United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Navy must be a civilian by law, at least 5 years removed from active military service; the Secretary is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense; the Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, has statutory authority to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense.
In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, unless exempted by law, is derivative of the authority vested in the Secretary of the Navy. Enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in the before-mentioned section are: recruiting, supplying, training and demobilizing; the Secretary oversees the construction and repair of naval ships and facilities. SECNAV is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs that are consistent with the national security policies and objectives established by the President or the Secretary of Defense; the Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. Furthermore, the Secretary has several statutory responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to the administration of the military justice system for the Navy & the Marine Corps, including the authority to convene general courts-martial and to commute sentences.
The principal military advisers to the SECNAV are the two service chiefs of the naval services: for matters regarding the Navy the Chief of Naval Operations, for matters regarding the Marine Corps the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary; the United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, any changes to it can only be approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Whenever the United States Coast Guard operates as a service within the Department of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy has the same powers and duties with respect to the Coast Guard as the Secretary of Homeland Security when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy; the Office of the Secretary of the Navy known within DoD as the Navy Secretariat or just as the Secretariat in a DoN setting, is the immediate headquarters staff that supports the Secretary in discharging his duties.
The principal officials of the Secretariat include the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the General Counsel of the Department of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, the Naval Inspector General, the Chief of Legislative Affairs, the Chief of Naval Research. The Office of the Secretary of the Navy has sole responsibility within the Department of the Navy for acquisition, auditing and information management, legislative affairs, public affairs and development; the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps. Military awards of the United States Department of the Navy Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards Stephen Mallory, the only Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States of America Official website
Isaac Toucey was an American politician who served as a U. S. senator, U. S. Secretary of the Navy, U. S. Attorney General and the 33rd Governor of Connecticut. Born in Newtown, Toucey pursued classical studies. From 1825 to 1835 he had his own practice in Connecticut, he married Catherine Nichols in Hartford on October 28, 1827. The couple never had any children. In 1822, Toucey was named prosecuting attorney of Connecticut, he served in that position until 1835, when he was elected to the 25th Congresses. He served from 1835 to 1839, he lost the election of 1838 and returned to his position as prosecuting attorney in 1842. In 1845, Toucey ran for Governor of Connecticut and lost, but the Connecticut State Legislature appointed him to the position in 1846. During his tenure, an antibribery bill geared toward eliminating fraudulent electoral procedures was considered, he was defeated in an attempt at re-election. In 1848, President James K. Polk appointed Toucey the 20th Attorney General of the United States, a position he held until 1849.
He returned to Connecticut and took a place in the Connecticut Senate in 1850, in the Connecticut House of Representatives in 1852. Toucey was elected to the U. S. Senate for the term commencing March 4, 1851, served from May 12, 1852, to March 3, 1857, having that year declined to be a candidate for reelection. During that time, he served as the legislative point man for Franklin Pierce and his administration. James Buchanan, who Toucey had served with in the Polk administration, appointed him U. S. Secretary of the Navy in his Cabinet in 1857 as a sop to the Pierce faction as well as to represent New England in the Cabinet. A moderate Northerner much in line with Buchanan's thought in the sectional controversies of the day, Toucey held that post until 1861 and the arrival of the Abraham Lincoln administration. Toucey was replaced by one of his chief rivals in Connecticut, Gideon Welles. After 1861 he returned to his law practice. Toucey died in Hartford on July 30, 1869, he is interred at Cedar Hill Cemetery in Connecticut.
USS Toucey was named for him. United States Congress. "Isaac Toucey". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Connecticut State Library: Isaac Toucey, Governor of Connecticut from 1846 to 1847 Isaac Toucey at Find a Grave National Governors Association Govtrack US Congress The Political Graveyard
Sudbury is a town in Middlesex County, United States. At the 2010 census, it had a population of 17,659; the town, located in Boston's MetroWest, has a rich colonial history. The town was incorporated in 1639. At that time, the boundaries of Sudbury included all what is now of Wayland, parts of Framingham, Marlborough and Maynard. Sudbury contributed the most militia during King Philip's War and was the site of the well-known attack on Sudbury. Ephraim Curtis was a successful leader of the militia of West Sudbury and would lend his name to the town's junior high school. Sudbury militia participated in the Battle of Lexington and Concord, in 1775, where Sudbury members sniped on British Red Coats returning to Boston. One of Sudbury's historic landmarks, the Wayside Inn, claims to be the country's oldest operating inn and run by the Howe family for many generations. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote Tales of a Wayside Inn, a book of poems published in 1863. In the book, the poem The Landlord's Tale was the source of the immortal phrase "listen my children and you shall hear, of the midnight ride of Paul Revere."
