Gibson Brands, Inc. is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, consumer and professional electronics from Kalamazoo and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013. Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as the "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments. Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments, acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited, that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by David H. Berryman.
Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars in the big band era of the 1930s. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by a team led by Ted McCarty. In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries Onkyo Corporation, Cerwin Vega, Stanton, as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems, pianos from their wholly owned subsidiary Baldwin Piano, music software from Cakewalk. On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, announced a restructuring deal to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations. Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898, more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.
Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. The company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs. Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis; the following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments. Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin, introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924. In 1936, Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars and mandolins. During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company.
Gibson folklore has claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war." In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950, he led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard and Junior models. In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland; the first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Hank Garland. A shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives. In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain. In the 1950s, Gibson produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF, first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.
In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially, it was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea. In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design; the new body design became known as the SG, due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968. On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries, named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin.
This began an era characterized by decreasing product quality. Between 1974 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee; the Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years a
The Gibson Hummingbird is an acoustic guitar model/series produced by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. Unlike the other flat-top Gibson acoustics, the Hummingbird was Gibson's first square-shoulder dreadnought, similar to the dreadnoughts produced by C. F. Martin & Company. Introduced in 1960, the Hummingbird was Gibson's second-most expensive acoustic guitar, behind the Gibson J-200, until the introduction of the Gibson Dove in 1962, has remained in production since. In 2000 the Gibson Hummingbird was the winner of Acoustic Guitar's Player's Choice Award for the Dreadnought Category, was described thus: "The Hummingbird has a wide range of sound, from gutsy and loud, to sweet and soft. Superb for all styles of playing, whether just chording or playing intricate solos." The first wave of Hummingbirds came with a solid Sitka spruce solid mahogany back. The sides are mahogany, they have adjustable rosewood or ceramic saddles, three-ply maple bridge plates, single X-bracing, engraved hummingbird-butterfly trumpet-flower pickguards with two points on the upper treble bout and one point level with the bridge, as well as bound fretboards with double parallelogram inlays, a crown peghead inlay on the headstock, golden green button tulip tuners, a cherryburst finish.
A limited number of Hummingbirds produced in 1962 and 1963 have maple sides. A natural top with cherry back-and-sides finish was available in 1963. Since the size of the pickguard has been reduced; some Hummingbirds produced in 1965 had their sides around the neck and at the endpin painted black to hide where Gibson had over-sanded the body, sanded through the top layer of the mahogany laminated sides. During 1965 the nut width decreased from 1 11/16 to 1 5/8 and in 1968 the bottom belly bridge became more square. At the same time the bracing became bulkier. A percentage of Hummingbirds with tobacco sunburst finish were produced and the pickguards were attached with five screws for between one and two years. A double X-bracing has been used between the mid-80's. Since 1970, the saddles are no longer adjustable, the necks are made of laminated three-piece mahogany; the fretboard inlays were changed to block ones restored to double parallelograms in 1984. The name of standard models varies during the years, which could be Hummingbird with no suffix, Hummingbird Modern Classic or Hummingbird Standard.
They have AA or AAA-grade solid Sitka spruce tops, with mahogany back and sides. A Hummingbird of this category features a rosewood fretboard with double parallelogram inlays, a crown peghead inlay headstock, nickel Grover rotomatic tuners and a custom-made Hummingbird tortoiseshell pickguard. An L. R. Baggs Element Active pickup system is installed; this model is available in different cherryburst variations from strong orange to yellow, heritage cherryburst and natural finishes. They are seen in wine red and black. Hummingbird Vintage, or formally Hummingbird True Vintage, features a vintage appearance and sound, from its "thermally cured" spruce top, it has gold Gotoh green button tulip tuners and a vintage cherryburst finish, which make the guitar resemble its 1960s ancestors. It has the famous adored, pickguard wildlife motif engraved and hand-painted, not embedded as the standard; the vintage model has no electronics from the factory. The Icon'60s Hummingbird is a natural-finished model with block inlays in the fretboard rather than the double parallelograms.
