Gibraltar City Hall
The Gibraltar City Hall is the former city hall for Gibraltar, centrally located within the city at the west end of John Mackintosh Square. It is the office of the Mayor of Gibraltar; the building was a private mansion built in 1819 by Aaron Cardozo, a prosperous merchant of Jewish Portuguese descent who had settled in Gibraltar, as his family home. It was the grandest private mansion seen in Gibraltar; the three-storey house dominated John Mackintosh Square. It was erected on the site of the old hospital and chapel of La Santa Misericordia and prison; as a non Protestant, Cardozo was not allowed to own property in Gibraltar. However, as he had been a close friend of Lord Nelson and had supplied his fleet, he was granted a site to build a house in the Alameda on the condition that it be "an ornament" to the square, its cost was about £40,000. After his death in 1834, his mansion was leased to John Ansaldo as the Club House Hotel, it was bought in 1874 by Pablo Antonio Larios, a wealthy businessman and banker, Gibraltarian-born but member of a Spanish family, the Larios, who refurbished the building.
In 1922, his son Pablo Larios, Marquis of Marzales, sold the building to the Gibraltar colonial authorities, which intended to turn it into a post office. However, it became the seat of the newly formed Gibraltar City Council. Since 1926, the Gibraltar telephone service was operated by the City Council, an automatic exchange serving the territory was installed in the last floor of the building, The building was extended modifying its original symmetry. Nowadays, it houses the Mayor's Parlour. In 2015 HM Government of Gibraltar set up the Mario Finlayson National Art Gallery at the City Hall; the gallery exhibits the works of prominent Gibraltarian artists such as Gustavo Bacarisas, Jacobo Azagury, Leni Mifsud, Rudesindo Mannia. Some works by Mario Finlayson are on display. Benady, Tito; the Streets of Gibraltar. Gibraltar Books. Pp. 17–19. ISBN 0-948466-37-5. Bond, Peter. 300 Years of British Gibraltar 1704-2004. Peter-Tan Publishing Co. Stephen Constantine. Community and identity; the making of modern Gibraltar since 1704.
Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-8054-8. Romero Frías, Rafael. Fundación Arte y Tecnología de Telefónica, ed. Colección Histórico-Tecnológica de Telefónica. Madrid. ISBN 84-604-9745-3
Pillars of Hercules
The Pillars of Hercules was the phrase, applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. The northern Pillar, Calpe Mons, is the Rock of Gibraltar. A corresponding North African peak not being predominant, the identity of the southern Pillar, Abila Mons, has been disputed throughout history, with the two most candidates being Monte Hacho in Ceuta and Jebel Musa in Morocco. According to Greek mythology adopted by the Etruscans and Romans, when Hercules had to perform twelve labours, one of them was to fetch the Cattle of Geryon of the far West and bring them to Eurystheus. A lost passage of Pindar quoted by Strabo was the earliest traceable reference in this context: "the pillars which Pindar calls the'gates of Gades' when he asserts that they are the farthermost limits reached by Heracles." Since there has been a one-to-one association between Heracles and Melqart since Herodotus, the "Pillars of Melqart" in the temple near Gades/Gádeira have sometimes been considered to be the true Pillars of Hercules.
According to Plato's account, the lost realm of Atlantis was situated beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in effect placing it in the realm of the Unknown. Renaissance tradition says the pillars bore the warning Ne plus ultra, serving as a warning to sailors and navigators to go no further. According to some Roman sources, while on his way to the garden of the Hesperides on the island of Erytheia, Hercules had to cross the mountain, once Atlas. Instead of climbing the great mountain, Hercules used his superhuman strength to smash through it. By doing so, he connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and formed the Strait of Gibraltar. One part of the split mountain is Gibraltar and the other is either Monte Hacho or Jebel Musa; these two mountains taken together have since been known as the Pillars of Hercules, though other natural features have been associated with the name. Diodorus Siculus, held that instead of smashing through an isthmus to create the Straits of Gibraltar, Hercules narrowed an existing strait to prevent monsters from the Atlantic Ocean from entering the Mediterranean Sea.
