Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned
The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Crowned is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Gibraltar. It is the primary centre of Catholic worship in the Diocese of Gibraltar; the original building of the current cathedral was built during the Spanish period. Just after the reconquest of the city to the Moors, the main mosque was decreed to be stripped of its Islamic past and consecrated as the parish church. However, under the rule of the Catholic Monarchs, the old building was demolished and a new church was erected, in Gothic style; the cathedral's small courtyard is the remnant of the larger Moorish court of the mosque. The Catholic Monarchs' coat of arms was placed in the courtyard; the cathedral extended to the opposite side of. The church of St. Mary the Crowned was the only Catholic church or institution, not ransacked by the troops that took over the city in 1704, it was protected by its staunch pastor, Juan Romero, his curate, his bell-ringer. Thus, it is the only place where Catholic worship has been taken place uninterruptedly from the definite Christian re-conquest of the town.
Due to the building being damaged during the 1779–1783 Great Siege, in 1790 the Governor of Gibraltar Sir Robert Boyd offered to rebuild the cathedral in return for part of the land on which the building stood in order to re-route Main Street. The route was re-modelled in 1801; the reconstruction took place in 1810 and the opportunity was taken to widen Main Street. The clock tower was added in 1820 and in 1931 restoration work was carried out on the cathedral and the current west façade erected to replace the poorer one built in 1810. In 1881 the Church of St Mary's was the site of nearly fifty arrests as the Governor of Gibraltar sent police and reassigned soldiers to support Bishop Canilla as he attempted to enter his own church. A self-appointed "Committee of Elders" had said that they intended to take possession of the church and install their own "chief priest" against the will of the Governor and the Catholic church. Camilla was sent to his church on 2 March 1881 with police protection to install him in his church.
When the new force came to the church they found it was occupied by 200 men and the police had to make four dozen arrests to establish order. Not only did Camilla now have possession of his church but he was the owner as the governor arranged for the title deeds to be given to the new titular Bishop; until the 19th century, anyone who died in Gibraltar had the right to be buried under the cathedral floor. Bishops are buried in a crypt beneath the statue of Our Lady of Europe. In 1943, Władysław Sikorski's coffin lay in state here, after his plane crashed into the sea just off Gibraltar. San Roque, Cádiz Cathedral information and photos of interior Illustrated article
Mayor of Gibraltar
His or Her Worship the Mayor of Gibraltar is the ceremonial official of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. The mayor is appointed by the elected Members of Parliament and the office is situated at City Hall John Mackintosh Square. Since 4 April 2019, John Gonçalves has held the position of Mayor of Gibraltar, succeeding Kaiane Aldorino. Since its creation in 1921, the city council had a chairman. In 1955, upon request of the members of the city council, the post was renamed to mayor, therefore, the mayor of Gibraltar was chosen from among the members of the council. Joshua Hassan, the chairman of the city council at the time become the first mayor of Gibraltar; the city council disappeared when the new Gibraltar Constitution Order in Council was signed in 1969. However, the mayor of Gibraltar survived, but only with a ceremonial character, was to be elected by the House of Assembly; this meant that office was invariably taken by a government minister. The 1969 Constitution stated: Following the new 2006 Constitution, the mayor no longer had to be chosen from among the members of Parliament.
Instead, the mayor is appointed by Parliament. The intention was to move to a new system whereby citizens from the community at large can be appointed mayor for a one-year period; the Government of Gibraltar announced that a deputy mayor would be appointed for the same period and would take up the office of mayor the following year. The mayor of Gibraltar is appointed by Parliament but no longer from within Parliament, is to hold the position for a one-year period; as per the 2006 Constitution: A deputy mayor is at the same time appointed by Parliament for one year to assist and support the mayor in the discharge of mayoral duties, as well as to act as mayor when she or he is unable to participate in a civic event. The deputy will take office as mayor the following year and a new deputy appointed, so on. Since 1969, the mayor is not a political figure as his or her duties are ceremonial and civic; the posts of mayor and deputy mayor of Gibraltar are honorific and thus unpaid. The following is a list of all the mayors of Gibraltar since the first tenure began in 1955
Rosia Water Tanks
The Rosia Water Tanks were large water tanks built at the turn of the nineteenth century at Rosia Bay in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. They were constructed based on the recommendation by Admiral John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent that the Victualling Yard complex be relocated to Rosia Bay; the complex allowed Royal Navy vessels to obtain both water at one site. The Rosia Water Tanks remained in the possession of the Ministry of Defence until 2004, at which time they were transferred to the Government of Gibraltar. Despite local and international criticism, a court case brought by the Gibraltar Heritage Trust, the tanks were demolished in 2006 to make way for affordable housing; when developer OEM International's funding proved insufficient to complete the project the government repossessed the site. John Jervis, 1st Earl St Vincent, Admiral in Charge of the Mediterranean Fleet, made recommendations in 1799 concerning the location of the Victualling Yard in Gibraltar. St Vincent advised the Victualling Yard be relocated from the Old Mole area to Rosia Bay so that both water and food could be provided to Royal Navy vessels from one site.