It has an adjustable tusq saddle and an original 1960s-style Hummingbird pickguard. The Hummingbird Custom KOA model is a custom model, with back and sides constructed from highly-figured koa wood, it has gold Grover mother of pearl keystone tuners, a custom in-flight hummingbirds peghead logo and a hummingbird floral tortoiseshell pickguard, all expressed in genuine abalone and mother-of-pearl. It has an ebony fretboard with rolled edges and Orpheum-style abalone inlays; this model has an antique natural finish. Introduced as the monthly limited edition of December 2016, featuring select Adirondack red spruce top with mahogany back and sides. In 2010, Gibson introduced the Limited Edition 50th Anniversary 1960 Hummingbird series, including the Standard, the Rosewood and the KOA models. In 2016, Gibson produced a limited number of "Hummingbird Dark" guitars which are thinner than a standard Hummingbird, use a black translucent finish, a red-filled pickguard, carry the signature of country artist Eric Church.
In 2007, Gibson produced a small batch of silver burst Hummingbird. In 2008 Gibson released a few Hummingbird Modern Classics with a Vintage Sunburst finish, the same finish seen on a J-45 Standard; the Gibson label found on the inside of this Hummingbird says "Hummingbird, Fuller's Vintage Edition". All the other specifications, such as materials and tuning keys, are the same as the specifications of the standard model; the Hummingbird Artist model is quite different. It is an Guitar Center exclusive release, it forward shifted bracing of the Songwriter, only in mahogany. It does not have a Hummingbird pickguard. An L. R. Baggs Element Active pickup system is installed; this model has a washed heritage cherry finish. The Hummingbird Pro model was released by Guitar Center and Musicians Friend but is available from other dealers, specially in Europe, it has the same shape as the Artist model. A cutaway model is also
Acer is a genus of trees and shrubs known as maple. The genus is placed in the family Sapindaceae. There are 128 species, most of which are native to Asia, with a number appearing in Europe, northern Africa, North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum, extends to the Southern Hemisphere; the type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus, the most common maple species in Europe. The maples have recognizable palmate leaves and distinctive winged fruits; the closest relatives of the maples are the horse chestnuts. Most maples are trees growing to a height of 10–45 m. Others are shrubs less than 10 meters tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most species are deciduous, many are renowned for their autumn leaf colour, but a few in southern Asia and the Mediterranean region are evergreen. Most are shade-tolerant when young and are riparian, understory, or pioneer species rather than climax overstory trees. There are a few exceptions such as sugar maple.
Many of the root systems are dense and fibrous, inhibiting the growth of other vegetation underneath them. A few species, notably Acer cappadocicum produce root sprouts, which can develop into clonal colonies. Maples are distinguished by opposite leaf arrangement; the leaves in most species are palmate veined and lobed, with 3 to 9 veins each leading to a lobe, one of, central or apical. A small number of species differ in having palmate compound, pinnate compound, pinnate veined or unlobed leaves. Several species, including Acer griseum, Acer mandshuricum, Acer maximowiczianum and Acer triflorum, have trifoliate leaves. One species, Acer negundo, has pinnately compound leaves that may be trifoliate or may have five, seven, or nine leaflets. A few, such as Acer laevigatum and Acer carpinifolium, have pinnately veined simple leaves. Maple species, such as Acer rubrum, may be dioecious or polygamodioecious; the flowers are regular and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1 – 6 mm long, four to ten stamens about 6 – 10 mm long, two pistils or a pistil with two styles.
The ovary is superior and has two carpels, whose wings elongate the flowers, making it easy to tell which flowers are female. Maples flower in late winter or early spring, in most species with or just after the appearance of the leaves, but in some before the trees leaf out. Maple flowers are green, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species; some maples are an early spring source of nectar for bees. The distinctive fruits are called samaras, "maple keys", "helicopters", "whirlybirds" or "polynoses"; these seeds occur in distinctive pairs each containing one seed enclosed in a "nutlet" attached to a flattened wing of fibrous, papery tissue. They are shaped to carry the seeds a considerable distance on the wind. People call them "helicopters" due to the way that they spin as they fall. During World War II, the US Army developed a special air drop supply carrier that could carry up to 65 pounds of supplies and was based on the Maple seed.
