MV New Flame
MV New Flame was a Panamanian bulk-carrier cargo ship. It collided with an oil tanker off Europa Point, the southernmost tip of Gibraltar on 12 August 2007, ended up submerged in the Strait of Gibraltar; the vessel broke into two in December 2007 amid numerous unsuccessful recovery efforts. The cargo was salvaged and the stern section removed for scrap. Following the crew's rescue, the captain was arrested for having departed without authorisation. Charges of endangering shipping were dropped. New Flame measured 190 metres long, 30 metres wide and 28 metres tall, of which 16 metres were under the water line, it had a capacity of nearly 44,000 tonnes deadweight. At time of the incident it had a crew of 23 and it was owned by Transmar, a Greek shipping company; the ship was built in June 1994 by Daewoo H. I, South Korea and first named as Skaustrand. From 1995 it was named Aditya Gautam and was owned by the Indian company Century Textiles & Industries Ltd, who sold it in 2005 to Transmar for $22.5 million.
In the early morning of 12 August 2007, New Flame departed from Europa Point en route to Turkey, carrying 27,000 tons of scrap metal and 750 tons of fuel oil. About one kilometre south of Europa Point, it ran into the stern of Torm Gertrud, a double-hulled Danish petroleum tanker, scheduled to complete a personnel transfer in the Spanish port of Algeciras; the tanker proceeded towards Algeciras after the collision, where it was secured, with its cargo of 39,000 tons of fuel, whilst New Flame took water by the bow. The ship was abandoned by the crew and thereafter became submerged and ran aground nearby; the rescue response at the working level of Gibraltar was commended, although there was considerable criticism at a local level in Spain, due to the dispute between Spain and Gibraltar. Removal of the vessel’s fuel was initiated on 15 August with the arrival of the tug Hua-An joined by the tug Fotiy Krylov, it was the first priority of the salvage operation to minimise the environmental impact of the collision, followed by operations to refloat the ship.
On 20 August the salvage operation turned to the controlled break-up of the ship in two halves and the first reports of a'minor' oil-spill were reported. It was reported; the tug Fotiy Krylov had attempted to move the ship and divers checked the damage, concluding that the ship's structural integrity was sound enough for the removal of fuel to continue. By 24 August, it looked that the ship would be refloated if only to tow to a safer location; the salvage companies involved were Svitzer Wijsmuller Salvage. On 14 September 2007, the Government of Gibraltar announced that all fuel had been removed from the vessel, totalling 780 cubic metres; the operation had been hampered by the exposed location of the wreck. It was reported that the ship would not be salvaged in a single piece due to structural damage and would be instead cut in two parts at one-third of its length from the bow; the stern section would be removed first and towed to a safe area, where it would have its cargo removed and be taken to dry dock in Gibraltar.
On completion, the bow part would have been taken apart. The operation was scheduled to start in October 2007 with the removal of the stern in November and the bow as late as March 2008. However, the salvage company experienced technical difficulties in cutting up the vessel. Following prolonged bad weather, the vessel broke into two on 22 December 2007, prompting an emergency meeting by the Government of Gibraltar with maritime authorities. On 28 December 2007, the vessel's insurers placed the salvage operation in the hands of Titan Maritime, one of the world's largest marine salvage companies. New Flame avoided becoming a local shipwreck when in August 2008, the stern section was lifted and taken to the ship repair yard; the salvage operation of New Flame featured on "Salvage Code Red" on the National Geographic Channel on 16 February 2009. Following the collision, there were concerns raised that such incidents in the area were commonplace, with local politicians on both Gibraltar and Spanish sides calling for a review of procedures.
