The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of private, academic and government networks of local to global scope, linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies; the Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web, electronic mail and file sharing. Some publications no longer capitalize "internet"; the origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the federal government of the United States in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication with computer networks. The primary precursor network, the ARPANET served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s; the funding of the National Science Foundation Network as a new backbone in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial extensions, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, the merger of many networks.
The linking of commercial networks and enterprises by the early 1990s marked the beginning of the transition to the modern Internet, generated a sustained exponential growth as generations of institutional and mobile computers were connected to the network. Although the Internet was used by academia since the 1980s, commercialization incorporated its services and technologies into every aspect of modern life. Most traditional communication media, including telephony, television, paper mail and newspapers are reshaped, redefined, or bypassed by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as email, Internet telephony, Internet television, online music, digital newspapers, video streaming websites. Newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators; the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking. Online shopping has grown exponentially both for major retailers and small businesses and entrepreneurs, as it enables firms to extend their "brick and mortar" presence to serve a larger market or sell goods and services online.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The Internet has no single centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force, a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise. In November 2006, the Internet was included on USA Today's list of New Seven Wonders; when the term Internet is used to refer to the specific global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, the word is a proper noun that should be written with an initial capital letter.
In common use and the media, it is erroneously not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as an adjective; the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. As early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, meaning interconnected or interwoven; the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are used interchangeably in everyday speech. However, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services; the Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs. As another point of comparison, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is the language used on the Web for information transfer, yet it is just one of many languages or protocols that can be used for communication on the Internet.
The term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. Research into packet switching, one of the fundamental Internet technologies, started in the early 1960s in the work of Paul Baran and Donald Davies. Packet-switched networks such as the NPL network, ARPANET, the Merit Network, CYCLADES, Telenet were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s; the ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, by which multiple separate networks could be joined into a network of networks. ARPANET development began with two network nodes which were interconnected between the Network Measurement Center at the University of California, Los Angeles Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science directed by Leonard Kleinrock, the NLS system at SRI International by Douglas Engelbart in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969; the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of
British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories or United Kingdom Overseas Territories are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. They are remnants of the British Empire that have not been granted independence or have voted to remain British territories; these territories do not form part of the United Kingdom and, with the exception of Gibraltar, are not part of the European Union. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. Three are inhabited only by a transitory population of scientific personnel, they all share the British monarch as head of state. As of April 2018 the Minister responsible for the Territories excluding the Falkland Islands and the Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus, is the Minister of State for the Commonwealth and the UN; the other three territories are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
Prior to 1 January 1983, the territories were referred to as British Crown Colonies. Although the Crown dependencies of Jersey and the Isle of Man are under the sovereignty of the British monarch, they are in a different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom; the British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries with historic links to the British Empire. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and the British Indian Ocean Territory, the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. Permanent residency for the 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus. Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people and a land area of about 1,727,570 square kilometres.
The vast majority of this land area, 1,700,000 square kilometres, constitutes the uninhabited British Antarctic Territory, while the largest territory by population, accounts for a quarter of the total BOT population. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population. Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula; the United Kingdom participates in the Antarctic Treaty System and, as part of a mutual agreement, the British Antarctic Territory is recognised by four of the six other sovereign nations making claims to Antarctic territory. Early colonies, in the sense of English subjects residing in lands hitherto outside the control of the English government, were known as "Plantations"; the first, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. It is now a province of Canada known as Labrador.
It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. English colonisation of North America began in 1607 with the settlement of Jamestown, the first successful permanent colony in Virginia, its offshoot, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to include the archipelago in 1612. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires; these include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas. The growth of the British Empire in the 19th century, to its territorial peak in the 1920s, saw Britain acquire nearly one quarter of the world's land mass, including territories with large indigenous populations in Asia and Africa.
