Gibraltar International Airport
Gibraltar International Airport or North Front Airport is the civilian airport that serves the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The runway is owned by the Ministry of Defence for use by the Royal Air Force as RAF Gibraltar. Civilian operators use the civilian-operated terminal. National Air Traffic Services hold the contract for provision of air navigation services at the airport. In 2017, the airport handled 302,094 kg of cargo on 4,888 total flights. Winston Churchill Avenue intersects the airport runway, has to be closed every time a plane lands or departs; the History Channel programme Most Extreme Airports ranked the airport the fifth most extreme airport in the world. It is exposed to strong cross winds around the rock and across the Bay of Algeciras, making landings in winter uncomfortable. Monarch Airlines was the largest operator at Gibraltar International, operating flights to Birmingham, London Gatwick, London Luton, Manchester Airport. All routes were operated by an Airbus A320-200.
Monarch entered administration at 4:30am on 2 October 2017, ceasing operations with immediate effect around a year after rumours of its imminent demise became widespread. EasyJet operates seven weekly flights to London Gatwick operated by Airbus A320 family aircraft, as well as three flights per week to Bristol Airport and two flights a week to Manchester Airport. British Airways operates nine weekly flights to London Heathrow being operated by an Airbus A320-200. Royal Air Maroc Express operate twice weekly flights to Tangier Ibn Battouta Airport, which continue onto Casablanca Airport. Although located in Gibraltar, the airport is used by people travelling to or from neighbouring parts of southern Spain such as the Costa del Sol or the Campo de Gibraltar; the airport was constructed during World War II upon the territory's race course, when Gibraltar was an important naval base for the British. Opened in 1939, it was only an emergency airfield for the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm. However, the runway was extended by reclaiming some land from the Bay of Gibraltar using rock blasted from the Rock of Gibraltar while carrying out works on military tunnels.
This last major extension of the runway allowed larger aircraft to land at Gibraltar. On 3 November 2003, Monarch announced a new route from Gibraltar to Manchester Airport, it was the first route from Gibraltar to operate to the North of England. However, on 19 July 2006, Monarch withdrew the route due to the cost. On 21 April 2008, Monarch announced it would resume the services to Manchester from 12 September 2008; the route operated three to five times a week: every Monday and Friday in winter season, as well as on Thursdays and Sundays in the summer season. By late 2005 and early 2006, the implementation of a new agreement was one of the main topics of the Gibraltar Trilateral Forum being held between the Governments of Gibraltar and the United Kingdom; as a result, the Córdoba Accord was signed on 18 September 2006 by all parties. This ended all discriminatory restrictions on civilian flights to Gibraltar International, including the prohibition of flights over Spanish soil, exclusion of Gibraltar from all EU agreements on air transport, allowing civilian flights from all nations into Gibraltar International.
On 17 November 2006 Iberia announced that it would start flights from Madrid to Gibraltar using an Airbus A319 aircraft. This was a landmark move as no Spanish airline had flown to Gibraltar since 1979, because of its disputed status. Iberia began flights to Gibraltar International on 16 December 2006 with a flight from Madrid that included some members of the Spanish Government on board. GB Airways flew a one-off flight in the other direction with a group of children from the Gibraltar area making up the passengers. In May 2007 GB Airways began operating the route between Madrid and Gibraltar, this was discontinued on 30 September, leaving Iberia to work the route alone. On 22 September 2008 Iberia announced that it would cease its flights to Madrid by 28 September due to "economic reasons", lack of demand; this left Gibraltar, once again, without any air links with Spain. In April 2009 Ándalus Líneas Aéreas restored Gibraltar's air link with the Spanish capital. In July 2009 Ándalus began scheduled flights to Barcelona, increasing the destinations in Spain to two.
However, the airline ceased to serve this route in September 2009 due to a lack of demand. In April 2010 it was confirmed that Ándalus flights to and from Gibraltar had been indefinitely suspended, and now yet again, Gibraltar has no direct air links to Spain. Ándalus Líneas Aéreas ceased operations on 13 August 2010. In 2009, British Airways moved their flights from Gatwick to their main base at London Heathrow. From 2011 until October 2012, easyJet offered thrice-weekly service from Gibraltar to Liverpool, but it was cancelled due to lack of demand. On 18 May 2011, Bmibaby announced that it would launch flights from Gibraltar to East Midlands from 31 March 2012; this was the first time. The route operated on Tuesdays and Saturdays, using a Boeing 737-300. However, on 3 May 2012 it was announced that Bmibaby was to be closed down by the International Airlines Group after the group failed to find a buyer for the airline. Bmibaby operated its last service to Gibraltar on 8 September 2012 and the airline operated its last flight on 9 September 2012.