Seed maturation is in a few weeks to six months after flowering, with seed dispersal shortly after maturity. However, one tree can release hundreds of thousands of seeds at a time. Depending on the species, the seeds can be green to orange and big with thicker seed pods; the green seeds are released in pairs, sometimes with the stems still connected. The yellow seeds are released individually and always without the stems. Most species require stratification in order to germinate, some seeds can remain dormant in the soil for several years before germinating; the genus Acer together with genus Dipteronia are either classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or else classified as members of the family Sapindaceae. Recent classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in Sapindaceae; when put in family Sapindaceae, genus Acer is put in subfamily Hippocastanoideae. The genus is subdivided by its morphology into a multitude of subsections. Fifty-four species of maples meet the International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria for being under threat of extinction in their native habitat.
The leaves are used as a food plant for the larvae of a number of the Lepidoptera order.. In high concentrations, like the greenstriped mapleworm, can feed on the leaves so much that they cause temporary defoliation of host maple trees. Aphids are very common sap-feeders on maples. In horticultural applications a dimethoate spray will solve this. In the United States and Canada, all maple species are threatened by the Asian long-horned beetle. Infestations have resulted in the destruction of thousands of maples and other tree species in Illinois, New Jersey and New York. Maples are affected by a number of fungal diseases. Several are susceptible to Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium species, which can cause significant local mortality. Sooty bark disease, caused by Cryptostroma species, can kill trees that are under stress due to drought. Death of maples can be caused by Phytophthora root rot and Ganoderma root decay. Maple leaves in late summer and autumn are disfigured by "tar spot" caused by Rhytisma species and mildew caused by Uncinula species, though these diseases do not have an adverse effect on th
The Gibson Firebird is a solid-body electric guitar manufactured by Gibson from 1963 to the present. The Gibson Guitar Corporation released several new styles during the 1950s to compete with Fender's solid-body instruments, such as the Telecaster and Stratocaster. After success with the Les Paul in the 1950s, Gibson's popularity began to wane in the 1960s. Fender's colors and multiple pickups were endorsed by notable guitarists. Gibson's guitars, most of which were hollow or semi-hollow designs, seemed old-fashioned. Coupled with higher prices, this contributed to a decline in sales. Gibson had made forays into radical body shapes – the Flying V and Explorer in the 1950s – which met limited initial success; the president of Gibson, Ted McCarty, hired car designer Ray Dietrich to design a guitar that would have popular appeal. Under Dietrich, the Firebird took on the lines of mid-50s car tailfins. Dietrich rounded the edges; the most unusual aspect is that the guitar is "backward" in that the right-hand horn of the body is longer than the other.
Thus, the original Firebirds were unofficially referred to as "reverse". The Firebird looks like an Explorer with softer "points," or maybe a reverse Fender Jaguar or Jazzmaster; the Firebird is the first Gibson solid-body to use neck-through construction, wherein the neck extended to the tail end of the body. The neck itself is made up of five plies of mahogany interspersed with four narrow strips of walnut for added strength. Other features were reverse headstock and "banjo"-style planetary geared tuning keys; the special original Gibson Firebird humbucking pickup – single, dual or triple – were smaller footprint versions of standard Gibson humbucking pickups, but were unique in that inside each of their smaller bobbins contained an AlNiCo bar magnet. Original Firebird pickups were built without any specific bobbin fasteners – their bobbins were held onto the frame during both the wax potting process and the solid metal cover, soldered to the frame base. There are no screw poles on Firebird pickups.