In some versions, Heracles instead built the two to hold the sky away from the earth, liberating Atlas from his damnation. Beyond Gades, several important Mauretanian colonies were founded by the Phoenicians as the Phoenician merchant navy pushed through the Pillars of Hercules and began constructing a series of bases along the Atlantic coast starting with Lixus in the north Chellah and Mogador. Near the eastern shore of the island of Gades/Gadeira Strabo describes the westernmost temple of Tyrian Heracles, the god with whom Greeks associated the Phoenician and Punic Melqart, by interpretatio graeca. Strabo notes that the two bronze pillars within the temple, each eight cubits high, were proclaimed to be the true Pillars of Hercules by many who had visited the place and had sacrificed to Heracles there, but Strabo believes the account to be fraudulent, in part noting that the inscriptions on those pillars mentioned nothing about Heracles, speaking only of the expenses incurred by the Phoenicians in their making.
The columns of the Melqart temple at Tyre were of religious significance. Syriac scholars were aware of the Pillars through their efforts to translate Greek scientific works into their language as well as into Arabic; the Syriac compendium of knowledge known as Ktaba d'ellat koll'ellan. "The Cause of all Causes", is unusual in asserting that there were three, not two, columns In Inferno XXVI Dante Alighieri mentions Ulysses in the pit of the Fraudulent Counsellors and his voyage past the Pillars of Hercules. Ulysses justifies endangering his sailors by the fact that his goal is to gain knowledge of the unknown. After five months of navigation in the ocean, Ulysses sights the mountain of Purgatory but encounters a whirlwind from it that sinks his ship and all on it for their daring to approach Purgatory while alive, by their strength and wits alone; the Pillars appear as supporters of the coat of arms of Spain, originating in the impresa of Spain's sixteenth century king Charles I, the Holy Roman Emperor as Charles V.
It was an idea of the Italian humanist Luigi Marliano. It bears the motto Plus Ultra, Latin for further beyond, implying; this was modified from the phrase Nec plus ultra, Nothing more beyond after the discovery of the Americas, which laid to rest the idea of the Pillars of Hercules as the westernmost extremity of the inhabitable world which had prevailed since Antiquity. The Pillars appear prominently on the engraved title page of Sir Francis Bacon's Instauratio Magna, 1620, an unfinished work of which the second part was his influential Novum Organum; the motto along the base says augebitur scientia. The image was based on the use of the pillars in Habsburg propaganda. On the Spanish coast at Los Barrios are Torres de Hercules which are twin towers that were inspired by the Pillars of Hercules; these towers were the tallest in Andalusia until Cajasol Tower was completed in Seville in 2015. Caves of Hercules Dollar sign
Timeline of the history of Gibraltar
The history of Gibraltar portrays how The Rock gained an importance and a reputation far exceeding its size and shaping the people who came to reside here over the centuries. Evidence of hominid inhabitation of the Rock dates back to the Neanderthals. A Neanderthal skull was discovered in Forbes' Quarry in 1848, prior to the "original" discovery in the Neander Valley. In 1926, the skull of a Neanderthal child was found in Devil's Tower. Mousterian deposits found at Gorham's Cave, which are associated with Neanderthals in Europe, have been dated to as as 28,000 to 24,000 BP, leading to suggestions that Gibraltar was one of the last places of Neanderthal habitation. Modern humans visited the Gibraltar area in prehistoric times after the Neanderthal occupancy. While the rest of Europe was cooling, the area around Gibraltar back resembled a European Serengeti. Leopards, lynxes and bears lived among wild cattle, deer, ibexes and rhinos – all surrounded by olive trees and stone pines, with partridges and ducks overhead, tortoises in the underbrush and mussels and other shellfish in the waters.