On 21 August the Spanish Maritime Safety Agency announced that it had put in place its anti-pollution alert program. This involved the deployment of the ship Don Inda, based in Galicia, which arrived at Algeciras on 14 August. On 31 August the European Maritime Safety Agency announced that, at the request of the Spanish administration the ship Mistra Bay, which specialised in the treatment of pollution, would be sent to the area. Following continued media speculation and accusations in Spain, the Government of Gibraltar announced it would make no further public comment, except to say that "this salvage operation has taken place more than comparable salvage operations elsewhere in the world." The captain, Demetrio Konstantinos, a Greek national, was arrested and released on bail. He faced safety charges. Subsequently Konstantinos pleaded guilty to leaving port without proper notification and paid a small fine, but charges of endangering shipping were dropped. MV Fedra "Pictures and discussion of events".
"Pictures and commentary soon after the collision and once salvage underway". "206/2007, Salvage Operation'New Flame' Attachment". Government of Gibraltar Press Release. 2007-09-14. Archived from the original on 2007-11-24. "New Flame - Gibraltar, agosto de 2007". Titan Marine
Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles. There are several categories of bicycle racing including road bicycle racing, time trialling, cyclo-cross, mountain bike racing, track cycling, BMX, cycle speedway. Non-racing cycling sports include artistic cycling, cycle polo, freestyle BMX and mountain bike trials; the Union Cycliste Internationale is the world governing body for cycling and international competitive cycling events. The International Human Powered Vehicle Association is the governing body for human-powered vehicles that imposes far fewer restrictions on their design than does the UCI; the UltraMarathon Cycling Association is the governing body for many ultra-distance cycling races. Bicycle racing is recognised as an Olympic sport. Bicycle races are popular all over the world in Europe; the countries most devoted to bicycle racing include Belgium, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Other countries with international standing include Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.
The first bicycle race is popularly held to have been a 1,200 meter race on the 31 May 1868 at the Parc de Saint-Cloud, Paris. It was won by expatriate Englishman James Moore; the machine is now on display at the museum in Ely, England. The Union Cycliste Internationale was founded on 14 April 1900 by Belgium, the United States, France and Switzerland to replace the International Cycling Association, formed in 1892, over a row with Great Britain as well as because of other issues. Road bicycle racing involve both team and individual competition, races are contested in various ways, they range from the one-day road race and time trial to multi-stage events like the Tour de France and its sister events which make up cycling's Grand Tours. The races take place from spring through to autumn. Many riders from the northern hemisphere spend the winter in countries such as Australia, to compete or train. Professional races range from the three-week "Grand Tour" stage races such as the Tour de France, Giro d'Italia and the Vuelta a España to multi-day stage races such as the Tour de Suisse and Tour of California, to single day "Classics" such as the Tour of Flanders and Milan–San Remo.
The longest one-day road race sanctioned by USA Cycling is Lotoja which covers the 206 miles from Logan, Utah to Jackson, Wyoming. Criteriums are races based on circuits less than a mile in length and sometimes run for a set time rather than a specific distance. Criteriums are the most popular form of road racing in North America. In Belgium, kermesses are popular, single-day events of over 120 km; as well as road races in which all riders start individual time trial and team time trial events are held on road-based courses. Track cycling encompasses races that take place on banked velodromes. Events are quite diverse and can range from individual and team pursuits, two-man sprints, to various group and mass start races. Competitors use track bicycles which do not have freewheels. Cyclo-cross originated as a sport for road racers during the off season, to vary their training during the cold months. Races take place in the autumn and winter and consist of many laps of a 2–3 km or 1–2 mile course featuring pavement, wooded trails, steep hills, obstacles requiring the rider to dismount, carry the bike and remount in one motion.
Races for senior categories are between 30 minutes and an hour long, the distance varying depending on the conditions. The sport is strongest in traditional road cycling countries such as France. Mountain bike races involve moderate to high degree of technical riding. There are several varieties. BMX takes place off-road. BMX races are sprints on purpose-built off-road single-lap tracks on single-gear bicycles. Riders navigate a dirt course of banked and flat corners. Cycle speedway is bicycle racing on 70 -- 90 m in length. Motor-paced racing and Keirin use motorcycles for pacing so bicyclists achieve higher speeds. Speeds achieved on indoor tracks are greater than those on roads. Other factors affecting speed are the route profile, wind conditions and elevation. At a 2013 event in Mexico, François Pervis achieved an average of 21.40 metres per second with a flying start over 200 meters. The top average speed over the men's 1 km time trial at the 2004 Summer Olympics was 16.4 metres per second recorded by Chris Hoy.
