At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers, a longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelors degree is sometimes called a major paper. High-quality research papers presented as the study of a postgraduate consecutive bachelor with Honours or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called thesis
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States. It was founded on May 28,1892, in San Francisco, California, by the Scottish-American preservationist John Muir, in recent years, the club has gravitated toward green politics and especially toward bright green environmentalism. Recent focuses of the club include promoting green energy, mitigating global warming, in 2015 Sierra Club launched its activism platform AddUp. The Sierra Club does not set standards for or regulate alpinism, but it organizes wilderness courses, rock climbs, the Sierra Club is governed by a 15-member Board of Directors. Each year, five directors are elected to terms. A president is elected annually by the Board from among its members, the Executive Director runs the day-to-day operations of the group. Michael Brune, formerly of Rainforest Action Network, has served as the executive director since 2010. Pope stepped down amid discontent that the group had strayed from its core principles, Sierra Club members belong to statewide chapters and local groups.
National and local special-interest sections and task forces address particular issues, the national Sierra Club sets the organizations policy agenda. As early as 1889, Johnson had encouraged Muir to form an association to protect the Sierra Nevada. Others involved in the planning included artist William Keith, Willis Linn Jepson, Willard Drake Johnson, Joseph LeConte. The Sierra Clubs charter members elected Muir president, an office he held until his death in 1914, Muir escorted President Theodore Roosevelt through Yosemite in 1903, and two years the California legislature ceded Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove to the federal government. The Sierra Club won its first lobbying victory with the creation of the second national park. In the first decade of the 1900s, the Sierra Club became embroiled in the Hetch Hetchy Reservoir controversy that divided preservationists from resource management conservationists. In the late 19th century, the city of San Francisco was rapidly outgrowing its limited water supply, which depended on intermittent local springs and streams.
Gifford Pinchot, a supporter of public utilities and head of the US Forest Service. Muir appealed to his friend U. S. President Roosevelt and attorney William Edward Colby began a national campaign against the dam, attracting the support of many eastern conservationists. With the 1912 election of U. S. President Woodrow Wilson, the bill to dam Hetch Hetchy passed Congress in 1913, and so the Sierra Club lost its first major battle
Joe Hill, born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund in Gävle and known as Joseph Hillström was a Swedish-American labor activist and member of the Industrial Workers of the World. A native Swedish speaker, he learned English during the early 1900s, Hill, an immigrant worker frequently facing unemployment and underemployment, became a popular songwriter and cartoonist for the union. In 1914, John G. Morrison, a Salt Lake City area grocer and former policeman, the same evening, Hill arrived at a doctors office with a gunshot wound, and briefly mentioned a fight over a woman. Yet Hill refused to further, even after he was accused of the grocery store murders on the basis of his injury. Hill was convicted of the murders in a controversial trial, following an unsuccessful appeal, political debates, and international calls for clemency from high-profile figures and workers organizations, Hill was executed in November 1915. After his death, he was memorialized by several folk songs and his life and death have inspired books and poetry.
The identity of the woman and the rival who supposedly caused Hills injury, though frequently speculated upon, william M. Adlers 2011 biography of Hill reveals new information about his alibi, which was never introduced at his trial. According to Adler and his friend and countryman, Otto Appelquist, were rivals for the attention of 20-year-old Hilda Erickson, in a recently discovered letter, Erickson confirmed her relationship with the two men and the rivalry between them. The letter indicates that when she first discovered Hill was injured, he explained to her that Appelquist had shot him, Joel Emmanuel Hägglund was born 1879 in Gävle, a city in the province of Gästrikland, Sweden. He was the child in a family of nine, where three children died young. His father, worked as a conductor on the Gefle-Dala railway line, Olof died at the age of 41, and his death meant economic disaster for the family. Joes mother Margareta Catharina did, succeed in keeping the family together until she died in 1902, the Hägglund family home still stands in Gävle at the address Nedre Bergsgatan 28, in Gamla Stan, the Old Town.
As of 2011 it houses a museum and the Joe Hill-gården, in his late teens-early 20s, Joel fell seriously ill with skin and glandular tuberculosis, and underwent extensive treatment in Stockholm. In 1902, when about 23, he and his brother Paul emigrated to the United States, Hill became an itinerant laborer, moving from New York City to Cleveland and eventually to the west coast. He was in San Francisco, California, at the time of the 1906 earthquake, by this time using the name Joe or Joseph Hillstrom, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies around 1910, when working on the docks in San Pedro, California. In late 1910 he wrote a letter to the IWW newspaper Industrial Worker, identifying himself as a member of the IWW local chapter in Portland, Oregon. He rose in the IWW organization and traveled widely, organizing workers under the IWW banner, writing songs and satirical poems. He shortened his pseudonym to Joe Hill as the pen-name under which his songs and his songs frequently appropriated familiar melodies from popular songs and hymns of the time
East Layton, Utah
East Layton is a former city in Davis County, United States. Adjacent to Layton, it was incorporated in 1936 in order to secure funding for a community water system, East Layton remained a small, steadily growing residential town for decades, becoming a city in 1972. Rapid expansion during the 1970s led to a merger in 1981 with Layton, now Davis Countys most populous city and one of the largest in Utah. East Layton stretched between Fairfield Road on the west and the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains on the east, containing the full length of Cherry Lane, the boundaries were irregular, but reached as far north as Antelope Drive and as far south as Gentile Street. East Layton Elementary School and Adams Reservoir are landmarks lying inside the city limits. City offices were located at 1010 N Emerald Drive, at the southwest corner of Andy Adams Park, the building is now home to a daycare center. The East Layton area was settled together with Layton, as an outgrowth of Kaysville beginning in the 1850s, at Laytons incorporation in 1920, East Layton remained separate, a rural unincorporated area with only a few residents.