On 10 January 2012, Gibraltar was selected as one of the'World's Scariest Airport Landings and Take-offs' in the travel section of the Daily Telegraph due to its runway which extends
People's Party (Spain)
The People's Party is a conservative, liberal-conservative and Christian-democratic political party in Spain. The People's Party was a re-foundation in 1989 of the People's Alliance, a party led and founded by Manuel Fraga Iribarne, a former Minister of the Interior and Minister of Tourism during Francisco Franco's dictatorship; the new party combined the conservative AP with several small Christian democratic and liberal parties. In 2002, Manuel Fraga received the honorary title of "Founding Chairman"; the party's youth organization is New Generations of the People's Party of Spain. The PP is a member of the center-right European People's Party, in the European Parliament its 16 MEPs sit in the EPP Group; the PP is a member of the Centrist Democrat International and the International Democrat Union. The PP was one of the founding organizations of the Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute for Developing Democracy in Central and Eastern Europe. On 24 May 2018, the National Court found that the PP profited from the illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme of the Gürtel case, confirming the existence of an illegal accounting and financing structure that ran in parallel with the party's official one since the party's foundation in 1989 and ruling that the PP helped establish "a genuine and effective system of institutional corruption through the manipulation of central and local public procurement".
This prompted a no confidence vote on Mariano Rajoy's government, brought down on 1 June 2018 in the first successful motion since the Spanish transition to democracy. On 5 June 2018, Rajoy announced his resignation as PP leader; the party has its roots in the People's Alliance founded on 9 October 1976 by former Francoist minister Manuel Fraga. Although Fraga was a member of the reformist faction of the Franco regime, he supported an gradual transition to democracy. However, he badly underestimated the public's distaste for Francoism. Additionally, while he attempted to convey a reformist image, the large number of former Francoists in the party led the public to perceive it as both reactionary and authoritarian. In the June 1977 general election, the AP garnered only 8.3 percent of the vote, putting it in fourth place. In the months following the 1977 elections, dissent erupted within the AP over constitutional issues that arose as the draft document was being formulated. Fraga had wanted from the beginning to brand the party as a traditional European conservative party, wanted to move the AP toward the political centre in order to form a larger centre-right party.
Fraga's wing won the struggle. The AP joined with other moderate conservatives to form the Democratic Coalition, it was hoped that this new coalition would capture the support of those who had voted for the Union of the Democratic Centre in 1977, but who had become disenchanted with the Adolfo Suárez government. In the March 1979 general election, the CD received 6.1 percent of the vote, again finishing a distant fourth. At the AP's Second Party Congress in December 1979, party leaders re-assessed their involvement in the CD. Many felt that the creation of the coalition had confused the voters, they sought to emphasise the AP's independent identity. Fraga resumed control of the party, the political resolutions adopted by the party congress reaffirmed the conservative orientation of the AP. In the early 1980s, Fraga succeeded in rallying the various components of the right around his leadership, he was aided in his efforts to revive the AP by the increasing disintegration of the UCD. In the general elections held in October 1982, the AP gained votes both from previous UCD supporters and from the far right.
It became the major opposition party to the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, securing 25.4 percent of the popular vote. Whereas the AP's parliamentary representation had dropped to 9 seats in 1979, the party allied itself with the small Christian democratic People's Democratic Party and won 106 seats in 1982; the increased strength of the AP was further evidenced in the municipal and regional elections held in May 1983, when the party drew 26 percent of the vote. A significant portion of the electorate appeared to support the AP's emphasis on law and order as well as its pro-business policies. Subsequent political developments belied the party's aspirations to continue increasing its base of support. Prior to the June 1986 elections, the AP joined forces with the PDP and the Liberal Party to form the People's Coalition, in another attempt to expand its constituency to include the centre of the political spectrum; the coalition called for stronger measures against terrorism, for more privatisation, for a reduction in public spending and in taxes.