Average speeds drop with increasing distance, so that over the 120 km Cootamundra Annual Classic it is 11.8 metres per second. In the 259 km 2010 Paris-Roubaix, Fabian Cancellara set a speed of 10.9 metres per second, while over the 818 km Furnace Creek 508, the speed drops to 8.3 metres per second. For an extreme road distance such as the 4800 km Race Across America, the average speed of the record holder is 5.7 metres per second, while the 2350 km Freedom Trail over mountainous terrain in South Africa is at a record speed of 1.9 metres per second. Mountain bike trials is a sport where riders navigate natural and man-made obstacles without putting down their foot, or "dabbing", it is similar to motorcycle trials. Points are awarded for bike handling skills. Freestyle BMX is an extreme sport of stunt riding BMX bikes. Cycling Mountain bi
British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories or United Kingdom Overseas Territories are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of scientific personnel, they all share the British monarch as head of state. As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN; the other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were referred to as British Crown Colonies. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man are under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom; the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries with historic links to the British Empire. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about 1,727,570 square kilometres.
The vast majority of this land area, 1,700,000 square kilometres, constitutes the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, accounts for a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula; the United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were known as "Plantations"; the first, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Labrador.
It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia, its offshoot, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires; these include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada, South Africa, Rhodesia; these and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved full independence with the Statute of Westminster. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean gained independence; some colonies becam
MV Fedra was a Liberian-registered bulk-carrier cargo ship. It ran aground and smashed against Europa Point, the southernmost tip of Gibraltar on 10 October 2008 following severe gale force winds measuring 12 on the Beaufort scale. Spanish and Gibraltarian emergency services mounted a joint rescue operation, Gibraltar declared a Major Incident and requested the standby of additional statutory and voluntary emergency services, although due to the safe rescue of all crew from Fedra they were not needed. Five of its 31 crew members were airlifted to safety by a Spanish coast guard helicopter and the rest were hoisted up by an improvised crane system; the vessel broke in half shortly thereafter. About half of its 300 tons of fuel spilled into the sea; some of such oil washed ashore along Gibraltar's western coast in the area of Rosia Bay and Camp Bay. Spanish sources said that some fuel from Fedra had washed up on some Campo beaches having drifted as far as Tarifa. There were oil slicks in the Bay of Gibraltar.
Fedra avoided becoming a permanent shipwreck when the forward section was re-floated and towed round into the Bay of Gibraltar in February 2009. It was moored alongside the South Mole in Gibraltar Harbour; the superstructure was cut away from the hull of the aft section, was placed the dockside at HM Naval Base. A report was released by the Gibraltar Maritime Association in January 2012 which reveals how the Company undermined the Master of Fedra and his authority in his attempts to save both the crew and the ship; the report explains the various aspects which led to the demise of MV Fedra. MV New Flame Searle, Dominique. "Cargo ship hits Gibraltar rocks in heavy seas". Reuters. Retrieved 11 October 2008. "Bulk Carrier FEDRA runs aground in severe weather". Gibfocus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2008. Retrieved 11 October 2008. "El vertido de fuel se extiende por el Estrecho y llega hasta Ceuta". El País. Retrieved 15 October 2008
Military history of Gibraltar during World War II
The military history of Gibraltar during World War II exemplifies Gibraltar's position as a British fortress since the early 18th century and as a vital factor in British military strategy, both as a foothold on the continent of Europe, as a bastion of British sea power. During World War II, Gibraltar served a vital role in both the Atlantic Theatre and the Mediterranean Theatre, controlling all naval traffic into and out of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to its commanding position, Gibraltar provided a defended harbour from which ships could operate in both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Force H, under the command of Vice-Admiral James Somerville was based in Gibraltar and had the task of maintaining naval superiority and providing a strong escort for convoys to and from the besieged island of Malta. During the course of the war, Gibraltar came under aerial bombardment from Vichy French aircraft and from aircraft of the Italian Royal Air Force based on Sardinia.