From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy and trade. Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada, South Africa, Rhodesia; these and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. The Dominions achieved full independence with the Statute of Westminster. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa and the Caribbean gained independence; some colonies becam
The Gibraltar pound is the currency of Gibraltar. It is pegged to – and exchangeable with – the British pound sterling at par value. Coins and banknotes of the Gibraltar pound are printed by the Government of Gibraltar; until 1872, the currency situation in Gibraltar was complicated, with a system based on the real being employed which encompassed British and Gibraltarian coins. From 1825, the real was tied to the pound at the rate of 1 Spanish dollar to 4 shillings 4 pence. In 1872, the Spanish currency became the sole legal tender in Gibraltar. In 1898, the Spanish–American War made the Spanish peseta drop alarmingly and the pound was introduced as the sole currency of Gibraltar in the form of British coins and banknotes. In 1898, the British pound was made sole legal tender, although the Spanish peseta continued in circulation until the Spanish Civil War. Since 1927, Gibraltar has issued its own banknotes and, since 1988, its own coins. Gibraltar decimalised in 1971 at the same time as the UK, replacing the system of 1 pound = 20 shillings = 240 pence with one of 1 pound = 100 pence.
The since repealed Currency Notes Act 1934, conferred on the Government of Gibraltar the right to print its own notes. Notes issued are either backed by Bank of England notes at a rate of one pound to one pound sterling, or can be backed by securities issued by the Government of Gibraltar. Although Gibraltar notes are denominated in "pounds sterling", they are not legal tender anywhere in the United Kingdom. Gibraltar's coins are the same weight and metal as British coins, although the designs are different, they are found in circulation across Britain. Under the Currency Notes Act 2011 the notes and coins issued by the Government of Gibraltar are legal tender and current coin within Gibraltar. British coins and Bank of England notes circulate in Gibraltar and are universally accepted and interchangeable with Gibraltarian issues. In 1988, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 pence and 1 pound were introduced which bore specific designs for and the name of Gibraltar, they were the same sizes and compositions as the corresponding British coins, with 2 pound coins introduced in 1999.
A new coin of 5 pounds was issued in 2010 with the inscription "Elizabeth II · Queen of Gibraltar". This issue caused controversy in Spain, where the title of King of Gibraltar corresponds to the crown of Castile; the £2 coin has featured a new design every year since its introduction, as it depicts each of the 12 Labours of Hercules. In 2004 the Government of Gibraltar minted a new edition of its coins to commemorate the tercentenary of British Gibraltar. At the outbreak of World War I, Gibraltar was forced to issue banknotes to prevent paying out sterling or gold; these notes were issued under emergency wartime legislation, Ordinance 10 of 1914. At first the typeset notes were signed by hand by Treasurer Greenwood, though he used stamps; the notes bore the embossed stamp of the Anglo-Egyptian Bank Ltd. and circulated alongside British Territory notes. The 1914 notes were issued in denominations of 2s, 10s, £1, £5 and £50; the 2s and £50 notes were not continued when a new series of notes was introduced in 1927.
The 10s note was replaced by the 50p coin during the process of decimalization. In 1975, £10 and £20 notes were introduced, followed by £50 in 1986; the £1 note was discontinued in 1988. In 1995, a new series of notes was introduced which, for the first time, bore the words "pounds sterling" rather than just "pounds"; the government of Gibraltar introduced a new series of banknotes beginning with the £10 and £50 notes issued on July 8, 2010. On May 11, 2011, the £5, £20 and £100 notes were issued. Economy of Gibraltar Currency board Christopher Ironside, OBE, coin designer: reverse design of the 25 New Pence coin, Barbary ape. Banknotes of Gibraltar: Catalog of Gibraltar Shillings and Pounds The current banknotes of Gibraltar
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals and other devices. Internet access is sold by Internet service providers delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies. Many organizations, including a growing number of municipal entities provide cost-free wireless access. Availability of Internet access was once limited, but has grown rapidly. In 1995, only 0.04 percent of the world's population had access, with well over half of those living in the United States, consumer use was through dial-up. By the first decade of the 21st century, many consumers in developed nations used faster broadband technology, by 2014, 41 percent of the world's population had access, broadband was ubiquitous worldwide, global average connection speeds exceeded one megabit per second; the Internet developed from the ARPANET, funded by the US government to support projects within the government and at universities and research laboratories in the US – but grew over time to include most of the world's large universities and the research arms of many technology companies.