The CP failed to increase its share of the vote in the 1986 elections, it soon began to disintegrate. When regional elections in late 1986 resulted in further losses for the coalition, Fraga resigned as AP chairman, although he retained his parliamentary seat. At the party congress in February 1987, Antonio Hernández Mancha was chosen to head the AP, declaring that under his leadership the AP would become a "modern right-wing European party", but Hernández Mancha lacked political experience at the national level, the party continued to decline. When support for the AP plummeted in the municipal and regional elections held in June 1987, it was clear that it would be overtaken as major opposition party by Suarez's Democratic and Social Centre. After the resignation of Manuel Fraga and the success
First French Empire
The First French Empire the French Empire,Note 1 was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was granted the title Emperor of the French by the French Sénat and was crowned on 2 December 1804, signifying the end of the French Consulate and of the French First Republic; the French Empire achieved military supremacy in mainland Europe through notable victories in the War of the Third Coalition against Austria, Prussia and allied nations, notably at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. French dominance was reaffirmed during the War of the Fourth Coalition, at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt in 1806 and the Battle of Friedland in 1807.
A series of wars, known collectively as the Napoleonic Wars, extended French influence to much of Western Europe and into Poland. At its height in 1812, the French Empire had 130 departments, ruled over 70 million subjects, maintained an extensive military presence in Germany, Italy and the Duchy of Warsaw, counted Prussia and Austria as nominal allies. Early French victories exported many ideological features of the French Revolution throughout Europe: the introduction of the Napoleonic Code throughout the continent increased legal equality, established jury systems and legalised divorce, seigneurial dues and seigneurial justice were abolished, as were aristocratic privileges in all places except Poland. France's defeat in 1814, marked the end of the Empire. In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte was confronted by Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès—one of five Directors constituting the executive branch of the French government—who sought his support for a coup d'état to overthrow the Constitution of the Year III.
The plot included Bonaparte's brother Lucien serving as speaker of the Council of Five Hundred, Roger Ducos, another Director, Talleyrand. On 9 November 1799 and the following day, troops led by Bonaparte seized control, they dispersed the legislative councils, leaving a rump legislature to name Bonaparte, Sieyès and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Although Sieyès expected to dominate the new regime, the Consulate, he was outmaneuvered by Bonaparte, who drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, he thus became the most powerful person in France, a power, increased by the Constitution of the Year X, which made him First Consul for life. The Battle of Marengo inaugurated the political idea, to continue its development until Napoleon's Moscow campaign. Napoleon planned only to keep the Duchy of Milan for France, setting aside Austria, was thought to prepare a new campaign in the East; the Peace of Amiens, which cost him control of Egypt, was a temporary truce.
He extended his authority in Italy by annexing the Piedmont and by acquiring Genoa, Parma and Naples, added this Italian territory to his Cisalpine Republic. He laid siege to the Roman state and initiated the Concordat of 1801 to control the material claims of the pope; when he recognised his error of raising the authority of the pope from that of a figurehead, Napoleon produced the Articles Organiques with the goal of becoming the legal protector of the papacy, like Charlemagne. To conceal his plans before their actual execution, he aroused French colonial aspirations against Britain and the memory of the 1763 Treaty of Paris, exacerbating British envy of France, whose borders now extended to the Rhine and beyond, to Hanover and Cuxhaven. Napoleon would have ruling elites from a fusion of the old aristocracy. On 12 May 1802, the French Tribunat voted unanimously, with the exception of Carnot, in favour of the Life Consulship for the leader of France; this action was confirmed by the Corps Législatif.
A general plebiscite followed thereafter resulting in 3,653,600 votes aye and 8,272 votes nay. On 2 August 1802, Napoleon Bonaparte was proclaimed Consul for life. Pro-revolutionary sentiment swept through Germany aided by the "Recess of 1803", which brought Bavaria, Württemberg and Baden to France's side. William Pitt the Younger, back in power over Britain, appealed once more for an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against Napoleon to stop the ideals of revolutionary France from spreading. On 18 May 1804, Napoleon was given the title of "Emperor of the French" by the Senate. Note 3In four campaigns, the Emperor transformed his "Carolingian" feudal republican and federal empire into one modelled on the Roman Empire; the memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Julius Caesar and Charlemagne, used to modify the historical evolution of France. Though the vague plan for an invasion of Great Britain was never executed, the Battle of Ulm and the Battle of Austerlitz overshadowed the defeat of Trafalgar, the camp at Boulogne put at Napoleon's disposal the best military resources he had commanded, in the form of La Grande Armée.