Some Firebirds from 1965 featured Gibson's single-coil P-90 pickup. The Firebird line went on sale in mid-1963 with four models distinguished by pickup and tailpiece configurations. Unlike the Les Paul and SG line, which used the terms "Junior", "Special", "Standard" and "Custom", the Firebird used the Roman numerals "I", "III", "V" and "VII". Gibson's line of Thunderbird basses is rooted in the design of the Firebird, uses Roman numerals to distinguish it. From 1965 to 1969, Gibson introduced "non-reverse" models after failing to achieve marketing success with the unusual reverse-body design. Gibson had received complaints from Fender that the Firebird headstock mirrored the Stratocaster and that the body violated Fender's design patents, with Fender threatening a lawsuit; the "non-reverse" body is a more standard double-cutaway design, with the bass horn being longer than the treble horn and the headstock having the tuners mounted on the bass side. It had a standard glued-in neck rather than neck-through construction, as well as other, less noticeable changes in design and build.
Pickup and tailpiece configuration for the V and VII were the same as the earlier "reverse" models, although the I- and III-models were now shipped with two or three P-90 pickups and plain vibratos. After a few years of disappointing sales, the "non-reverse" line was dropped. "Reverse" body Firebirds were first reissued in 1972, with a commemorative "Bicentennial" model released in 1976, made available in a variety of finishes including black, vintage white and the traditional sunburst. The bicentennial model was distinguished by gold hardware and a red-white-blue logo on the white pickguard; the logo on most other models is red. The "reissue" Firebirds are based on the original reverse body design, though Gibson reintroduced the non-reverse Firebird in 2002 as a Custom Shop guitar. Many types have been released. Epiphone, owned by Gibson issued Firebirds. Beginning in 2010, Gibson stated that they would no longer be creating banjo tuners for the Firebird. Gibson reissues of the Firebird do not use the same pickup build, introduced in 1963.
The modern Firebird pickups have more output, more midrange, less treble "bite" than the original design. Firebird I – One pickup. Combination stud bridge/tailpiece. Nickel hardware. Dot inlays. Firebird II Artist CMT – A limited-production instrument from the early 1980s. Firebird III – Two pickups, stud bridge/tailpiece and Gibson Vibrola. Nickel hardware. Dot inlays and neck binding. Firebird V – Two pickups, Tune-o-matic bridge with Maestro "Lyre" Vibrola. Nickel hardware. Trapezoid inlays and neck binding. Firebird VII – Three pickups, Tune-o-matic bridge and Maestro "Lyre" Vibrola tailpiece. Gold hardware. Block inlays and neck binding. Firebird Studio – Two standard-sized Alnico humbuckers, Tune-o-matic bridge with stop-bar tailpiece. Chrome or gold hardware. Set neck. Dot inlays and no neck binding. Firebird XII – A two-pickup, twelve-string non-reverse Firebird. Non-Reverse Firebird – Collectors' term for a Firebird I, III, V or VII featuring a headstock with the tu
Orville H. Gibson was a luthier who founded the Gibson Guitar Company in Kalamazoo, Michigan in 1902, makers of guitars and other instruments, his earliest known instrument was a 10-string mandolin-guitar, which bears the date 1894. His mandolins were "unlike any previous flatback instrument," according to music historian Paul Sparks, his company's manufacturing standards were high, his instruments marketed. He and his company used music teachers to market the instruments, strong print advertisements to displace the round-backed mandolins, they were successful in the mandolin market, eliminating the production of round-backed instruments in America. His guitars were influential as well, his guitar patterns are still recognizable in modern jazz guitars. According to George Gruhn, the idea of carving the instrument tops and bottoms appears to have originated with Gibson and is not based on any mandolin or guitar building tradition. Although inspired by the carving of violins, he did not use violin manufacturing techniques or patterns to build his instruments.