Use by a wider audience only came in 1995 when restrictions on the use of the Internet to carry commercial traffic were lifted. In the early to mid-1980s, most Internet access was from personal computers and workstations directly connected to local area networks or from dial-up connections using modems and analog telephone lines. LANs operated at 10 Mbit/s, while modem data-rates grew from 1200 bit/s in the early 1980s, to 56 kbit/s by the late 1990s. Dial-up connections were made from terminals or computers running terminal emulation software to terminal servers on LANs; these dial-up connections did not support end-to-end use of the Internet protocols and only provided terminal to host connections. The introduction of network access servers supporting the Serial Line Internet Protocol and the point-to-point protocol extended the Internet protocols and made the full range of Internet services available to dial-up users. Broadband Internet access shortened to just broadband, is defined as "Internet access, always on, faster than the traditional dial-up access" and so covers a wide range of technologies.
Broadband connections are made using a computer's built in Ethernet networking capabilities, or by using a NIC expansion card. Most broadband services provide a continuous "always on" connection. Broadband provides improved access to Internet services such as: Faster world wide web browsing Faster downloading of documents, photographs and other large files Telephony, radio and videoconferencing Virtual private networks and remote system administration Online gaming massively multiplayer online role-playing games which are interaction-intensiveIn the 1990s, the National Information Infrastructure initiative in the U. S. made broadband Internet access a public policy issue. In 2000, most Internet access to homes was provided using dial-up, while many businesses and schools were using broadband connections. In 2000 there were just under 150 million dial-up subscriptions in the 34 OECD countries and fewer than 20 million broadband subscriptions. By 2004, broadband had grown and dial-up had declined so that the number of subscriptions were equal at 130 million each.
In 2010, in the OECD countries, over 90% of the Internet access subscriptions used broadband, broadband had grown to more than 300 million subscriptions, dial-up subscriptions had declined to fewer than 30 million. The broadband technologies in widest use are ADSL and cable Internet access. Newer technologies include VDSL and optical fibre extended closer to the subscriber in both telephone and cable plants. Fibre-optic communication, while only being used in premises and to the curb schemes, has played a crucial role in enabling broadband Internet access by making transmission of information at high data rates over longer distances much more cost-effective than copper wire technology. In areas not served by ADSL or cable, some community organizations and local governments are installing Wi-Fi networks. Wireless and satellite Internet are used in rural, undeveloped, or other hard to serve areas where wired Internet is not available. Newer technologies being deployed for fixed and mobile broadband access include WiMAX, LTE, fixed wireless, e.g. Motorola Canopy.
Starting in 2006, mobile broadband access is available at the consumer level using "3G" and "4G" technologies such as HSPA, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE. In addition to access from home and the workplace Internet access may be available from public places such as libraries and Internet cafes, where computers with Internet connections are available; some libraries provide stations for physically connecting users' laptops to local area networks. Wireless Internet access points are available in public places such as airport halls, in some cases just for brief use while standing; some access points may provide coin-operated computers. Various terms are used, such as "public Internet kiosk", "public access terminal", "Web payphone". Many hotels have public terminals fee based. Coffee shops, shopping malls, other venues offer wireless access to computer networks, referred to as hotspots, for users who bring their own wireless-enabled devices such as a laptop or PDA; these services may be free to all, free to customer
Ljubljana Stock Exchange
Ljubljana Stock Exchange or LJSE is a stock exchange located in Ljubljana, Slovenia. It is Slovenia's only stock exchange; the exchange trades shares of Slovenian companies, as well as commercial papers. The only stockholder of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange is Zagreb Stock Exchange; the core business of the Ljubljana stock exchange is to ensure a secure and successful operation of the regulated segment of the Slovene capital market, in accordance with the law and other regulations. LJSE performs the following business activities: operates the stock exchange market in financial instruments, for which it had obtained authorization from the Agency, provides the prices of financial instruments, provides information on supply and demand, market values and other data on financial instruments, provides technical services to support trading, operates a CSI. Additional activities include the services for listed companies; the existing Ljubljana Stock Exchange was established in 1989. However, brokerage in Slovenia has a much longer tradition: the first stock exchange in Ljubljana existed as early as in the period between 1924 and 1942.