The local water supply was unreliable, a problem in Utahs desert climate. Wells and streams often ran dry in summer, and water would have to be hauled to homes by hand. Lifelong resident David Green envisioned a water system supplied from Crooked Canyon in the Wasatch Mountains to the east. By the 1930s many of Greens neighbors were interested, but Utahs banks were lending very little due to the Great Depression. Financing for public works was available through the federal Works Progress Administration, in January 1936,53 East Layton residents signed a petition to form a town in order to fund the water system. On April 2,1936, the town of East Layton was incorporated, in 1937, East Layton voters unanimously supported a bond measure, and the WPA approved the towns loan application. The money, was slow to arrive, members of the town board contacted Henry H. Blood, a native of Kaysville and governor of Utah, and asked for help. Blood was able to use his influence to expedite the process, David Green was the supervisor, directing a rotating team of laborers whose wages were paid by the WPA.
They laid collection pipes from the mouth of Crooked Canyon down to a reservoir on Valley View Drive at the edge of town. A wooden trestle bridged a gorge along the way, rough terrain made digging difficult, and progress was slow. Costs mounted, and the money ran out
Layton is a city located in Davis County, United States. It is part of the Ogden-Clearfield Metropolitan Statistical Area, as of the 2010 census the city had a population of 67,311, rising to an estimated 72,231 by 2014. Layton is the most populous city in Davis County and the ninth most populous in Utah, Layton has direct access to Salt Lake City, Salt Lake City International Airport, Antelope Island, and the FrontRunner commuter rail. In 2014, Layton contributed $1.34 billion worth of sales activity. Layton was settled in the 1850s as an outgrowth of Kaysville, the city is named after Christopher Layton, a Mormon colonizer and leader. It was included in the boundaries when Kaysville was incorporated as a city in 1868 and they challenged Kaysvilles authority to tax their property, claiming they received no municipal services. This dispute reached the United States Supreme Court in 1894 as the case of Linford v. Ellison, the separatist movement finally succeeded in 1902, when Layton became an independent unincorporated area.
After further growth it was made a town in 1920. The towns population increased slowly, up until 1940 it was about 600, the creation of Hill Air Force Base to the north in 1940, followed shortly by the United States entry into World War II, led to a dramatic population increase. War workers streamed into the area, the 1950 census counted 3,456 people, Layton became a city, transformed from a farming town to a residential community. Growth slowed after the war, but Layton continued to develop as a bedroom community. The city continued to expand geographically, annexing surrounding parcels of land, including the adjacent town of Laytona, in 1985, Layton passed Bountiful to become the most populous city in Davis County. Layton is located in the portion of the Wasatch Front. According to the United States Census Bureau, Layton has an area of 22.2 square miles, of which 22.0 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles. The climate in this area is characterized by hot summers and cold winters, great Salt Lake effect snow is common in the winter.
As of the census of 2010, there were 67,311 people,18,282 households, the population density was 2,823.9 people per square mile. There were 19,145 housing units at a density of 924.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89. 91% White,1. 61% African American,0. 53% Native American,2. 08% Asian,0. 27% Pacific Islander,3. 09% from other races, and 2. 52% from two or more races
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Penguin Books is a British publishing house. It was founded in 1935 by Sir Allen Lane as a line of the publishers The Bodley Head, Penguins success demonstrated that large audiences existed for serious books. Penguin had a significant impact on public debate in Britain, through its books on British culture, the arts, and science. Penguin Books is now an imprint of the worldwide Penguin Random House and it is one of the largest English-language publishers, formerly known as the Big Six, now the Big Five. The first Penguin paperbacks were published in 1935, but at first only as an imprint of The Bodley Head with the books originally distributed from the crypt of Holy Trinity Church Marylebone, Penguin Books has its registered office in the City of Westminster, England. However the question of how publishers could reach a larger public had been the subject of a conference at Rippon Hall, inexpensive paperbacks did not initially appear viable to Bodley Head, since the deliberately low price of 6d.
This helped Allen Lane purchase publication rights for some works more cheaply than he otherwise might have done since other publishers were convinced of the short term prospects of the business. By March 1936, ten months after the launch on 30 July 1935. It was Frost who in 1945 was entrusted with the reconstruction of Penguin Inc after the departure of its first managing director Ian Ballantine, from the outset, design was essential to the success of the Penguin brand. In the central panel, the author and title were printed in Gill Sans. The initial design was created by the 21-year-old office junior Edward Young, series such as Penguin Specials and The Penguin Shakespeare had individual designs. Lane actively resisted the introduction of images for several years. Some recent publications of literature from that time have duplicated the original look, from 1937 and on, the headquarters of Penguin Books was at Harmondsworth west of London and so it remained until the 1990s when a merge with Viking involved the head office moving to London.
