Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
International Cricket Council
The International Cricket Council is the global governing body of cricket. It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in 1909 by representatives from Australia and South Africa, it was renamed as the International Cricket Conference in 1965, took up its current name in 1989. The ICC has 105 members: 12 Full Members that play 93 Associate Members; the ICC is responsible for the organisation and governance of cricket's major international tournaments, most notably the Cricket World Cup. It appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, One Day International and Twenty20 Internationals, it promulgates the ICC Code of Conduct, which sets professional standards of discipline for international cricket, co-ordinates action against corruption and match-fixing through its Anti-Corruption and Security Unit. The ICC does not control bilateral fixtures between member countries, it does not govern domestic cricket in member countries, it does not make the laws of the game, which remain under the control of the Marylebone Cricket Club.
The Chairman heads the board of directors and on 26 June 2014, N. Srinivasan, the former president of BCCI, was announced as the first chairman of the council; the role of ICC president has become a honorary position since the establishment of the chairman role and other changes were made to the ICC constitution in 2014. It has been claimed that the 2014 changes have handed control to the so-called'Big Three' nations of England and Australia; the last ICC president was Zaheer Abbas, appointed in June 2015 following the resignation of Mustafa Kamal in April 2015. The post of ICC president was abolished in April 2016 and Shashank Manohar who replaced Mr. Srinivasan in October 2015 became the first independent chairman of the ICC since then; the current CEO is Manu Sawhney,the former CEO of Singapore Sports Hub and Managing Director of ESPN Star Sports who succeeded David Richardson. On 30 November 1907, Abe Bailey, the President of South African Cricket Association, wrote a letter to the Marylebone Cricket Club's secretary, F.
E. Lacey. Bailey suggested the formation of an'Imperial Cricket Board'. In the letter, he suggested that the board would be responsible for formulation of rules and regulations which will govern the international matches between the three members: Australia and South Africa. Bailey, wanted to host a Triangular Test series between the participant countries in South Africa. Australia rejected the offer. However, Bailey did not lose hope, he saw an opportunity of getting the three members together during the Australia's tour of England in 1909. After continued lobbying and efforts, Bailey was successful. On 15 June 1909, representatives from England and South Africa met at Lord's and founded the Imperial Cricket Conference. A month a second meeting between the three members was held; the rules were agreed amongst the nations, the first Tri-Test series was decided to be held in England in 1912. In 1926, West Indies, New Zealand and India were elected as Full Members, doubling the number of Test-playing nations to six.
After the formation of Pakistan in 1947, it was given Test status in 1952, becoming the seventh Test-playing nation. In May 1961 South Africa therefore lost membership. In 1964, the ICC agreed upon including the non-Test playing countries; the following year, the ICC changed its name to the International Cricket Conference. Under the new type of membership, the Associate. US, Ceylon and Fiji were admitted. In 1966, Bermuda and East Africa were admitted as Associate. South Africa had still not applied to rejoin the ICC. In 1969, the basic rules of ICC were amended. In 1971 meeting, the idea of organizing a World Cup was introduced. In 1973 meeting, it was decided; the six Test playing nations and East Africa and Sri Lanka were invited to take part. New members were added during this period: In 1974, Argentina and Singapore were admitted as Associate. In 1976, West Africa was admitted as Associate. In 1977, Bangladesh was admitted as Associate. In 1978, Papua-New Guinea was admitted as Associate. South Africa applied to rejoin, however their application was rejected.
In 1981,Sri Lanka was promoted to being a Full Member. They played their first Test in 1982. In 1984, the third type of membership. Italy was the first member, followed by Switzerland in 1985. In 1987, Bahamas and France were admitted, followed by Nepal in 1988. In the July meeting of 1989, the ICC renamed itself to the International Cricket Council and the trend of the MCC President automatically becoming the Chairman of ICC was terminated. In 1990, UAE joined as an associate. In 1991, for the first time in ICC history the meeting was held away from England – in Melbourne. South Africa was re-elected as a Full Member of the ICC after the end of apartheid. In 1992, Zimbabwe was admitted as the ninth Full Member of the International Cricket Council. Namibia joined as Associate member. Austria, Belgium and Spain joined as Affiliates. In 1993, the Chief Executive of ICC was created with David Richards of the Australian Cricket Board the first person appointed to the position. In July, Sir Clyde Walcott, from Barbados, was elected as the first non-British Chairman.