During the Second World War the trading on the old exchange was suspended, after the war officially banned by a decree by the new communist regime which replaced monarchy in Yugoslavia. Slovenians were thus left without a stock exchange for half a century. In the 1989 the Ljubljana Stock Exchange was established. In the year 1993 LJSE introduced electronic trading on BTS - on complex Stock Exchange Information System three times a week, floor trading still remained on Tuesdays and Thursdays; the new system of electronic information dissemination - SEOnet was launched in year 2002. Three years LJSE introduced the elite segment of the official market, listing Slovenia's prime companies, named it Prime Market. In the middle of the year 2008 the first regional road-show of SE Europe, organized by all 8 exchanges from the region, was held in Zagreb. In the same year Vienna Stock Exchange became the new majority owner of the LJSE. Year 2009 was crucial for establishment of "CEE Stock Exchange Group", which at the time comprised the Vienna Stock Exchange and the stock exchanges of Budapest and Prague.
In the year 2010 there were a lot of important events: The SBITOP Index as the first genuine LJSE blue-chip index became a benchmark index, LJSE launched INFO HRAMBA - the new information system for the central storage of regulated information of all issuers on the LJSE, LJSE published the Slovene Capital Market Development Strategy, prepared in cooperation with the capital market participants and was the answer to the changed economic and financial circumstances in the previous two years, LJSE proposed the introduction of'P accounts' in the third pension pillar, LJSE started trading on the international trading system Xetra® and thus became integrated into the international capital market. As of July 2015 Ljubljana Stock Exchange is owned by Zagreb Stock Exchange. On 22 February 2016, the Ljubljana Stock Exchange, along with the Belgrade Stock Exchange, decided to join SEE Link, EBRD-sponsored regional network for trading securities. Trading on the Ljubljana Stock Exchange operates through an electronic order book in the Xetra® trading system.
Xetra® trading system was implemented at the Ljubljana Stock Exchange on December 6, 2010. The Slovene capital market is now more accessible, internationally comparable and competitive market; the exchange has pre-market sessions from 08:00am to 09:30am and normal trading sessions from 09:30am to 01:00pm on all days of the week except Saturdays and holidays declared by the Exchange in advance. On the basis of meeting the LJSE liquidity criteria, securities are traded in the continuous or auction trading methods; the two trading methods ensure greater market integrity, improve best-price-forming mechanisms, enable the Exchange and its members to set up internal controls and thus help identify potential cases of market manipulation. SBI TOP is the first genuine LJSE blue-chip index and serves as the Slovene capital market benchmark index, it measures the performance of the most liquid and capitalized stocks on the LJSE Market. It is designed as a tradable index. Due to the liquidity of the constituents, it is intended to serve as underlying for index-linked financial instruments.
List of stock exchanges List of European stock exchanges Official website of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange
John Mackintosh Square
John Mackintosh Square is a main square in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. It has been the centre of city life since the 14th century and takes its name from John Mackintosh, a local philanthropist. Notable buildings on John Mackintosh Square include the City Hall. Known during the Spanish period as Plaza Mayor or Gran Plaza and afterwards as the Alameda, it opened out from the west of the Calle Real. Two buildings separated it from the Line Wall: a large rectangular building to the west of the Square, a smaller lower building to the south of it, the hospital and chapel of La Santa Misericordia. During the first century of the British period, the square was used for military parades by the garrison and therefore known as the Parade or Grand Parade. In 1704, after the city's capture by an Anglo-Dutch fleet, the British converted the hospital and chapel of La Santa Misericordia into a debtors' prison. In 1753, a survey of Gibraltar went on showing a prison at the western end of the square.