Clive Finlayson, evolutionary biologist at the Gibraltar Museum said "this natural richness of wildlife and plants in the nearby sandy plains, shrublands, wetlands and coastline helped the Neanderthals to persist." Evidence at the cave shows the Neanderthals of Gibraltar used it as a shelter "for 100,000 years." Cro-Magnon man took over Gibraltar around 24,000 BCE. The Phoenicians are known to have visited the Rock circa 950 BC and named the Rock "Calpe"; the Carthaginians visited. However, neither group appears to have settled permanently. Plato refers to Gibraltar as one of the Pillars of Hercules along with Jebel Musa or Monte Hacho on the other side of the Strait; the Romans visited Gibraltar. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Gibraltar was occupied by the Vandals and the Goths kingdoms; the Vandals did not remain for long although the Visigoths remained on the Iberian peninsula from 414 to 711. The Gibraltar area and the rest of the South Iberian Peninsula was part of the Byzantine Empire during the second part of the 6th century reverting to the Visigoth Kingdom.
711 30 April – The Umayyad general Tariq ibn Ziyad, leading a Berber-dominated army, sailed across the Strait from Ceuta. He first failed. Upon his failure, he landed undetected at the southern point of the Rock from present-day Morocco in his quest for Spain, it was here. Coming from the Arabian words Gabal-Al-Tariq. Little was built during the first four centuries of Moorish control. 1160 – The Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mu'min ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built. It received the name of Medinat al-Fath. On completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to inspect the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months; the Tower of Homage of the castle remains standing today. 1231 – After the collapse of the Almohad Empire, Gibraltar was taken by Ibn Hud, Taifa emir of Murcia. 1237 – Following the death of Ibn Hud, his domains were handed over to Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar, the founder of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada. Therefore, Gibraltar changed hands again. 1274 – The second Nasrid king, Muhammed II al-Faqih, gave Gibraltar over to the Marinids, as payment for their help against the Christian kingdoms.
1309 – While the King Ferdinand IV of Castile laid siege on Algeciras, Alonso Pérez de Guzmán was sent to capture the town. This was the First Siege of Gibraltar; the Castilians took the Upper Rock from. The garrison surrendered after one month. Gibraltar had about 1,500 inhabitants. 1310 31 January – Gibraltar was granted its first Charter by the king Ferdinand IV of Castile. Being considered a high risk town, the charter included incentives to settle there such as the offering of freedom from justice to anyone who lived in Gibraltar for one year and one day; this fact marked the establishment of the Gibraltar council.1316 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Nasrid caid Yahya. 1333 June – A Marinid army, led by Abd al-Malik, the son of Abul Hassan, the Marinid sultan, recovered Gibraltar, after a five-month siege. King Alfonso XI of Castile attempted to retake Gibraltar aided by the fleet of the Castilian Admiral Alonso Jofre Tenorio. A ditch was dug across the isthmus. While laying the siege, the king was attacked by a Nasrid army from Granada.