In the War of the Third Coalition, Napoleon swept away the remnants of the old Holy Roman Empire and created in southern Germany the vassal states of Bavaria
National Police Corps
The National Police Corps is the national civilian police force of Spain. The CNP is responsible for policing urban areas, whilst countryside policing is the responsibility of the Civil Guard, the Spanish gendarmerie; the CNP operates under the authority of Spain's Ministry of the Interior. They handle criminal investigation, judicial and immigration matters; the powers of the National Police Corps varies according to the autonomous communities, Ertzaintza in the Basque Country, Mossos d'Esquadra in Catalonia, Policía Foral in Navarre are the primary police agencies while BESCAM in the Madrid region is more of a resources provider. In Andalusia, Asturias and Valencia the National Police units are functionally acting directly under the orders of the autonomous communities to which they are attached; the 1986 organic law unifying the separate uniformed and plainclothes branches of the national police was a major reform that required a considerable period of time to be brought into full effect.
The former plainclothes service, known as the Cuerpo Superior de Policía, but referred to as the "secret police" the Cuerpo General de Policía, consisted of some 9,000 officers. Prior to 1986, it had a supervisory and coordinating role in police operations, conducted domestic surveillance, collected intelligence, investigated major crimes, issued identity documents, carried out liaison with foreign police forces; the uniformed service, the Cuerpo de Policía Armada which became the National Police in 1979, was a separate organization with a complement of about 50,000 officers, including a small number of female recruits who were first accepted for training in 1984. The Director General of the National Police Corps, a senior official of the Ministry of Interior, commanded 13 regional headquarters, 50 provincial offices, about 190 municipal police stations. In the nine largest cities, several district police stations served separate sections of the city; the chief of police of each station was in command of both the uniformed and the plainclothes officers attached to the station.
A centrally controlled Special Operations Group was an elite fighting unit trained to deal with terrorist and hostage situations. The principal weapons used by the uniformed police were 9mm pistols, 9mm submachine guns, CETME and NATO 7.62mm rifles, various forms of riot equipment. Their original uniform consisted of dark brown jackets; the initial training phase for recruits to the National Police Corps was nine months, followed by a year of practical training. Promotions to corporal and sergeant major were based on seniority, additional training, performance. In the Franco era, most police officers were seconded from the army. Under a 1978 law, future police officers were to receive separate training, army officers detailed to the police were to be permanently transferred. By 1986 only 170 army officers remained in the National Police Corps. Under the 1986 organic law, military-type training for police was to be terminated, all candidate officers were to attend the Higher Police School at Ávila, which had served as the three-year training center for the Superior Police Corps.
The ranks of the plainclothes corps—commissioners and inspectors of first and third class—were to be assimilated into the ranking system of the uniformed police—colonel, lieutenant colonel, major and lieutenant. Two lower categories—subinspection and basic—would include all nonofficer uniformed personnel; the newly unified National Police Corps was to be responsible for issuing identity cards and passports, as well as for immigration and deportation controls, extradition, gambling controls and supervision of private security forces. Franco's Policía Armada had once been dreaded as one of the most familiar symbols of the regime's oppressiveness. During the 1980s, the police underwent an internal transformation process, being brought to adopt the new democratic spirit of the times; the police supported the constituted government during the 1981 coup attempt. Led by the new police trade union, the police demonstrated in 1985 against right-wing militants in their ranks and cooperated in efforts to punish misconduct and abuses of civil rights by individual officers.
The current sidearm is the Heckler & Koch USP Compact 9x19mm Duties are regulated by the Organic law 2/1986 of March 13, 1986. The issuing of identity documents - ID cards and passports. To control receipts and outgoings of the foreign people and Spaniards. Immigration law and asylum, extradition and expulsion. Gambling enforcement Drug enforcement Collaboration with Interpol and Europol. Control of private security companies General law enforcement and criminal investigation. Born or naturalized Spanish More than 18 years old. At least 1.65 metres tall, for men, 1.60 metres metres for women Not to have been convicted of fraud or dismissed by the state, autonomous or local governments, or prevented from holding public functions. Hold a driving licence of the class specified by the government. Basic Scale: Have or to be in conditions to obtain the Certificate of Bachillerato or equivalent. Executive Scale: Have a Technical Engineer, Technical Architect, Qualified University student or equivalent or top formation degree.