After the Great Siege, a colonnaded Georgian guardhouse was built on the southern side of the square. It was the place from which all the sentries in Gibraltar were posted each evening; some years it hosted the Fire Brigade. After the move of the brigade to the new fire station at Victoria Battery in 1938, it became the Rates Office. Today the guardhouse houses the Gibraltar Heritage Trust; the square was where military punishment in the form of floggings took place. The look of the square changed much during the second decade of the 19th century, when its two most prominent buildings were constructed. In 1817 local merchants raised money by public subscription to construct a building to house the Exchange and Commercial Library. In 1807, Gibraltar merchants had founded a library in Bedlam Court, as they were denied membership of the Garrison Library, it being available only to members of the British garrison in the city. Ten years in 1817, they built themselves a new building on the east side of the square, thus separating it from Main Street.
It housed, not only a library, but an auction room and became the meeting place of local merchants. In 1951, the building was refurbished to host the Legislative Council, which in 1969 become the House of Assembly. Since 2006, the building hosts the Gibraltar Parliament. About the same time, in 1819, on the opposite side of the square, Aaron Cardozo, a prosperous merchant of Jewish Portuguese descent, built the grandest private mansion seen in Gibraltar; the three-storey house dominated the square. It was erected on the site of the old hospital and chapel of La Santa Misericordia and prison; as a non Protestant, Cardozo was not allowed to own property in Gibraltar. However, as he had been a close friend of Horatio Nelson and had supplied his fleet, he was granted a site to build a house in the Alameda on the condition that it be "an ornament" to the square, its cost was about £40,000. After his death in 1834, his mansion was rented out as the Club House Hotel, it was bought in 1874 by Pablo Antonio Larios, a wealthy businessman and banker, Gibraltarian-born and member of a Spanish family, who refurbished the building.
In 1922, his son Pablo Larios, Marquis of Marzales, sold the building to the Gibraltar colonial authorities, which intended to turn it into a post office. However, it became the premises of the newly formed Gibraltar City Hall which now houses the Mayor's Parlour; the building underwent multiple modifications that altered the original symmetry of the building. In the mid 19th century the name of the square was changed to Commercial Square, being the site of a daily flea market and regular public auctions, as a result of which a Spanish name, Plazuela del Martillo, or more colloquially, El Martillo, was coined. Another popular name at the time was Jews Market; these epithets fell out of usage and the square is referred to as The Piazza, an Italian name created following the construction of a paved area in the centre of the square introduced by Gibraltar's Genoese settlers. The name "John Mackintosh Square" was adopted in 1940. In 1571, an aqueduct was built to channel drinking water from the Red Sands in the south district to the city.
A fountain at the northwest corner of the square was supplied by this aqueduct. Although the aqueduct fell into disuse some years with the fountain drying up, the fountain head was refurbished in 1694, it remained there until the 1960s. It was re-erected on the Line Wall against Zoca Flank some 20 metres to the northwest of its original location. In 1869, a new fountain was erected by the Sanitary Commission, fed from wells in the isthmus that links T
Telefónica, S. A. is a Spanish multinational telecommunications company headquartered in Spain. It is mobile network providers in the world, it provides fixed and mobile telephony and subscription television, operating in Europe and America. As well as the Telefónica brand, it trades as Movistar, O2 and Vivo; the company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. As of May 2017, Telefónica was the 110th largest company in the world, according to Forbes; the company was created in Madrid in 1924 as Compañía Telefónica Nacional de España with ITT as one of its major shareholders. Until the liberalisation of the telecom market in 1997, Telefónica was the only telephone operator in Spain and still holds a dominant position. Since 1997, the Spanish government has privatized its interest in the company. Telefónica is a 100% listed company with more than 1.5 million direct shareholders. Its share capital comprises 4.563.996.485 ordinary shares traded on the Spanish Stock Market and on those in London, New York and Buenos Aires.