The emergence of new technology saw the introduction of a third umpire, equipped with video playback facilities. By 1995, TV replays were made available for run outs and stumpings in Test matches with the third umpire required to signal out or not out with red and green lights respectively; the following
Cricket Kenya is the official ICC recognised organisation chosen to represent Kenya in terms of cricket issues. They are in charge of overseeing the Kenyan Cricket Team. Cricket Kenya organizes two six team regional tournaments in the T20 and 50 Over formats of the game to replace the defunct Sahara Elite League; these are Premier League. Cricket Kenya organizes the Kenya national cricket team and conducts the international matches with the team. Cricket Kenya consists of a national board consisting of a chairperson, vice chairperson, treasurer and directors selected from its affiliate provincial associations; these are Nairobi Province Cricket Association Rift Valley Cricket Association Coast Cricket Association Cricket in Kenya dates back to the early 1890s when colonial settlers, administrators began playing against one another in Nairobi and Mombasa among several other venues. The first match of any consequence took place in 1899, in 1910 a three-day fixture between Officials and Settlers started, remaining the highlight of the domestic calendar until 1964, along with Europeans v. Asians which began in 1933.
In 1966, Kenya become a member of the East African Cricket Conference and participated in its annual Quadrangular tournament which included the three East African countries and Zambia. The tournament played in each respective country by rotation saw Kenya winning nine of the 15 competitions between 1960 and 1980. A number of Kenyans took part in the 1975 World Cup as part of the East Africa side, that unit again appeared in the inaugural 1979 ICC Trophy, but by 1982 Kenya were playing under their own flag, under the Kenya Cricket Association, it was under this body that Kenyan cricket reached its peak, at the 2003 Cricket World Cup, which it co-hosted and reached the semifinals of. In subsequent years however,bitter disputes between board and players led to a series of strikes, but more cripplingly, the KCA found itself battling most of the country's stakeholders. By the end of the dispute in 2005, Kenyan cricket was in the doldrums, was sponsorless, was in international isolation. In the year it was stripped of its ODI status by the ICC.
The final installation of Cricket Kenya as the body in charge of Cricket in Kenya came at the end of a long drawn out dispute the previous management, the Kenya Cricket Association and its Provincial boards among other stakeholders in the game. The dispute, which centered around issues such as floundering constitutional review, financial irregularities which had seen the KCA rack up 500,000 dollars of debt, as well as periodic player disputes over pay that saw the KCA lose all credibility within Kenyan cricketing circles as players and the Kenya government withdrew all recognition and support of the KCA in favour of Cricket Kenya, an interim board put together by the Kenya Government to avoid the chaos, created by the KCA over the management of Cricket in Kenya. With the intervention of a high powered ICC delegation led by Percy Sonn and Peter Chingoka, an agreement on a new elections and a new constitution was agreed upon; the board members that were elected in the subsequent elections formally wound up the Kenya Cricket Association paving the way for its official replacement by a new organisational body to be known as Cricket Kenya.
Tom Tikolo served as the CEO of Cricket Kenya from 2005 to 2009 when he resigned due to cash scandal. After extensive searching he was replaced by Tom Sears in mid-2010. Sears himself steeped down in mid 2012 to pursue a career in rugby administration. Kenya national cricket team National Elite League Twenty20 Cricket Kenya Official Website
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. It is bordered to the north by Spain; the landscape is dominated by the Rock of Gibraltar at the foot of, a densely populated town area, home to over 30,000 people Gibraltarians. In 1704, Anglo-Dutch forces captured Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne; the territory was ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. During World War II it was an important base for the Royal Navy as it controlled the entrance and exit to the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, only 8 miles wide at this naval choke point, it remains strategically important. Today Gibraltar's economy is based on tourism, online gambling, financial services and cargo ship refuelling; the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations because Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum and, in a 2002 referendum, the idea of shared sovereignty was rejected.
Evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar from around 50,000 years ago has been discovered at Gorham's Cave. The caves of Gibraltar continued to be used by Homo sapiens after the final extinction of the Neanderthals. Stone tools, ancient hearths and animal bones dating from around 40,000 years ago to about 5,000 years ago have been found in deposits left in Gorham's Cave. Numerous potsherds dating from the Neolithic period have been found in Gibraltar's caves of types typical of the Almerian culture found elsewhere in Andalusia around the town of Almería, from which it takes its name. There is little evidence of habitation in the Bronze Age, when people had stopped living in caves. During ancient times, Gibraltar was regarded by the peoples of the Mediterranean as a place of religious and symbolic importance; the Phoenicians were present for several centuries since around 950 BC using Gorham's Cave as a shrine to the genius loci, as did the Carthaginians and Romans after them. Gibraltar was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin.