The applicant can choose between an Executive Scale career. Applicants must pass the following basic tests before starting the academy: Physical test Multiple-choice exam Aptitude test Volunte
Lines of Contravallation of Gibraltar
The Lines of Contravallation of Gibraltar, known in English as the "Spanish Lines", were a set of fortifications built by the Spanish across the northern part of the isthmus linking Spain with Gibraltar. They gave their name to the Spanish town of La Línea de la Concepción; the Lines were constructed after 1730 to establish a defensive barrier across the peninsula, with the aim of preventing any British incursions, to serve as a base for fresh Spanish attempts to retake Gibraltar. They played an important role in the Great Siege of Gibraltar between 1779 and 1783 when they supported the unsuccessful French and Spanish assault on the British-held fortress; the siege was ended after the lines of contravallation were attacked by British and Dutch forces under the command of the Governor of Gibraltar,General Augustus Eliot. The attack caused the Spanish forces to retreat and abandon the fortifications and the combined British led forces destroyed all the spanish gun batteries and the enemy cannon and munitions either captured or destroyed.
This attack is still commemorated to this day and is known as'Sortie Day'. Only 25 years they were abandoned by the Spanish as the Peninsular War recast France as Spain's enemy and Britain as its ally. Stripped of guns and garrison, which were sent elsewhere to bolster Spanish resistance against French forces, the Lines were demolished by the British in February 1810 with the permission of the Spanish as a French army approached. Although Napoleon had no intention of attacking Gibraltar, the British feared that the Lines could be used to support a French siege against the territory; the modern town of La Línea de la Concepción was subsequently established amidst the ruins of the fortifications, of which only a few fragmentary remains can be seen today. Following the Anglo-Dutch capture of Gibraltar in 1704 and the subsequent Twelfth Siege of Gibraltar, in which the Spanish and their French allies sought unsuccessfully to recover the territory, the Spanish built a permanent line of fortifications facing south across the isthmus.
Construction began in November 1730 under the Marquis of Verboom with the intention that the lines would block any British invasion of Spanish territory mounted from Gibraltar, act as a starting point for any future Spanish operations against Gibraltar, cut off access to the territory by land. The lines covered a distance of 950 toises and were built 1,000 toises from the Rock of Gibraltar, where the British defences began; this sparked a diplomatic dispute between Spain. During the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713, under which Spain ceded Gibraltar to Britain, the British government sought to compel the Spanish to cede "a convenient quantity of land round Gibraltar, viz. to the distance of two cannon shot..., necessary for preventing all occasions of dispute between the Garrison and the Country..." The Spanish government adamantly refused and would agree only to cede "the town and castle of Gibraltar, together with the port and forts thereto belonging", explicitly rejecting any suggestion that Britain had any claim over the isthmus.
It insisted there would be no "open communication by land with the country round about."When work began on the Lines of Contravallation, the British again asserted that "although territorial jurisdiction was not ceded with the Fortress of Gibraltar by the Treaty of Utrecht, it is a recognised maxim and a constant usage in favour of fortified places, that the ground commended by their cannon pertains to them..." Once again the Spanish rejected this. He noted that in fact the Spanish could have built the lines nearer to the fortress but "in order to maintain good relations has sought to banish the not well founded misgivings of England, by causing the line to be taken back to the place where it is now situate"; the building works continued despite British protests that it was a hostile act and demands, which the Spanish ignored, that the lines should be removed to a distance of 5,000 yards from the fortress walls. The Spanish lines consisted of a continuous series of fortifications anchored at either end by two substantial forts.
Lieutenant Colonel Thomas James of the Royal Artillery, writing in his 1771 History of the Herculean Straits, provided a detailed description of each of the forts and bastions. At the west end, Fort San Felipe had 28 gun positions with a ditch and a bastion trace in the gorge of the fort, its broad structure gave the Spanish gunners a wide arc of fire across the Bay of Gibraltar and provided a direct line of fire into the town and the British Devil's Tongue Battery located along the Old Mole. According to James, "the parapet is eighteen feet thick, faced with stone, filled with earth and clay." It was "mounted with twenty iron sixteen pounders, four iron six pounders in flanks, with four thirteen inch brass mortars: eighteen of these guns command the anchoring place and their strand, the other six open on the town, neck of land". Several casemates were situated under the ramparts. Two demi-bastions and a curtain wall were situated at the rear of the fort while storehouses and guard-houses stood alongside it.