The five major stockholders include: BlackRock: 6.702% Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria: 6.072% Société Générale: 5.774% CaixaBank: 5.251% Norges Bank: 1.355% Telefónica is the second largest corporation in Spain, behind the Santander Group. It owns Telefónica de España, the largest fixed phone and ADSL operator in Spain, Telefónica Móviles, the largest mobile phone operator in Spain, Terra Networks, S. A. an Internet subsidiary. Spain now has the most extensive fibre-to-home network in Europe, as of April 2016. Telefónica was the parent of Telefónica Deutschland; the two ISPs, mediaWays and HighwayOne merged in January 2003 after having been purchased by Telefónica in 2001 and February 2002 respectively. On 26 January 2006 Telefónica completed its £17.7 billion acquisition of the UK-based operator O2 which provided mobile phone services in Germany under the O2 brand. Following the purchase, Telefónica merged Telefónica Deutschland and O2 Germany to form the current business Telefónica Germany.
Telefónica Germany, purchased competitor E-Plus on 1 October 2014. As part of the purchase, Telefónica reduced its stake in its subsidiary to 62.1%. Integration continues as of August 2015, but the now merged network is Germany's largest in customers. On 31 October 2005, O2 agreed to be taken over by Telefónica, with a cash offer of £17.7 billion, or £2 per share. According to the merger announcement, O2, which provided mobile phone services in the UK, Ireland and the Isle of Man, retained its name and continued to be based in the United Kingdom, keeping both the brand and the management team; the merger became unconditional on 23 January 2006 and O2 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Telefónica. Manx Telecom was sold by Telefónica Europe in June 2010. In January 2015, Li Ka-shing entered into talks with Telefónica to buy O2 for around £10.25 billion, aiming to merge it with his subsidiary Three. The acquisition was blocked by the European Commission on 11 May 2016, which argued that the merger would reduce consumer choice and lead to a higher cost of services Telefónica began to seek a stock market flotation of the business instead.
In France, since 2011, Telefónica has a joint venture with the French telecommunications company Bouygues Telecom, part of the Bouygues group, to offer global telecommunication services packages to multinational companies. This cooperation was expanded in June 2015 through the creation of a separate joint venture company named Telefónica Global Solutions France, with its own marketing and sales teams offering Telefónica and Bouygues Telecom services packages to corporations. Telefónica operates the Movistar mobile phone brand throughout Latin America. In Mexico it occupies a distant second place and it is the largest in Chile, Venezuela and Peru. Telefónica owns Telefónica de Argentina, the largest fixed-line operator in the country, it provides broadband and long distance telephone services in southern part of the country as well as the Greater Buenos Aires area. The Telefónica Group has been in the country since 1990; the mobile business is run by Telefónica Móviles through a local subsidiary.
Telefónica's largest fixed-line operation in South America is in Brazil, where it provides broadband and long distance telephone services in the aforementioned state, which alone represents the highest GDP of South America. It owns a majority stake in the Brazilian mobile operator Vivo, having agreed on 28 July 2010 to buy Portugal Telecom's stake in the firm for €7.5 billion, after increasing its original offer by €1.8 billion over three months of incident-rich negotiations. The Telefónica group has been in the country since 1996 when it acquired CRT, a fixed-line and mobile operator in the southern part of the country; the landline division is part of Brasil Telecom. Telefónica is the parent of Telefônica Brasil. In 2009, after four big "blackouts" on Telefónica's broadband "Speedy", ANATEL ordered Telefónica to stop sales of its broadband service until improvements were made on the infrastructure to provide better-quality service. After the release of sales of broadband internet in August 2009, ANATEL expects the company's service investments to keep on par with the sales.
On 24 July 2010 Telefónica announced that the number of Speedy subscribers had exceeded three million people. Telefónica owns Telefónica Chile CTC (Compañía de Telecomunicaciones de Chile known as Compañía de Teléfo