Henry Ford bought the inn in 1923, restored it and donated it to a charitable foundation which continues to run it as an operating inn to this day. Ford built a boys' school on the property, as well as a grist mill, the Martha–Mary Chapel, he brought in the Redstone Schoolhouse from Sterling, reputed to be the school in Sarah Josepha Hale's nursery rhyme Mary Had a Little Lamb. However, Giuseppi Cavicchio's refusal to sell his water rights scuttled Henry Ford's plans to build an auto parts factory at the site of Charles O. Parmenter's mill in South Sudbury; the Sudbury Center Historic District has changed little since 1800. In August 1925, a Sudbury farm was the scene of a riot between local members of the Ku Klux Klan and Irish-American youths from the area. Five people were wounded by gunshots, the State Police arrested over 100 Klansmen. Massachusetts officials cracked down on the group's meetings thereafter, the Klan died out in the area. In the period after World War II, Sudbury experienced rapid growth in industry.
Defense contractor Raytheon was a major employer, operating a large research facility in Sudbury from 1958 until 2016. Another major employer in that period was Sperry Rand. In the 1970s, the town was home to many of the engineers working in the minicomputer revolution at Digital Equipment Corporation in nearby Maynard. Sudbury was one of the largest carnation-growing towns, with many greenhouse operations. From 1960–1969, Sudbury challenged and prevailed against a proposal by Boston Edison Company which would have installed overhead transmission lines through what is now Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge; the line was instead buried under streets to Maynard. Residentially, Sudbury's 1-acre zoning bylaws helped the town maintain a more rural character through the 1970s and 1980s, when developments of single-family Colonials and large Capes established it as an affluent location. Commercial growth was restricted to the town's main thoroughfare, US Route 20. Significant tracts of open space—including much wetland—were preserved in the northern half of town and along the Hop Brook corridor flowing from the Wayside Inn Historic District in the southwest part of town through the King Philip Historic District and into the Sudbury River at the southeast border with Wayland, Massachusetts.
A significant portion of the Assabet River National Wildlife Refuge is located in Sudbury. The town's ZIP code of 01776 was specially assigned in recognition of the town's historical connections to the Revolutionary War, according to the Sudbury Historical Society. Residents of the town at the time disagree; the code was assigned without regard to historic significance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 24.6 square miles, of which 24.4 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles, or 1.06%, is water. The highest point in Sudbury is on the north slope of Nobscot Hill, the highest summit is Tippling Rock, which commands a great view of the west of Boston and the tops of the Hancock and Prudential buildings in downtown. Sudbury is bordered by Wayland on the east. A larger town, Sudbury shares a common corner with Lincoln, with which it shares a regional high school, Lincoln-Sudbury High School. Sudbury is 20 miles west of Boston, 26 miles east of Worcester, 194 miles from New York City.
The area of original town of Sudbury in 1650 included most of the area within the present towns of Wayland and Maynard and all of the area within the present town of Sudbury. Sudbury is located in eastern Massachusetts, bordered by several towns: As of the census of 2000, there were 16,841 people, 5,504 households, 4,749 families residing in the town; the population density was 691.1 people per square mile. There were 5,590 housing units at an average density of 229.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.23% Caucasian, 0.80% African American, 0.03% Native American, 3.72% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.24% of the population. An update in the town's census recorded the population at 18,192 as of 6/10/2015. There were 5,504 households out of which 51.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 78.5% were married couples living together, 6.2% had a female householder with no husband present, an
Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s. The term was used to refer to the Democratic-Republican Party, which Jefferson founded in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton; the Jeffersonians were committed to American republicanism, which meant opposition to what they considered to be artificial aristocracy, opposition to corruption, insistence on virtue, with a priority for the "yeoman farmer", "planters", the "plain folk". They were antagonistic to the aristocratic elitism of merchants and manufacturers, distrusted factory workers, were on the watch for supporters of the dreaded British system of government. Jeffersonian democracy persisted as an element of the Democratic Party into the early 20th century, as exemplified by the rise of Jacksonian democracy and the three presidential candidacies of William Jennings Bryan, its themes continue to echo in the 21st century among the Libertarian and Republican parties.