Therefore, the siege ended in a truce, allowing the Marinids to keep Gibraltar.1344 March – After the two-year Siege of Algeciras, Algeciras was taken over by the Castilian forces. Therefore, Gibraltar became the main Marinid port in the Iberian Peninsula. During the siege, Gibraltar played a key role as the supply base of the besieged. 1349 – Gibraltar was unsuccessfully besieged by the Castilian forces led by the king Alfonso XI. 1350 – The siege was resumed by Alfonso XI. It was again unsuccessful due to the arrival of the Black Death, which decimated the besiegers, causing the death of the king. 1369 – As the Civil War in Castile came to an end, with the murder of king Peter I by the pretender Henry, the Nasrid king of Granada, Muhammad V, former ally of Peter, took over Algeciras after the 3-day Siege of Algeciras. Ten years the city was razed out to the ground, its harbour made unusable; this fact increased again the importance of Gibraltar, yet in Marinid hands, i
Great Siege of Gibraltar
The Great Siege of Gibraltar was an unsuccessful attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British during the American War of Independence. The British garrison under George Augustus Eliott were blockaded from June 1779 by the Spanish alone, led by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor; the blockade failed because two relief convoys entered unmolested—the first under Admiral George Rodney in 1780 and the second under Admiral George Darby in 1781—despite the presence of the Spanish fleets. The same year, a major assault was planned by the Spanish, but the Gibraltar garrison sortied in November and destroyed much of the forward batteries. With the siege going nowhere and constant Spanish failures, the besiegers were reinforced by French forces under de Crillon, who took over command in early 1782. After a lull in the siege, during which the allied force gathered more guns and troops, a "Grand Assault" was launched on 18 September 1782; this involved huge numbers—60,000 men, 49 ships of the line and ten specially designed, newly invented floating batteries—against the 5,000 defenders.
The assault was a disastrous failure. The siege settled down again to more of a blockade, but the final defeat for the allies came when a crucial British relief convoy under Admiral Richard Howe slipped through the blockading fleet and arrived at the garrison in October 1782; the siege was lifted on 7 February 1783 and was a decisive victory for the British forces, being a vital factor in the Peace of Paris, negotiated towards the end of the siege. This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers the "Grand Assault". At three years and seven months, it is the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces and one of the longest sieges in history. In 1738 a dispute between Spain and Great Britain arose over commerce between Europe and the Americas. Both sides intended to sign an agreement at the Spanish Royal Palace of El Pardo, but in January of the following year, the British Parliament rejected the advice of Foreign Minister Robert Walpole, a supporter of the agreement with Spain.
A short time the War of Jenkins' Ear began, both countries declared war on 23 October 1739, each side drawing up plans to establish trenches near Gibraltar. Seeing these first movements, Britain ordered Admiral Vernon to sail from Portobello and strengthen the squadron of Admiral Haddock, stationed in the Bay of Gibraltar; the passage of years failed to break the hostilities in the region. On 9 July 1746, King Philip V of Spain died in Madrid, his successor, Ferdinand VI, soon began negotiations with Britain on trade. The British Parliament was amenable to such negotiations, looked favourably upon lifting the British embargo on Spain and ceding Gibraltar; the neutrality adopted by Ferdinand VI ended with his death in 1759. The new king, Charles III, was less willing to negotiate with Great Britain. Instead, he signed a Family Compact with Louis XV of France on 15 August 1761. At that time France was at war with Britain, so Britain responded by declaring war on Spain and capturing the Spanish colonial capitals of Manila and Havana.
Two years after cessation of hostilities, Spain recovered Manila and Havana in exchange for Spanish holdings in Florida as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. In the years of peace that followed both France and Spain hoped for an opportunity to launch a war against Britain on more favourable terms and recover their lost colonial possessions. Following the outbreak of the American War of Independence, both states supplied funding and arms to the American rebels, drew up a strategy to intervene on the American side and defeat Britain. In October 1778 France entered the war and on 12 April 1779, both France and Spain signed the Treaty of Aranjuez wherein they agreed to aid one another in recovering lost territory from Britain. France and Spain sought to secure Gibraltar, a key link in Britain's control of the Mediterranean Sea, expected its capture to be quick—a precursor to a Franco-Spanish invasion of Great Britain; the Spanish blockade was to be directed by Martín Álvarez de Sotomayor. Spanish ground forces were composed of 16 infantry battalions, which included the Royal Guards and the Walloon Guards, along with artillery and 12 squadrons of cavalry.