His company, with the help of instrument designer and sound engineer Lloyd Loar produced the Gibson F-5 mandolin, which Sparks said was acknowledged "to be the finest flat-back mandolin produced." Loar designed the L-5 guitar. Among the changes that Loar introduced was the f-hole instead of a round or oval sound-hole, another violin-family feature imported to the mandolin; the mandolins are treasured by bluegrass musicians, but produce opposite feelings of admiration or contempt among the classical musicians they were designed for. The L-5 guitar has found a home among jazz musicians. Gibson was born in New York. According to the 1900 U. S. Federal Census, he was born in May, his obituary published in The Malone Farmer on Wednesday, August 21, 1918, states he died on August 19 and his funeral was held at the home of his brother O. M. Gibson on August 21. Gibson began in 1894 in his home workshop in Kalamazoo and patented his idea for mandolins in 1898. With no formal training, Gibson created an new style of mandolin and guitar that followed violin design, with its curved top and bottom carved into shape, rather than pressed or bent, arched like the top of a violin.
He was granted a patent on the design. The sides too were carved out rather than being made of bent wood strips. More they were louder and more durable than contemporary fretted instruments, musicians soon demanded more than he was able to build in his one-man shop. On the strength of Gibson's ideas, five Kalamazoo businessmen formed the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. in 1902. Within a short period after the company was started, the board passed a motion that "Orville H. Gibson be paid only for the actual time he works for the Company." After that time, there is no clear indication. Julius Bellson states in his 1973 publication, The Gibson Story, that "Orville Gibson had visions and dreams that were considered eccentric." Starting in 1908, Gibson was paid a salary of $500 by Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co. Limited, he had a number of stays in hospitals between 1907 and 1911. In 1916, he was again hospitalized, died on August 19, 1918, at 62 years of age, in St. Lawrence State Hospital in Ogdensburg, New York.
Gibson is buried at Morningside Cemetery in New York. Luthiers Gibson Guitar Corporation Archtop guitar Chris Gill. Guitar Player. Sparks, Paul; the Classical Mandolin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195173376. Extensive pictures of historical gibson instruments and history The earliest known Orville Gibson guitar The last known Orville Gibson mandolin
A dovetail joint or dovetail is a joinery technique most used in woodworking joinery including furniture, cabinets. Log buildings and traditional timber framing. Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart, the dovetail joint is used to join the sides of a drawer to the front. A series of'pins' cut to extend from the end of one board interlock with a series of'tails' cut into the end of another board; the pins and tails have a trapezoidal shape. Once glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners; the Dovetail joint technique pre-dates written history. Some of the earliest known examples of the dovetail joint are in ancient Egyptian furniture entombed with mummies dating from First Dynasty, as well as the tombs of Chinese emperors; the dovetail design is an important method of distinguishing various periods of furniture. In Europe the dovetail joint is sometimes called a swallowtail joint, a culvertail joint, or a fantail joint; the dovetail joint is strong because of the way the'tails' and'pins' are shaped.
This makes it difficult to pull the joint apart and impossible when glue is added. This type of joint is used in box constructions such as drawers, jewellery boxes and other pieces of furniture where strength is required, it is a difficult joint to make manually. There are different types of dovetail joints; the joint is strong when used with glue. The angle of slope varies according to purpose of joint and type of work; the slope is 1:6 for softwoods and a shallower 1:8 slope for hardwoods. A slope of 1:7 is used as a compromise. However, a different slope does not affect the strength of the joint in different types of wood; the image at the top of this page shows a'through dovetail' joint, where the end grain of both boards is visible when the joint is assembled. Through dovetails are common in carcass and box construction. Traditionally, the dovetails would have been covered by a veneer. However, dovetails have become a signature of craftsmanship and are considered a feature, so they are concealed in contemporary work.
When used in drawer construction, a through dovetail joint is sometimes referred to as an "English dovetail." Craftsmen use a'half-blind dovetail' when they do not want the end grain visible from the front of the joint. The tails fit into mortises in the ends of the board, the front of the item, hiding their ends. Half-blind dovetails are used to fasten drawer fronts to drawer sides; this is an alternative to the practice of attaching false fronts to drawers constructed using through dovetails. The ` secret mitred dovetail' joint is used in the highest class of box work, it offers the strength found in the dovetail joint but is hidden from both outside faces by forming the outer edge to meet at a 45-degree angle while hiding the dovetails internally within the joint. The mitred corner dovetail joint is similar in design, but it has just a single dovetail and is used for picture frames and other similar joins; the secret double-lapped dovetail is similar to the secret mitred dovetail, but presents a thin section of end grain on one edge of the joint.