At the beginning of the Jeffersonian era, only two states had established universal white male suffrage by abolishing property requirements. By the end of the period, more than half of the states had followed suit, including all of the states in the Old Northwest. States also moved on to allowing popular votes for presidential elections, canvassing voters in a more modern style. Jefferson's party, known today as the Democratic-Republican Party, was in full control of the apparatus of government—from the state legislature and city hall to the White House. Jefferson has been called "the most democratic of the Founding fathers"; the Jeffersonians advocated a narrow interpretation of the Constitution's Article I provisions granting powers to the federal government. They strenuously opposed the Federalist Party, led by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton. President George Washington supported Hamilton's program for a financially strong national government; the election of Jefferson in 1800, which he called "the revolution of 1800", brought in the Presidency of Thomas Jefferson and the permanent eclipse of the Federalists, apart from the Supreme Court."Jeffersonian democracy" is an umbrella term and some factions favored some positions more than others.
While principled, with vehemently held core beliefs, the Jeffersonians had factions that disputed the true meaning of their creed. For example, during the War of 1812 it became apparent that independent state militia units were inadequate for conducting a serious war against a major country; the new Secretary of War John C. Calhoun, a Jeffersonian, proposed to build up the Army. With the support of most Republicans in Congress, he got his way. However, the "Old Republican" faction, claiming to be true to the Jeffersonian Principles of'98, fought him and reduced the size of the Army after Spain sold Florida to the U. S. Historians characterize Jeffersonian democracy as including the following core ideals: The core political value of America is republicanism—citizens have a civic duty to aid the state and resist corruption monarchism and aristocracy. Jeffersonian values are best expressed through an organized political party; the Jeffersonian party was the "Republican Party". It was the duty of citizens to vote and the Jeffersonians invented many modern campaign techniques designed to get out the vote.
Turnout indeed soared across the country. The work of John J. Beckley, Jefferson's agent in Pennsylvania, set new standards in the 1790s. In the 1796 presidential election, he blanketed the state with agents who passed out 30,000 hand-written tickets, naming all 15 electors. Historians consider Beckley to be one of the first American professional campaign managers and his techniques were adopted in other states; the Federalist Party its leader Alexander Hamilton, was the arch-foe because of its acceptance of aristocracy and British methods. The national government is a dangerous necessity to be instituted for the common benefit and security of the people, nation or community—it should be watched and circumscribed in its powers. Most anti-Federalists from 1787–1788 joined the Jeffersonians. Separation of church and state is the best method to keep government free of religious disputes and religion free from corruption by government; the federal government must not violate the rights of individuals.
The Bill of Rights is a central theme. The federal government must not violate the rights of the states; the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 proclaim these principles. Freedom of speech and the press are the best methods to prevent tyranny over the people by their own government; the Federalists' violation of this freedom through the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 became a major issue. The yeoman farmer best exemplifies civic virtue and independence from corrupting city influences—government policy should be for his benefit. Financiers and industrialists make cities the "cesspools of corruption" and should be avoided; the United States Constitution was written in order to ensure the freedom of the people. However, as Jefferson wrote to James Madison in 1789, "no society can make a perpetual constitution or a perpetual law; the earth belongs always to the living generation". All men have the right to be informed and thus to have a say in the government; the protection and expansion of human liberty was one of the chief goals of the Jeffersonians.
Gideon Welles, nicknamed "Father Neptune", was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, a cabinet post he was awarded after supporting Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election. Although opposed to the Union blockade of Southern ports, he duly carried out his part of the Anaconda Plan sealing off the Confederate coastline and preventing the exchange of cotton for war supplies; this is viewed as a major cause of Union victory in the Civil War, his achievement in expanding the Navy tenfold was praised. Welles was instrumental in the Navy's creation of the Medal of Honor. Gideon Welles, the son of Samuel Welles and Ann Hale, was born on July 1, 1802, in Glastonbury, Connecticut, his father was fervent Jeffersonian. In contrast to the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, the successor constitution of 1818 provided for freedom of religion, he was a member of the seventh generation of his family in America. His original immigrant ancestor was Thomas Welles, who arrived in 1635 and was the only man in Connecticut's history to hold all four top offices: governor, deputy governor and secretary.