This yielded a total of about 14,000 men in all. The artillery was commanded by Rudesindo Tilly, while the cavalry and the French dragoons were headed by the Marquis of Arellano. Antonio Barceló commanded the maritime forces responsible for blockading the bay, he established his base with a fleet of several xebecs and gunboats. A fleet of 11 ships of the line and two frigates were placed in the Gulf of Cadiz under the command of Luis de Córdova y Córdova to block the passage of British reinforcements; the British garrison in 1778 consisted of 5,382 soldiers. All the defences were strengthened; the most prominent new work was the King's Bastion designed by Sir William Green and built by the Soldier Artificer Company on the main waterfront of the town in Gibraltar. The King's Bastion comprised a stone battery holding 26 heavy guns and mortars, with barracks and casemates to house a full battalion of foot; the Grand Battery protected the Land Port Gate, the main entrance to Gibraltar from the isthmus connecting to the Spanish mainland.
Other fortifications and batteries crowded on the Rock. Eliott began a programme of increasin
UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum
The UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum known as Overseas Territories Conservation, is a UK-based non-governmental organisation which promotes coordinated conservation in the UK Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies. It is a not-for-profit organisation supported by grants and subscriptions, a registered charity and company. UKOTCF is a non-profit organisation, constituted as a Charitable Company under the laws of England & Wales; the governing document is the Articles of Association. Under the Memorandum and Articles and subsidiary documents, UKOTCF is run by a Council of up to 12 persons elected by the member organisations. Council members are elected for 3-year, renewable terms, each year four places come up for election on rotation; the UKOTs are internationally recognised for their exceptionally rich and varied natural environments. They contain an estimated 90% of the biodiversity found within the UK and the territories combined; the UK and territory governments bear joint responsibility for conserving and protecting the rich natural heritage of the UKOTs, work together to meet obligations under international environmental agreements.
UKOTCF is the only organisation working on cross-territory UKOT environmental issues, providing assistance in the form of expertise and liaison between non-governmental organisations and governments, both in the UK and in the territories themselves. UKOTCF has over 30 member and associate organisations; these are: Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Trust, Bermuda National Trust, National Parks Trust of the Virgin Islands, Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society, Alderney Wildlife Trust, Anguilla Archaeological & History Society, Anguilla National Trust, Ascension Conservation Centre, Ascension Heritage Society, BirdLife Cyprus, Bermuda Audubon Society, Bermuda Zoological Society, United Kingdom Antarctic Heritage Trust, National Trust for the Cayman Islands, Central Caribbean Marine Institute, Chagos Conservation Trust, Akrotiri Environmental Education & Information Centre, Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society, La Société Guernesiaise, Isle of Man Department of Environment, Food & Agriculture, National Trust for Jersey, Société Jersiaise, Jost Van Dykes Preservation Society, Montserrat National Trust, Pitcairn Natural Resources Department, La Société Sercquiais, Saint Helena National Trust and Caicos National Museum, National Trust of the Turks & Caicos Islands, Turks & Caicos Reef Fund, Army Ornithological Society, Royal Air Force Ornithological Society, Royal Naval Birdwatching Society.
In addition to the member and associate organisations, UKOTCF has links with a number of other organisations including 1% for the Planet and the International Union for Conservation of Nature. A selection of UKOTCF's projects are detailed in the table below: The UKOTCF website and database contain extensive information on conservation priorities for the UKOTs, as well as funding sources, environmental education resources and specific information on projects carried out in the UKOTs; the database was incorporated in response to requests from the territories, designed so that information can be added and updated by partner organisations. The database modules help to track critical sites, conservation priorities, projects within the UKOTs/CDs, environmental education resources and other information on a wide variety of subjects; the database has been described as' a valuable resource for conservation practitioners in the Overseas Territories' by the Institute of Zoology. In addition to an annual report, UKOTCF publishes the Forum News newsletter several times a year.