Used for carcass and box construction to hide the dovetails from view. The sliding dovetail is a method of joining two boards at right angles, where the intersection occurs within the field of one of the boards, not at the end; this joint provides the interlocking strength of a dovetail. Sliding dovetails are assembled by sliding the tail into the socket, it is common to taper the socket, making it tighter towards the rear of the joint, so that the two components can be slid together but the joint becomes tighter as the finished position is reached. Another method to implement a tapered sliding dovetail is to taper the tail instead of the socket; when used in drawer construction, a "stopped sliding dovetail" that does not extend across the full width of the board is sometimes referred to as a "French dovetail". Used for: Joining shelves to cabinet sides Joining cabinet bottoms to sides Joining horizontal partitions to shelves Joining adjacent sections of expandable table frames Joining drawer fronts to sides Joining front rails of web frames to cabinet sides Joining neck and body in violins and some guitars.
Dovetails are most but not used in woodworking. Other areas of use are: Dovetail slides, for example on a lathe. Attaching turbine blades to the shaft in jet engines and other applications. Clockmaking: dovetailing a new tooth, when replacing broken teeth in clock gears. Masonry: dovetail construction is regarded a major step forward in the design of lighthouses meant for dangerous areas. 3D printing: dovetail is used to overcome physical object print size limitation of a 3D printer. Iron sights on firearms may be affixed via a dovetail rail to the slide. Kirby, Ian J.. The complete dovetail: Handmade furniture's signature joint. Bethel, CT: Cambium Press. ISBN 9780964399990. Detailed guide from extremehowto.com Dovetail Joints from Manufacturer and Builder, 1869 How to Hand Cut Precision Dovetails — Part 1 of 2: The Pins - from woodtreks.com
Epiphone is an American musical instrument manufacturer founded in 1873 by Anastasios Stathopoulos based in Nashville, Tennessee. In 1957 Epiphone, Inc. of New York City was purchased by Chicago Musical Instrument Co. and given the name Epiphone, Inc. of Kalamazoo, Michigan. CMI took great measures to keep the Gibson and Epiphone identities separate and housed the two companies in different buildings each with its own separate management team. Epiphone was Gibson's main rival in the archtop market prior to 1957, their professional archtops, including the Emperor, Deluxe and Triumph, rivaled those of Gibson. Aside from guitars, Epiphone made double basses and other string instruments. However, the company's weakness in the aftermath of World War II and death of Epaminondas Stathopoulos in 1943 allowed Gibson's parent, CMI, to purchase it; the name "Epiphone" is a combination of proprietor Epaminondas Stathopoulos' nickname "Epi" and "phone". Epiphone began in 1873, in Smyrna, Ottoman Empire, where Greek founder Anastasios Stathopoulos made his own fiddles and lutes.
Stathopoulo moved to the United States in 1903 and continued to make his original instruments, as well as mandolins, from Long Island City in Queens, New York. Anastasios died in 1915, his son, took over. After two years, the company became known as The House of Stathopoulo. Just after the end of World War I, the company started to make banjos; the company produced its recording line of banjos in 1924 and, four years took on the name of the Epiphone Banjo Company. It produced its first guitars in 1928. After Epi died in 1943, control of the company went to his brothers and Frixo. In 1951, a four-month-long strike forced a relocation of Epiphone from New York City to Philadelphia. In 1957 the company was acquired by CMI who owned Gibson, Lowrey and others. After Epiphone became a subsidiary of Norlin, many of its instruments were patterned after the more expensive Gibson versions. Epiphone models are of such high quality that sales of those less expensive instruments cut into the Gibson's sales. Case in point, the short lived solid body Epiphone Del Rey model was modeled after a Gibson Les Paul double cut.