Governor O'Hara did not approve of St Vincent's plan because he proposed to finance it by selling the naval stores at Waterport and Irish Town. However St Vincent won. Not only did the site allow access to the bay, the presence of Parson's Lodge Battery afforded protection from gunfire; the Victualling Yard complex, including the Victualling Yard, Rosia Water Tanks, Rosia Mole, was constructed at the turn of the nineteenth century, the tanks begun in 1799 and finished in 1804. The Rosia Water Tanks consisted of six parallel underground chambers built by contractor Giovanni Maria Boschetti adjacent to the Victualling Yard of bricks brought from Britain and sand-lime mortar waterproofed; the roofs of the Victualling Yard served as a catchment directing rain to a settlement tank, purified by flowing it successively from one tank to the next. The lowest tank was sufficiently high to gravity feed vessels berthed at Rosia Mole. Hoses were used to supply vessels within Rosia Bay, a lighter barge those anchored off it in Gibraltar Harbour.
The Victualling Yard complex, including the tanks, enabled Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson to maintain his fleet in the Mediterranean. Four days before the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar Lord Nelson notified Rear Admiral John Knight of a water shortage aboard his flagship, HMS Victory, requesting he keep the matter to himself; that letter to Knight, written with Nelson's left hand, as he had lost his right hand, went up for auction at Sotheby's in July 2010. Nelson died during the battle. Afterward Victory was anchored. In addition repairing their ship, the sailors replenished their supplies of water; the vessel returned to England with Nelson's body. The tanks were in sufficient condition in the 1950s the navy constructed Rosia Distillery adjacent to the Rosia Cottages, it supplied water from the tanks to lighters. The tanks provided the community with water into the late twentieth century, they remained in the possession of the Ministry of Defence through the end of the twentieth century. The Rosia Water Tanks were utilised by the Ministry of Defence until April 2004, at which time they were transferred to the Government of Gibraltar.
The Gibraltar Heritage Trust sought a legal remedy when the government planned to demolish the tanks and construct a building offering affordable housing, Nelson's View, underground car parking at the site. During a visit permitted by the courts in January 2006, historian Lionel Culatto assessed the tanks and found them to be in good condition. However, shortly thereafter, the Gibraltar Heritage Trust voted to drop its court case due to fears of the mounting legal costs; the vote prompted the resignations of the trust's chairman, Joe Ballantine, another board member, Denis King, called into question the ability of the Gibraltar Heritage Trust to accomplish its stated mission. In February 2006, Marcus Binney, Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London and Architecture Correspondent of The Times, wrote about the controversy. In his column, "Nelson caves to be turned into a car park," Binney reported that: Under heavy pressure from the Gibraltar Government and the Irish development company OEM International, the Gibraltar Heritage Trust withdrew last week an injunction delaying the construction of a block of 200 flats on top of the Rosia Water Tanks.
Dr. Ann Coats, Secretary of the Naval Dockyards Society and author of History of the Rosia Water Tanks, described the Rosia Water Tanks as: A unique engineering monument to Royal Navy ingenuity and Gibraltarian craftsmanship, transforming Gibraltar into an invincible fortress, they enabled Nelson and Admiral Lord St Vincent to maintain their fleets in the Mediterranean, blockading Toulon and vanquishing the French at the Battle of the Nile. Appeals were made to the Governor of Gibraltar, Sir Francis Richards, to list the tanks with the Gibraltar Heritage Trust. Despite the pleas, neither the tanks nor the Victualling Yard were listed in 2006. Listing was limited to the entrance to the yard; the Rosia Water Tanks were demolished in August 2006 despite strong opposition. The government's actions were the subject of international criticism. Jonathan Coad a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London, is with English Heritage; the author of The Royal Dockyards 1690-1850, he is considered to be a preeminent authority on Royal Naval Dockyard architecture.