Additionally, the fortress was the focus of underwater attacks by the Italian Royal Navy commando frogman unit and their human torpedoes. This Italian unit was based on the interned Italian ship SS Olterra in the nearby Spanish harbour of Algeciras. A number of attacks were carried out by Spanish and Gibraltarian agents acting on behalf of the German Abwehr. Inside the Rock of Gibraltar itself, miles of tunnels were excavated from the limestone. Masses of rock were blasted out to build an "underground city". In huge man-made caverns, offices, a equipped hospital were constructed, complete with an operating theatre and X-ray equipment. Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of French North Africa in November 1942, was coordinated from the "Rock". General Dwight D. Eisenhower, given command of the operation, set up his headquarters in Gibraltar during the planning phases of the operation. Following the successful completion of the North African campaign and the surrender of Italy in 1943, Gibraltar's role shifted from a forward operating base to a rear-area supply position.
The harbour continued to operate dry docks and supply depots for the convoy routes through the Mediterranean until V-E Day in 1945. World War II changed the lives of Gibraltarians; the decision to enforce mass evacuation in order to increase the strength of the Rock with more military and naval personnel meant that most Gibraltarians had nowhere to call'home'. Only those civilians with essential jobs were allowed to stay but it gave the entire community a sense of being'British' by sharing in the war effort. In early June 1940, about 13,500 evacuees were shipped to Casablanca in French Morocco. However, following the capitulation of the French to the German armies in June 1940, the new Pro-German French Vichy Government found the presence of Gibraltarian evacuees in Casablanca an embarrassment and sought opportunities for their removal; the opportunity soon arose when 15 British cargo vessels arrived under Commodore Crichton, repatriating 15,000 French servicemen, rescued from Dunkirk. Once their own rescued servicemen had disembarked, the ships were interned until they agreed to take away all the evacuees.
Although Crichton was unable to obtain permission to clean and restock his ships, when he saw the mass of civilians pouring through the dockyards, he opened up his gangways for boarding. Just beforehand, the British fleet had destroyed a number of French warships at Mers el-Kebir in order to prevent them ending up in German hands; the attack, during which 1,297 French sailors died, led to high tensions, which were evident when families were forced at bayonet point by French troops to board taking only what they could carry, leaving many possessions behind. However, when they arrived at Gibraltar, the Governor would not allow them to land, fearing that once the evacuees were back on the Rock, it would be impossible to evacuate them a second time. Crowds gathered in John Mackintosh Square in the centre of Gibraltar as the news broke, speeches were made and two City Councillors accompanied by the Acting President of the Exchange and Commercial Library went to see the Governor to ask that the evacuees be allowed to land.
After receiving instructions from London, a landing was allowed as long as the evacuees returned when other ships arrived to take them away from the Rock, by 13 July the re-evacuation back to Gibraltar had been completed. British conservative politician Oliver Stanley agreed to accept the evacuees in the United Kingdom, but he argued with Gibraltar over the number of people involved; the Governor, he declared, had given the number of evacuees first as 13,000 as 14,000 and as 16,000. He asked for the situation to be clarified, stressing the shortage of accommodation in Britain and insisting that only 13,000 could be accepted, 2,000 of whom were to be sent to the Portuguese Atlantic island of Madeira; the situation, replied General Liddell on 19 July, "is that this is a fortress liable to heavy and immediate attack and there should be no civilians here whereas there are 22,000. The 13,000 was the number sent to Morocco, more would have been sent had the situation there not altered." In London the evacuees were placed in the hands of the Ministry of Health, many were housed in Kensington area.