Workmanship and manufacturing standards were so high. To help distinguish itself from the parent brand, Epiphone maintains its own line of archtop guitars and basses; as of January 2013, Epiphone makes the following guitars: B. B. King Lucille Dove / PRO EJ-200 Artist / 200CE EL-00 / PRO ES-335 PRO ES-339 PRO / 339 Ultra ES-345 Explorer – 1984 EX / 1958 Goth Firebird TV-Silver Flying V –'58 Korina Flying-V – Jeff Waters Anihillation-V Flying-V – Robb Flynn Love/Death Baritone Hummingbird / PRO / Artist John Lennon George Harrison Gibson J-160E Les Paul Les Paul-100 Les Paul Baritone Les Paul 1956 Goldtop Ace Frehley Budokan Les Paul Joe Bonamassa Goldtop Peter Frampton Les Paul Custom PRO "Phenix" Les Paul Black Beauty 3 Les Paul Custom PRO / Blackback Les Paul Junior Les Paul Nightfall** Les Paul Prophecy EX & GX Les Paul Special I Les Paul Special II Les Paul Special Bass Les Paul Standard / Royale / PRO Les Paul Studio / Goth Les Paul Tribute Les Paul Traditional PRO Les Paul Ultra III / PRO Les Paul Ukulele Tak Matsumoto DC Standard & Custom Plus Zakk Wylde Custom Plus Bullseye Nighthawk Custom Nikki Sixx Blackbird SG 1961 SG Special 1966 G-400 PRO EB-0 EB-3 G310 G400 Goth / Faded G-400 PRO SG Special Thunderbird-IV / Goth / PRO-IV / Classic-IV PRO Tom DeLonge ES-333 AJ-100 / 100CE AJ-150HS AJ-220S / 220SCE Allen Woody Rumblekat Blackstone Broadway Casino / 1961 50th Anniversary / Elitist / Inspired by John Lennon Century Deluxe Del Rey DeLuxe Regent Dot / Dot Studio DR-100 & 212 Dwight Trash Casino Embassy Bass Emperor Regent Emperor Swingster / Royale / Black Royale E422T Century Thinline ET-270 ET-275 Crestwood ET-276 ET-280 Bass FT-79 Texan FT-140 Japanese made 1970s dreadnought acoustic with a bolt on neck Graveyard Disciple Inspired by 1964 Texan Jack Casady Signature Bass Joe Pass Emperor II Masterbilt Century Series Masterbilt DR-500MCE Masterbilt EF-500RCCE MB-100 & 200 Banjo MM-20 / 30S / 50E Professional Mandolin Olympic PR-150 PR-4E PR-5E PR7E Epiphone Riviera P-90 Riviera Custom P93 Sheraton II / 1962 50th Anniversary / Union Jack Ltd Edition Royale Sonador Sorrento Supernova / Manchester City Blue / Union Jack SST Classic Triunfadora Triumph Triumph Regent Viola Bass Wildkat / Royale Zenith Zephyr Zephyr Deluxe Zephyr Deluxe Regent Wilshire PRO / 1966 Worn / Phantomatic / II / III Epiphone began producing amplifiers in 1935 with the Electar Hawaiian Lap Steel Guitar Outfit.
This outfit was an amplifier and lap steel guitar stand all rolled into one unit and was supplied by a suitcase manufacturer of the time. Gibson produced Epiphone amplifiers in the 1960s; these were copies or variations of Gibson and Fender amplifiers. They used a tube design, some had reverb and tremolo. Gibson decided to launch a new line of Epiphone amplifiers in 2005 with many different models, including the So Cal, Blues Custom, the Epiphone Valve Junior; the Valve Hot Rod and Valve Senior were released in 2009. The Valve Hot Rod has a gain and reverb control; the Valve Senior offers 20 watts of power, with a full equalizer, volume and presence control. As of 2012, Epiphone has ceased production of their line of amplifiers with the exception of the Player and Performance Pack practice amplifiers, available only in Epiphone's starter packages; these Amplifiers are under the Epiphone Ele