Mons Calpe was considered by the ancient Greeks and Romans as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. There is no known archaeological evidence of permanent settlements from the ancient period, they settled at the head of the bay in. The town of Carteia, near the location of the modern Spanish town of San Roque, was founded by the Phoenicians around 950 BC on the site of an early settlement of the native Turdetani people. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar came under the control of the Vandals, who crossed into Africa at the invitation of Boniface, the Count of the territory; the area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania for 300 years, from 414 until 711 AD. Following a raid in 710, a predominantly Berber army under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed from North Africa in April 711 and landed somewhere in the vicinity of Gibraltar. Tariq's expedition led to the Islamic conquest of most of the Iberian peninsula.
Mons Calpe was renamed the Mount of Tariq, subsequently corrupted into Gibraltar. In 1160 the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built, it received the name of Medinat al-Fath. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today. From 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462 Gibraltar was captured by 1st Duke of Medina Sidonia. After the conquest, Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. Six years Gibraltar was restored to the Duke of Medina Sidonia, who sold it in 1474 to a group of 4350 conversos from Cordova and Seville and in exchange for maintaining the garrison of the town for two years, after which time they were expelled, returning to their home towns or moving on to other parts of Spain. In 1501 Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, Isabella I of Castile issued a Royal Warrant granting Gibraltar the coat of arms that it still uses.
In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, a combined Anglo-Dutch fleet, representing the Grand Alliance, captured the town of Gibraltar on behalf of the Archduke Charles of Austria in his campaign to become King of Spain. Subsequently most of the population left the town with many settling nearby; as the Alliance's campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated, which ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britain's withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence. Gibraltar became a key base for the Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, because of its strategic location. In the 18th century, the peacetime military garrison fluctuated in numbers from a minimum of 1,100 to a maximum of 5,000; the first half of the 19th century saw a significant increase of population to more t
Irish Town, Gibraltar
Irish Town is a pedestrianised street in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is one of Main Street's sub-districts running parallel to it, from Cooperage Lane in the north to John Mackintosh Square in the south. Tito Benady calls Irish Town the second most important street in Gibraltar's city centre after Main Street, it was named Calle de Santa Ana after a hermitage which carried this name at the corner with Market Lane. The Mercedarian Fathers established themselves in Gibraltar in 1581 and built their monastery around the little chapel, the street retained its name; the monastery become known as the White Cloisters and formed part of an order established in Barcelona in 1380 for ransoming Christian captives in Muslim hands. The site of the old monastery is now occupied by Cloister Building which houses the offices of Blands and MH Bland; the building may have been used as barracks for some time, but was handed over to the Royal Navy by Lord Portmore in 1720 becoming the naval storehouse with apartments for the victualling clerks.
The original building however, was destroyed during the Great Siege of Gibraltar. Four of the old columns of the old monastery's cloister were removed and now flank the entrance to Trafalgar House at Trafalgar Road; the Navy owned stores in Irish Town but these were sold in order to finance the new Royal Navy Victualling Yard at Rosia Bay at the suggestion of John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent in the 1790s against the wishes of Governor O'Hara. The origin of the Irish Town name which dates back to the early 19th century when Gibraltar was split into differing quarters and it is a common fact that 95% of Irish town is in fact Welsh. But, not internationally known, it was once thought that the name was attributed to Irish merchants residing in Gibraltar and having their properties and warehouses on this street, but the property owner lists of 1749 and 1777 don't show any Irish names, all of which seem to have lived in Main Street. It is more however, that it acquired its name from an Irish regiment, barracked at this street in the White Cloisters.