These can be found on the UKOTCF website and provide the latest news relevant to the UKOTs. In 2018, a new website was launched at www.ukotcf.org.uk The UKOTs are important parts of the UK, not foreign countries. Although small in size, they support far more endemic taxa and other globally important biodiversity than does Britain and Ireland, they are important for their historical and cultural heritage, both in their own right, their historical links for UK. However, there is little public awareness, either within UKOTs or in mainland UK, of the biodiversity and cultural importance of the UKOTs, the challenges they face. UKOTCF raises awareness of the territories and the UK's responsibility to them through its'Virtual Tours' of the territories; the virtual tours draw attention to the biodiversity and cultural value, highlight the challenges they face and the opportunities to protect and conserve their important features. UKOTCF has organised six international environment conferences since 1999, the most recent being held in Gibraltar in 2015, with support from HM Government of Gibraltar and the Gibraltar Ornithological & Natural History Society.
UKOTCF conferences bring together conservation professionals from across the UKOTs, CDs and beyond, providing a forum in which to share information and best practice, forge stronger environmental links between UK Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies and other small island nations. The latest conference included involvement of environment ministers from several territories. Proceedings of all UKOTCF-organised conferences are publicly available on the UKOTCF website. 2015 - Gibraltar: Sustaining Partnerships: a conference on conservation and sustainability in UK Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies and other small island communities. Gibraltar hosted an international environmental conference "Sustaining Partnerships" from 11 to 15 July 2015, with a focus on UK Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies and other small islands; the conference provided a forum for governm
Windmill Hill (Gibraltar)
Windmill Hill or Windmill Hill Flats is one of a pair of plateaux, known collectively as the Southern Plateaux, at the southern end of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is located just to the south of the Rock of Gibraltar. Windmill Hill slopes down to the south with a height varying from 120 metres at the north end to 90 metres at the south end, it covers an area of about 19 hectares. The plateau is ringed to the south and east with a line of cliffs which descend to the second of the Southern Plateaux, Europa Flats, itself ringed by sea cliffs. Both plateaux are the product of marine erosion during the Quaternary period and subsequent tectonic uplift. Windmill Hill was on the shoreline and its cliffs were cut by the action of waves, before the ground was uplifted and the shoreline moved further out to the edge of what is now Europa Flats; the plateau has had military importance throughout the period of British rule over Gibraltar. It was fortified in the 1770s as part of the improvement schemes of Chief Engineer Colonel William Green prior to the Great Siege of Gibraltar.
John Drinkwater, who served in Gibraltar during the siege, commented in his History of the Late Siege of Gibraltar that "the retired and inaccessible lines of Windmill Hill have great command, being situated within musket-shot of the sea, are formidable, of great consequence in that quarter."A series of artillery batteries was constructed there during the 19th century to support the lower-level defences on Europa Flats and to enfilade any potential attackers landing in the area. The batteries included Buffadero Battery, Edward VII Battery, Jews' Cemetery Battery, Levant Battery and Windmill Hill Batteries; the flat terrain of the plateau lent itself well to accommodating mobile gun sites, between which guns could be moved as required. At the head of the plateau, the Retrenched Barracks provided garrison accommodation and served as a small fortress that could be used to block an enemy's attempt to gain access to the heights of the Rock; the plateau is the site of Lathbury Barracks, constructed in the early 1960s and used until 1991 by the British Army.
A NATO communications centre was built there in the 1970s. The Royal Gibraltar Regiment's Buffadero Training Centre is situated near the barracks and is used by British Army units for a variety of training purposes, including practicing fighting in built-up areas in a mock-up village; the terrain in the vicinity is similar to that of parts of Afghanistan, consisting of rocky ground covered with thickets of vegetation and shrubbery. This similarity has been used for exercises to prepare British troops for deployment in support of the British war effort in Afghanistan. Windmill Hill lies some way from the main area of settlement in Gibraltar, though in the late 18th century the ruins of Moorish buildings – which would have been at least 350 years old by that time – were still visible on the plateau; the Jewish community of Gibraltar established a cemetery there, known as the Jews' Gate Cemetery, in a "very airy and elevated situation."In 2010, the Government of Gibraltar established a prison there called HM Prison Windmill Hill.