Concern for them in Gibraltar mounted as the air raids against London intensified, coupled with the arrival of harrowing letters, describing the circumstances in which the evacuees were living. In September rumours were circulating among the evacuees, in Gibraltar, that the possibility of re-evacuating the Gibral
Thirteenth Siege of Gibraltar
The Siege of Gibraltar of 1727 saw Spanish forces besiege the British garrison of Gibraltar as part of the Anglo-Spanish War. Depending on the sources, Spanish troops numbered between 12,000 and 25,000. British defenders were 1,500 at the beginning of the siege, increasing up to about 5,000. After a five-month siege with several unsuccessful and costly assaults, Spanish troops gave up and withdrew. Following the failure the war drew to a close, opening the way for the 1728 Treaty of El Pardo and the Treaty of Seville signed in 1729. On 1 January 1727 the Marquis of Pozobueno, Spanish ambassador to the Court of St. James's, sent a letter to the Duke of Newcastle explaining why the Spanish Crown believed that Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht had been nullified by infractions by the British: The cession which his Majesty made precedently of that Place is become null, because of the infractions made in the conditions on which it was permitted that the English garrison should remain in the possession of Gibraltar.
The letter was tantamount to a declaration of war. Spain, was not in a advantageous position to capture Gibraltar in 1727. At the last attempt to retake Gibraltar in 1704, Spain had a strong Navy and the additional assistance of French warships. However, following their defeat at the battle of Cape Passaro and the capture of Vigo and Pasajes, the Spanish Navy was weakened; the Royal Navy had complete naval supremacy in the Straits, ruling out a Spanish landing in the south, ensuring that the British garrison would be well supplied through a siege. Any attempt to scale the Rock from the east was now impossible as the British had destroyed the path; the only option of attack open to the Spanish was along a narrow funnel that ran between the sea and the western side of the North Face of the Rock. This narrow strip of land would come under fire from three sides: Willis's battery to the east, the Grand Battery to the south, the Devil's Tongue Battery on the Old Mole to the west. A number of Philip V's senior military advisers warned the King that the recapture of Gibraltar was, at the present, near impossible.
The Marquis of Villadarias had warned that it would be impossible to take the Rock without naval support. The senior Flemish engineer, George Prosper Verboom, agreed with this opinion, and'gave it as his considered opinion that the only plan with any possibility of success was of a seaborne attack from the south.' However, the King was impressed by the Count de las Torres de Alcorrín, Viceroy of Navarre, who vowed that he could:'in six weeks deliver Spain from this noxious settlement of foreigners and heretics'. The disagreement between Verboom and de las Torres was to continue throughout the siege, indeed, so noticeably that when the siege was underway, a diarist within Gibraltar wrote that a Spanish deserter had reported:'that a dispute hath happen'd betwixt two Generals about storming us, upon which the one... is going to Madrid to complain to the King." Despite Verboom's doubts, the King gave. The count began to muster the besieging troops at San Roque at the start of 1727, in total thirty infantry battalions, six squadrons of horse, seventy-two mortars and ninety-two guns.
Large parts of the army were not themselves Spanish. Of the thirty infantry battalions nineteen were foreign mercenaries: three battalions of Walloons, three French Belgian, four Irish, two Savoyard, two Neapolitan, one Swiss, one Corsican, one Sicilian. Serving alongside the Jacobite Irish was the infamous Duke of Wharton. A notorious libertine and founder of the original Hellfire Club, Wharton had fled England and joined the cause of the Old Pretender, he attained permission from Philip V to serve as volunteer aide-de-camp to the Count de las Torres, was something of an embarrassment to both sides.'The Duke of Wharton never comes into the trenches but when he is Drunk, that and only he is mightily valiant.' He was to be badly injured in the leg during the siege and he was declared an outlaw by the British Government. Both the Governor of Gibraltar and the Lieutenant Governor were in England when the Spanish began to amass their forces. Colonel Richard Kane, the British commander of Menorca, was in temporary command of the sparsely defended British garrison of 1,200 men from the 5th Regiment, the 13th, the 20th and the 30th.