An 18th century visitor to Gibraltar called Irish Town "a street of ill repute" and it is possible that the ladies who plied their trade were from that Irish regiment. The Central Police Station of the Royal Gibraltar Police, a red-brick Gothic building is located at the south end of Irish Town. Designed by civil engineer, Walter Eliot, it was inaugurated on 7 July 1864 by the Governor of Gibraltar, General Sir William John Codrington. Several businesses are located here such as Turner & Co
Bhutan Cricket Council Board
Bhutan Cricket Council Board is the official governing body of the sport of cricket in Bhutan. Its current headquarters is in Bhutan. Bhutan Cricket Council Board is Bhutan's representative at the International Cricket Council and is an affiliate member and has been a member of that body since 2001, it is a member of the Asian Cricket Council. The Bhutan Cricket Council Is Funded By BCCI; the Help of BCCI, BCC Can Continuously Running Their Cricket Team Official site of Bhutan Cricket Council Board
Sport in Gibraltar
Sport plays a prominent role in Gibraltarian life. The range of sports practiced in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar is wide and varied in comparison to its size of less than 7 square kilometres; the Government of Gibraltar promotes sport within The Rock and supports many local sports associations financially. Gibraltar competes in international sporting events, having competed in the Commonwealth Games since 1958, in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1995 and will host again in 2019; the Ministry for Sport, headed by the Minister for Culture, Sport & Leisure, is responsible for sports policy matters and the provision of support to educational establishments and the governing bodies of sport in Gibraltar. The Gibraltar Sports Advisory Council is set up to advise the Government of Gibraltar, through the Minister for Sport, on all matters relating to sport including: Capital expenditure priorities Allocation of grants to sporting societies Sports development International competitions Availability and use of sports facilities The Government recognises the benefits derived from the Gibraltarians' participation in sports and other recreational activities.
Therefore, particular importance is given to the availability of facilities for the practice of these sports as well as making these available to anyone for booking allocations free of charge. There is a large number of varying standards; these provide opportunities for locals and visitors alike to enjoy sport recreationally as well as professionally for the serious sport enthusiasts, where they can improve standards and have the opportunity to participate in local and international events. The main sport facilities in Gibraltar are the multi-purpose Victoria Stadium and the Tercentenary Sports Centre; these include facilities such as artificial turf football pitches, water-based hockey fields and padel tennis courts, athletics fields, archery practice range, cricket fields, squash courts, golf practice range, climbing wall and multi-purpose sports halls for basketball, volleyball, handball, five-a-side football, martial arts among many others. In 2007, there were eighteen sports associations in Gibraltar recognised by their respective international governing bodies.
Others, such as the Gibraltar National Olympic Committee, have applied for international recognition which are being considered. The Gibraltar Football Association applied for full membership of UEFA, but their bid was turned down in 2007 in a contentious decision in defiance of a previous Court of Arbitration for Sport ruling that held that GFA should be granted membership. UEFA's rejection was due to Spain's intense lobbying and vow to boycott any event involving Gibraltar. Athletics is a popular sport in Gibraltar. In the 2015 island games which were held in Jersey, Jerai Torres ran a Gibraltarian 100m time of 11:22 seconds. In Jersey Karl Baldachino ran a Gibraltarian 400m record in 53:17. Sean Collado was unlucky to miss out on a medal running a time of 53:51 in the 400m. Laura Bevington ran a PB of 27:98 in the 200m. Zyanne Hook ran a superb 100m in 13:23 seconds. Cricket enjoys massive popularity in Gibraltar as the weather is suited to cricket games; as of February 2015, Gibraltar's national cricket team had featured in the top flight of the European Cricket Championship on four occasions, with its best finish, sixth place, coming at the inaugural 1996 European Cricket Championship in Denmark.
Gibraltar won Division Two at the Championships in 2000 and 2002, at a time when there was no promotion and relegation between divisions. Rugby is played in Gibraltar under the auspices of the Rugby Football Union, by both local teams such as Gibraltar Barbarians Rugby Club, armed forces. Basketball in Gibraltar is managed by the Gibraltar Amateur Basketball Association. Sponsored by Grind House and Ladies GABBA teams play the senior basketball league in the neighbour Spanish province of Cádiz. Grind House GABBA won the 2007/08 female championship GABBA is a member of FIBA since 1985, the men's team plays biennially the FIBA European Championship for Small Countries. Darts enjoys widespread popularity in Gibraltar with regular participation in a league organised by the Gibraltar Darts Association, a full member of the World Darts Federation and participates in European & World Championships; the Professional Darts Corporation is a regular visitor to Gibraltar, holding an annual tournament as one of the Players Championships.
In May 2010 Gibraltar was host nation for the Darts Mediterranean Cup. Six countries competed in the event. Gibraltar won the tournament, taking its first gold medal. Gibraltarian records in athletics Culture of Gibraltar Sport in the United Kingdom Government of Gibraltar website on sport. SportGibraltar.com