Paper rationing was the problem of publishers during wartime, with the fall of France cutting off supply of esparto grass. This was particularly advantageous to Penguin who as a volume printer had enjoyed a successful year that year. Further in a deal with the Canadian Government, Penguin had agreed to publish editions for their armed forces for which they were paid in tons of paper. Penguin would receive 60 tons a month from Paper Supply in return for 10 titles a month in runs of 75,000 at 5d, however demand was exceeding supply on the home front leading Lane to seek a monopoly on army books made specifically for overseas distribution. This dominance over the paper supply put Penguin in a strong position after the war as rationing continued
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States. Santa Barbaras climate is described as Mediterranean, and the city has been promoted as the American Riviera. The population of the county in 2010 was 423,895. In 2004, the sector accounted for fully 35% of local employment. Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, as does Amtrak, U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located approximately 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago, an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area, portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring briefly in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name Santa Barbara to the channel, a land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited in 1769, and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town Laguna de la Concepcion. Cabrillos earlier name, however, is the one that has survived, the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other such as England and Russia. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, and those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio, the Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4,1786.
It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans and it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity. The Chumash laborers built a connection between the creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam. During the following decades, many of the natives died of such as smallpox
Alfred A. Knopf Sr.
Alfred Abraham Knopf Sr. was an American publisher of the 20th century, and founder of Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. His contemporaries included the likes of Bennett Cerf and Donald Klopfer, Knopf paid special attention to the quality of printing and design in his books, and earned a reputation as a purist in both content and presentation. Asked how to say his name, Knopf told the Literary Digest, Sound the k, Knopf was born into a Jewish family in New York City. Alfred attended Columbia University, where he was a student and a member of the Peithologian Society. He began to show an interest in publishing during his senior year and his interest in publishing was allegedly fostered by a correspondence with British author John Galsworthy. After visiting Galsworthy in England, Knopf gave up his plans for a law career, after receiving his B. A. in 1912, Knopf worked as a clerk at Doubleday, as an editorial assistant to Mitchell Kennerley. He founded his own publishing house in 1915, the company initially emphasized European, especially Russian, hence the choice of the borzoi as a colophon.
From 1924 to 1934, he published the literary magazine founded by Mencken and Nathan. He often developed a friendship with his authors. A prominent Republican until Watergate, Knopf often drew legislators into lengthy correspondence by mail and he was a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors from 1940 to 1946. Knopf himself was an author and his writings include Some Random Recollections, Publishing Then and Now, Portrait of a Publisher, Blanche W. Knopf, July 30, 1894-June 4,1966, and Sixty Photographs. The problem was solved in 1960, when Knopf merged with Random House, Knopf retained complete editorial control for five years, and gave up only his right to veto other editors manuscript selections. The editorial departments of the two remain separate, and Knopf, Inc. retains its distinctive character. Knopf called the merger a perfect marriage, Random House itself eventually became a division of Bertelsmann AG, a large multinational media company. The Knopf imprint remains in existence, Blanche Knopf died in June 1966.
Alfred remarried in April of the year, to Helen Norcross Hedrick. He died of heart failure on August 11,1984, at his estate in Purchase. Knopf had little enthusiasm for most of the changes took place in the publishing industry during his lifetime
Raincoast Books is a Canadian book distribution and wholesale company. Today, Raincoast has over 90 employees and three divisions, Raincoast Distribution, Publishers Group Canada, and BookExpress, Raincoast Distribution provides Canadian representation to general trade and gift publishers from the United States and Canada. Companies distributed by Raincoast include Chronicle Books, Drawn & Quarterly, Hay House, Lonely Planet, Raincoast was awarded Book Distributor of the Year by the Canada Booksellers Association in 2004,2005, and 2006. AMACOM Beginning Press Berrett-Koehler Publishers Bilingual Books, based in Toronto, Ontario, PGC distributes independently owned book publishing houses including Grove Atlantic, New World Library and Egmont Books in Canada. BookExpress is a wholesale division supplying Canadian bookstores and retailers, BookExpress carries bestselling books from publishers including Random House Canada, Penguin Books Canada, HarperCollins Canada, H. B. Fenn, Andrews McMeel, Scholastic Canada, Diamond Book Distribution, between 1995 and 2008, Raincoast Books was a Canadian book publisher.
The Raincoast publishing program produced a range of fiction and non-fiction titles for both adults and children. Authors who published work with Raincoast included Anne Fleming, Alison Pick, Colin McAdam, Nick Bantock, George Bowering, Paul William Roberts, Naim Kattan, Roy Miki, Amanda K. Hale, and Bill Gaston. As a publisher, the company was noted for using large amounts of recycled paper in its books, on January 7,2008, Raincoast announced that it would cease to publish new books due to the rise in the Canadian dollar. Raincoast ceased to be the Canadian publisher of J. K, rowlings Harry Potter books in 2010