The construction of a civil prison on Windmill Hill had been proposed as long ago as 1854, when prisoners were being incarcerated in the Moorish Castle – a situation, described as "defective in many points" in an 1867 report but persisted until 2010. The Detention Barracks, a military prison, stood on Windmill Hill for many years and was described by the English traveller Reginald Fowler as "clean, admirably arranged, the discipline strict" when he saw it in 1854, it was demolished in 1962. The government proposed in 2009 to build a new power station for Gibraltar on the site of the former barracks' parade ground; this raised concerns about the impact on the area's rich variety of wildlife. In March 2012 the newly elected Gibraltar Socialist Labour Party/Liberal alliance government announced that it would not be proceeding with the power station plans on this site; the Windmill Hill area is one of the most important wildlife habitats in Gibraltar and is a Site of Community Importance under the European Union Habitats Directive.
Although the environment is at first sight rather hostile, with only a thin layer of poor-quality soil overlaying rocks, it supports a wide variety of flora including species which are not found elsewhere in Gibraltar. These include, among Salvia verbenaca; the central area of Windmill Hill is open with sparse ground cover, while peripheral areas are covered in low scrub which stands about 0.75 metres high on average, rising to a height of up to 2 metres. Because of its prominence as the only vegetated area of the southern tip of Gibraltar, Windmill Hill attracts many species of migrating birds which may see it as a focal point on trans-Saharan journeys, it is home to Gibraltar's national bird, the Barbary partridge, which nests in the plateau's open habitat. It is an important waypoint on the route that songbirds take in migrating between Europe and Africa, is their first European landfall on crossing the Strait of Gibraltar. Bats hunt there, feeding on insects. A number of Gibraltar's caves are located under the hill.
The Genista Caves came to light in
The real was the official currency of Gibraltar until 1825 and continued to circulate alongside other Spanish and British currencies until 1898. After the Anglo-Dutch occupied Gibraltar in 1704, the Spanish real continued to circulate in the town. However, no distinction was made between the silver and billon reales issued by the Spanish, providing a substantial profit for the army officers making payments to troops. In 1741, the following rates of exchange were established: 2 blancas = 1 maravedi, 4 maravedíes = 1 quarto or quart, 16 quartos = 1 real de vellón, 8 reales de vellón = 1 peso sencillo, 10 reales de vellón = 1 peso fuerte; these doubled the value of the real de vellón relative to its value in Spain. Much of the currency in circulation was in the form of copper coins, since the low value of silver coins relative to billon lead to most silver being exported from Gibraltar to Spain. Copper merchants' tokens denominated in quarts were issued between 1802 and 1820. In 1825, the relative values of the various circulating coins were revised and pegged to the British pound.
The real de plata was subdivided into 24 quarts, valuing the real de plata at 96 maravedíes compared to 85 in Spain. The Spanish dollar was valued at 4 shillings and 4 pence and British silver coins were imported. However, because this rating of the dollar was too high, British silver coins could not circulate, although British coppers did, with an informal valuation of 1 quart = 1 farthing; this discrepancy was exploited to the profit of army officers making payments to troops. In 1842, coins were issued in 1 and 2 quarts denominations. A total of 387,072 quarts worth of coins were issued, allowing soldiers wages to be paid in quarts rather than pence. Other coins continued to circulate, until 1872. In that year, the Spanish currency became the sole legal tender in Gibraltar. In 1898, the Spanish–American War made the Spanish peseta drop alarmingly and the pound was introduced as the sole currency of Gibraltar in the form of British coins and banknotes. Traders' currency tokens were issued in Gibraltar between 1802 and 1820 by Robert Keeling, Richard Cattons, James Spittles.
There were two denominations - 2 quarts. Note that proofs of these coins were issued in 1860 and 1861. Gibraltar pound