A solid stone sea wall ran along the east side of the fort. A ditch, filled from the sea and controlled via a sluice gate, provided an additional obstacle. According
Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border
The Republic of Ireland–United Kingdom border, sometimes referred to as the Irish border, runs for 499 km from Lough Foyle in the north of Ireland to Carlingford Lough in the northeast, separating the Republic of Ireland from Northern Ireland. Border markings are inconspicuous, in common with many inter-state borders in the European Union; as both states share a Common Travel Area and are part of the European Single Market, the border is an open one, allowing free passage of people since 1923 and of goods since 1993. There are 270 public roads that cross the border. Following the Brexit vote, the future of the border is uncertain and its status is one of the key points in the UK withdrawal negotiations. Intended as an internal boundary within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the border was created in 1921 under the United Kingdom Parliament's Government of Ireland Act 1920. Prior to this, a separatist Irish parliament had been established in Dublin, which did not recognise the Government of Ireland Act, was engaged in the Irish War of Independence.
The Act was intended to deliver Home Rule in Ireland, with separate parliaments for Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. Six of the thirty-two counties of Ireland were assigned to Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland comprising 26 counties to Southern Ireland; the Government of Ireland Act 1920 was repealed in the UK by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as a result of the Good Friday Agreement and in Ireland by the Statute Law Revision Act 2007. The conclusion of the Irish War of Independence, the subsequent signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, led to the creation of the Irish Free State – a dominion established for the whole island of Ireland on 6 December 1922; the border became an international frontier after the Parliament of Northern Ireland exercised its right to opt out of the Free State on 7 December 1922. The partition of 1921 created only a provisional boundary; the manner in which the Boundary Commission clause was drafted in the Anglo-Irish Treaty was only explicit in its ambiguity.
Amongst politicians in Southern Ireland, there was remarkably little attention paid to the clause during the debates on the Treaty. The Republican activist Sean MacEntee was a "lone voice" in warning that the commission would involve an exercise "in transferring from the jurisdiction of the Government of Northern Ireland certain people and certain districts which that Government cannot govern; the border agreement was lodged with the League of Nations on 8 February 1926, making it a matter of international law. The Boundary Commission's report was superseded by events and so it was not published until 1969; the Irish Free State was renamed Ireland by the 1937 constitution, the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 formally declared that the state was a republic with the official description Republic of Ireland while not changing its name, which remains Ireland. Customs controls were introduced on the frontier on 1 April 1923, shortly after the establishment of the Irish Free State; these controls were maintained, with varying degrees of severity, until 1 January 1993, when systematic customs checks were abolished between European Community member states as part of the single market.
There are no longer any operational customs posts along either side of the border. Except during a brief period during World War II, it has never been necessary for Irish or British citizens to produce a passport to cross the border; however during the 1970s troubles, security forces asked travellers for identification. During the Troubles in Northern Ireland, there were British military checkpoints on main border crossings and UK security forces made the remaining crossings impassable. By about 2005, in phase with implementation of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, remaining controls were definitively removed. In October 2007, details began to emerge of a British Government plan that might end the Common Travel Area encompassing the United Kingdom and Ireland in 2009 creating an anomalous position for Northern Ireland in the process. In a statement to Dáil Éireann, the Irish Taoiseach Bertie Ahern assured the House that "British authorities have no plans whatsoever to introduce any controls on the land border between North and South.
I want to make that clear. All they are looking at is increased cross-border cooperation, targeting illegal immigrants." This raised concerns north of the border. Jim Allister, a former member of the Democratic Unionist Party and a Member of the European Parliament, told The Times that it would be "intolerable and preposterous if citizens of the UK had to present a passport to enter another part of the UK". In July 2008, the UK and Irish governments announced their intent to resume controls over their common border and the Common Travel Area in general; each proposed to introduce detailed passport control over travellers from the other state, where travel is by air or sea. However, the land border will be'lightly contro