He was the transcriber of the Fundamental Orders. Welles was the second great grandson of Capt. Samuel Welles and Ruth Welles, the daughter of Edmund Rice, a 1638 immigrant to Sudbury and founder of Marlborough, Massachusetts, he married on June 16, 1835, at Lewiston, Mifflin County, Mary Jane Hale, born on June 18, 1817, in Glastonbury, the daughter of Elias White Hale and Jane Mullhallan. Her father, graduated from Yale College in 1794 and practiced law in Mifflin and Centre Counties, Pennsylvania, she died on February 28, 1886, in Hartford and was buried next to her husband in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford. Gideon and Mary Jane were the parents of six children, he was educated at the Episcopal Academy at Cheshire and earned a degree at the American Literary and Military Academy at Norwich, Vt.. He became a lawyer through the then-common practice of reading the law, but soon shifted to journalism and became the founder and editor of the Hartford Times in 1826. After gaining admission, from 1827 to 1835, he participated in the Connecticut House of Representatives as a Democrat.
Following his service in the Connecticut General Assembly, he served in various posts, including State Controller of Public Accounts in 1835, Postmaster of Hartford, Chief of the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing for the Navy. Welles was a Jacksonian Democrat who worked closely with Martin Van Buren and John Milton Niles, his chief rival in the Connecticut Democratic Party was Isaac Toucey, whom Welles would replace at the Navy Department. While Welles dutifully supported James K. Polk in the 1844 election, he would abandon the Democrats in 1848 to support Van Buren's Free Soil campaign; because of his strong anti-slavery views, Welles shifted allegiance in 1854 to the newly established Republican Party and founded a newspaper in 1856 that would espouse Republican ideals for decades thereafter. Welles' strong support of Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential election made him the logical candidate from New England for Lincoln's cabinet. In March 1861, Lincoln named Welles his Secretary of the Navy.
Welles found the Naval Department in disarray, with Southern officers resigning en masse. His first major action was to dispatch the Navy's most powerful warship, the USS Powhatan, to relieve Fort Sumter on Lincoln's instructions. Secretary of State Seward had just ordered the Powhatan to Fort Pickens, Florida on his own authority, ruining whatever chance Major Robert Anderson had of withstanding the assault. Several weeks when Seward argued for a blockade of Southern ports, Welles argued vociferously against the action but was overruled by Lincoln. Despite his misgivings, Welles' efforts to rebuild the Navy and implement the blockade proved extraordinarily effective. From 76 ships and 7,600 sailors in 1861, the Navy expanded tenfold by 1865, his implementation of the Naval portion of the Anaconda Plan weakened the Confederacy's ability to finance the war by limiting the cotton trade, while never effective in sealing off all 3,500 miles of Southern coastline, it was a major contribution towards Northern victory.
Lincoln nicknamed Welles his "Neptune."At the start of the war, David Dixon Porter wrote Welles that "the present allowance of crews... is for peace establishment and is not suited at all to times of war." On another occasion, Porter told Welles that his own vessel lacked coal and that small steamers of shallow draft were required to make the blockade effective. From Mobile to the Mississippi River, numerous inlets allowed small Confederate craft to slip through the Federal blockade. Despite his successes, Welles was never at ease in the Cabinet, his anti-English sentiments caused him to clash with Seward, Welles's conservative stances led to arguments with Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase and War Secretary Edwin M. Stanton. After Lincoln's assassination, Welles was retained by President Andrew Johnson as Secretary of the Navy. In 1866, along with Seward, was instrumental in launching the National Union Party as a third party alternative supportive of Johnson's reconciliation policies. Welles played a prominent part in Johnson's ill-fated "Swing Around the Circle" campaign that autumn.