He contacted the Naval Dockyards Society, expressing his dismay over "the destruction of the vaulted underground storage tanks, which were a remarkable construction feat", continued that "equally s
Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership, grasp of strategy, unconventional tactics, which together resulted in a number of decisive British naval victories during the Napoleonic Wars, he was wounded several times in combat, losing the sight in one eye in Corsica at the age of 36, as well as most of one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife when 40 years of age. He was shot and killed at the age of 47 during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar near the Spanish port city of Cádiz in 1805. Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling, a high-ranking naval officer himself, he rose through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command at the age of 20 in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence.
The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent. Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, was forced to return to England to recuperate; the following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen, he subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle.
After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar; the battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England. Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures; the significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being quoted and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains influential. Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling, he was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.
His mother, who died on 26 December 1767, when he was nine years old, was a great-niece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain. She lived in the village of Barsham and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe. Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich, his naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.
HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen Mary Ann of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea. He twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled North-East Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass; the expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship.
Lutwidge's version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on bei
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell"; the English word manse defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would "remain" there—hence it is obvious how the word mansion got its meaning. Within an ancient Roman city, aristocratic or just wealthy dwellings might be extensive, luxurious; such mansions on one hill in Rome became so extensive that the term palatial was derived from the name Palatine hill and is the etymological origin of "palace". Mansions of considerable size and state significance are called palaces. Following the fall of Rome the practice of building unfortified villas ceased. Today, the oldest inhabited mansions around the world began their existence as fortified castles in the Middle Ages.
As social conditions changed and stabilised fortifications were able to be reduced, over the centuries gave way to comfort. It became fashionable and possible for homes to be beautiful rather than grim and forbidding allowing for the development of the modern mansion. In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments designed for the appearance of grandeur. In many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion refers to a block of apartments. In modern Japan, a "manshon", stemming from the English word "mansion", is used to refer to a multi-unit apartment complex or condominium. In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, a combination of politics and advancements in modern weaponry negated the need for the aristocracy to live in fortified castles; as a result, many were transformed into mansions without defences or demolished and rebuilt in a more modern, undefended style. Due to intermarriage and primogeniture inheritance amongst the aristocracy, it became common for one noble to own several country houses.
These would be visited rotationally throughout the year as their owner pursued the social and sporting circuit from country home to country home. Many owners of a country house would own a town mansion in their country's capital city; these town mansions were referred to as'houses' in London, hotels in Paris and palaces in most European cities elsewhere. It might be noted that sometimes the house of a clergyman was called a "mansion house"; as the 16th century progressed, Renaissance styles of architecture spread across Europe, the last vestiges of castle architecture and life changed. All evidence and odours of cooking and staff were banished from the principal parts of the house into distant wings, while the owners began to live in airy rooms, above the ground floor, with privacy from their servants, who were now confined, unless required, to their delegated areas—often the ground and uppermost attic floors; this was a period of great social change. The uses of these edifices paralleled that of the Roman villas.
It was vital for powerful people and families to keep in social contact with each other as they were the primary moulders of society. The rounds of visits and entertainments were an essential part of the societal process, as painted in the novels of Jane Austen. State business was discussed and determined in informal settings. Times of revolution reversed this value. During July/August 1789 a significant number of French country mansions were destroyed by the rural population as part of the Great Fear—a symbolic rejection of the feudal rights and restraints in effect under the ancient régime; until World War I it was not unusual for a moderately sized mansion in England such as Cliveden to have an indoor staff of 20 and an outside staff of the same size, in ducal mansions such as Chatsworth House the numbers could be far higher. In the great houses of Italy, the number of retainers was even greater than in England, it is doubtful that a 19th-century Marchesa would know the exact number of individuals who served her.
Most European mansions were the hub of vast estates. The 19th century saw the continuation of the building of mansions in the United States and Europe. Built by self-made men, these were smaller than those built by the old European aristocracy; these new builders of mansions did not confine themselves to just the then-fashionable Gothic tastes in architecture, but experimented with 19th-century versions of older Renaissance and Tudoresque styles. During the 19th century, like the major thoroughfares of all important cities, Fifth Avenue in New York City, was lined with mansions. Many of these were designed by the leading architects of the day in European gothic styles, were built by families who were making their fortunes, thus achieving their social aspirations. However, nearly all of these have now been demolished, thus depriving New York of a boulevard to rival, in the architectural sense, those in Paris, London or Rome—where the many large mansions and palazzi built or remo