Kane expelled the 400 Spanish residents of Gibraltar and continued to improv
Gibraltar Botanic Gardens
The Gibraltar Botanic Gardens or La Alameda Gardens are a botanical garden in Gibraltar, spanning around 6 hectares. The Rock Hotel lies above the park. In 1816 the gardens were commissioned by the British Governor of Gibraltar General George Don, it was his intention that the soldiers stationed in the fortress would have a pleasant recreational area to enjoy when off duty, so inhabitants could enjoy the air protected from the extreme heat of the sun. The gardens were resurrected in 1991 by an external company when it was realised that since the 1970s they had fallen into a poor state. Three years the gardens had the addition of a zoo: the Alameda Wildlife Conservation Park. In 2001 a bronze sculpture of James Joyce's Molly Bloom was installed in the gardens; this running figure was commissioned from Jon Searle to celebrate the bicentenary of the Gibraltar Chronicle in 2001. General Don had commissioned a memorial of George Augustus Eliott, 1st Baron Heathfield in 1815, which did not materialise in the form requested.
A colossal statue of General Eliot, carved from the bowsprit of the Spanish ship San Juan Nepomuceno, taken at the Battle of Trafalgar was first created. That statue was taken to the Governor's residence, The Convent, where it stands today, being replaced by the present bronze bust in 1858; this statue is guarded for four 18th-century howitzers. The plants of the Alameda Gardens are a combination of native species and others brought in from abroad: Dracaena draco, a subtropical Dragon Tree native to the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira and locally in western Morocco; the oldest dragon tree in the gardens is about 300 years old. Stone pine, a species of pine native of southern Europe the Iberian Peninsula. Wild Olive, a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae. Celtis australis, a deciduous tree that can be among 20 to 25 metres of height. Grevillea robusta, the largest species in the genus Grevillea. There is only one specimen of this tree in the gardens. Canary Island Date Palm, a large palm native to the Canary Islands off the Atlantic coast of north Africa.
Washingtonia filifera, a palm native to the desert oases of Central and southwestern Arizona, southern Nevada, extreme northwest Mexico and inland deserts of southern California. Howea forsteriana, endemic to Lord Howe Island. Solitaire Palm Ptychosperma elegans an evergreen shrub native to East Asia. Bougainvillea, a genus of flowering plants native to South America from Brazil west to Peru and south to southern Argentina. Asteraceae, the second largest family of flowering plants. Pelargonium, a genus of flowering plants. Succulent plant, water-retaining plants adapted to arid soil conditions; the Alameda Open Air Theatre was inaugurated once again on 12 April 1996 at four o'clock with three bands of music playing - the same number of bands as had attended 180 years before to the hour at the opening of the Alameda Gardens in 1816. In order to extend its use from just theatre to general use, a number of new features were introduced, like the waterfall and lake - the largest area of open fresh water on the Rock, with Koi Carp and a collection of exotic lilies.
Since its opening, this venue has been used for a variety of purposes, from beauty contests to band concerts weddings, dinner dances and variety shows. It is the main venue for the GIB Fringe; the theater is available for hire and all proceeds will go directly into continued improvements in the theatre and in the rest of Gibraltar's historic and improving Alameda Gardens. Useful information about the theater and its facilities: Seating Capacity: 435 Stage Area: 120 m2 Lighting Equipment: 34 Wide and Beams with colored filters if required. 3 stage and 3 public entrances. Bar, changing rooms and toilet facilities. Seating with table maximum capacity: 300 List of plants in the Gibraltar Botanic Gardens Gibraltar candytuft Alameda Wildlife Conservation Park Grove Poplar avenue "Gibraltar Botanical Gardens "The Alameda"". Government of Gibraltar. Retrieved 2007-11-27. Official website Alameda Gardens in the site of the Government of Gibraltar