Although Welles admitted in his diary
Adolph E. Borie
Adolph Edward Borie was a United States merchant and politician who served as Secretary of the Navy in the Ulysses S. Grant administration. A native of Philadelphia Borie was born into a successful merchantile trade business of his father. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania, Borie traveled abroad in 1825, returning to the United States in 1828 to enter his father's merchantile firm, his career lasting the next thirty years; as a Whig Party supporter Borie favored tariffs to protect his worldwide business interests. Joining the Republican Party, Borie supported Abraham Lincoln for President; when the Civil War broke out Borie supported the Union war effort and became a close associate to General Ulysses S. Grant; when Grant was elected President in 1868, he appointed Borie to Secretary of Navy on March 5, 1869 one day after his Inauguration. Borie served only a few months in office before retiring, claiming that the job was too demanding and that he was in frail health. During his brief tenor Borie controversially renamed many naval ships and he allowed Vice Admiral David Porter to de facto run the Navy Department.
Borie was known for supporting workers by enforcing full pay for an eight-hour work day and for desegregating the Washington Navy Yard, allowing African Americans to work alongside whites. After his retirement Borie returned to his business interests, he remained close friends with Grant and accompanied Grant on his famous world tour starting in 1877 and returning to the United States in 1879. In poor health after his travels Borie died on February 5, 1880. Borie was born in Philadelphia on November 1809 the eldest of 12 children, he was the son of a French emigrant John Joseph Borie, a merchant and manufacturer, who settled in Philadelphia. His mother was Sophia Beauveau a Haitian refugee. Borie came from one of the oldest and most aristocratic families in Pennsylvania. Borie's father's ancestry came from Bordeaux, were the leading merchants in Philadelphia, his mother was the daughter of a wealthy Haitian planter, who had fled Haiti during the violent Haitian Revolution. Borie attended the University of Pennsylvania and graduated in 1825 at the age of 16.
At the age of 24 Borie completed his studies in Paris. In 1828, after returning from Europe, Borie entered his father's prestigious merchantile firm McKean Borie & Co. Silk and tea were the emphasized trade commodities during his 30-year tenure in the firm during the epoch of the clipperships. Borie's firm did trade business with Mexico, the West Indies, the Far East when Philadelphia foreign trade was at it zenith. Borie was a pioneer in lobbying the federal government for diplomatic and naval support in protecting his business abroad; the magnitude of his business was enormous, identified by $100,000 in property damages incurred during the 1857-58 disturbances of the Second Opium War in China. From 1848 to 1860 Borie was President of The Bank of Commerce, he became the director of several leading business ventures in Philadelphia. On May 23, 1839 Borie married Elizabeth Dundas McKean. Elizabeth was descended from King of Scotland; the couple had no children. Prior to the Civil War, Borie had a slight connection to politics.
He favored protectionist international trade. In 1843, Borie was consul to Belgium; when the Whig Party demised in the mid 1850s Borie became a Republican. In 1860, Borie supported Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln during the presidential election of 1860. At the outbreak of the Civil War Borie ardently supported Lincoln's presidency, he was a founding member and one-time vice-president of Philadelphia's Union League, guided the recruiting and equipping of several regiments, inspiring Unionist sentiment. The Philadelphia Union League assumed national importance and inspired other cities to create similar organizations supporting the Union War effort against the Confederacy. During the war Borie became an intimate associate with Union General Ulysses S. Grant. On March 5, 1869 President Ulysses S. Grant nominated Borie Secretary of the Navy. Grant, in his choices for various posts, desired to choose non elected people for office, or because they were personal friends. For his first cabinet, Grant did not seek advice from Senators in his selections out of national unity, out of his military training to choose cabinet members as subordinates.
A few of his nominees were exceptional in their service, most notably his effective Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin Bristow, Attorney General Alphonso Taft. But, in his initial stages of choosing his 1869 cabinet, it was a hit-or-miss matter. Borie had been friendly to Grant on a visit to Philadelphia that he chaired. Grant, considering that he owed something to Borie and to the Republicans in the Keystone State announced that there would be a man from Pennsylvania in his cabinet; when pressed for details Grant's sense of humor took over and he became mysterious, talking about a "man from Philadelphia". The question of, this "man from Philadelphia" bothered the public, but the revelation it was Borie was met with amazement. Nobody had heard of him outside of Philadelphia. Borie had little interest in public office, admitted that Admiral David Dixon Porter was the actual manager. Borie disliked the Native American Indian names borne by so many United States Navy ships of the post-American Civil War era, during his short term as Secretary of the Navy, had a great many vessels renamed after states of the Union and personages from classical Greek or Roman mythology, or names that conveye