International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Anthropologist Robin Fox states that the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, parenthood, siblingship etc. Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are working with the raw material as exists in the animal world. These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of economic, political. Kinship can refer both to the patterns of social relationships themselves, or it can refer to the study of the patterns of relationships in one or more human cultures. Further, even within two broad usages of the term, there are different theoretical approaches. Broadly, kinship patterns may be considered to include people related by both descent – i. e. social relations during development – and by marriage. Human kinship relations through marriage are commonly called affinity in contrast to the relationships that arise in ones group of origin, in some cultures, kinship relationships may be considered to extend out to people an individual has economic or political relationships with, or other forms of social connections.
Within a culture, some descent groups may be considered to lead back to gods or animal ancestors and this may be conceived of on a more or less literal basis. Kinship can refer to a principle by which individuals or groups of individuals are organized into groups, categories. Family relations can be represented concretely or abstractly by degrees of relationship, a relationship may be relative or reflect an absolute. Degrees of relationship are not identical to heirship or legal succession, many codes of ethics consider the bond of kinship as creating obligations between the related persons stronger than those between strangers, as in Confucian filial piety. In a more general sense, kinship may refer to a similarity or affinity between entities on the basis of some or all of their characteristics that are under focus. This may be due to a shared origin, a shared historical or cultural connection. For example, a person studying the roots of human languages might ask whether there is kinship between the English word seven and the German word sieben.
It can be used in a more diffuse sense as in, for example, in biology, kinship typically refers to the degree of genetic relatedness or coefficient of relationship between individual members of a species. It may be used in this sense when applied to human relationships. Family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, in most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children. Kin terminologies can be descriptive or classificatory
Aboriginal History is an annual peer-reviewed academic journal published as an open access journal by Aboriginal History Inc. The Journal has been described as, a flagship of the field of Australian Aboriginal history. The journals scope includes the areas of Australian Indigenous history and oral histories, biographies, bibliographic guides, a focus on cultural and economic history is complemented by critiques of current events of relevance to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander culture and society. The journal is co-published by ANU Press, an open access academic publisher located at the Australian National University in Canberra, the journal is fully accessible online from the ANU Press website. Aboriginal History Inc. the journals publisher, publishes monographs on a range of topics in Aboriginal. Since 2006 the monographs have been available through the website of open access co-publisher, official website Open access to journal through co-publisher ANU Press Open access to monographs through co-publisher ANU Press
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members of the Aboriginal race of Australia. Until the 1980s, the legal and administrative criterion for inclusion in this category was race. In the era of colonial and post-colonial government, access to human rights depended upon your race. If you were a full blooded Aboriginal native, the Constitution of Australia, in its original form as of 1901, referred to Aboriginals twice, but without definition. Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament power to legislate with respect to the people of any throughout the Commonwealth. The purpose of this provision was to give the Commonwealth power to regulate non-white immigrant workers, the only other reference, Section 127, provided simply that aboriginal natives shall not be counted in reckoning the size of the population of the Commonwealth or any part of it. The purpose of section 127 was to prevent the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations of the distribution of House of Representatives seats amongst the states and territories, after both of these references were removed by the 1967 referendum, the Australian Constitution had no references to Aboriginals.
Since that time, there have been a number of proposals to amend the constitution to specifically mention Indigenous Australians, the change to Section 51 gave the Commonwealth parliament the power to make laws specifically with respect to Aboriginal peoples as a race. The case concerned an application of legislation that would preserve cultural heritage of Aboriginal Tasmanians and it was held that Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders, together or separately, and any part of either, could be regarded as a race for this purpose. As to the criteria for identifying a person as a member of such a race, Deane said, It is unnecessary, for the purposes of the present case, to consider the meaning to be given to the phrase people of any race in s.51. Plainly, the words have a wide and non-technical meaning, the phrase is, in my view, apposite to refer to all Australian Aboriginals collectively. Any doubt, which might otherwise exist in regard, is removed by reference to the wording of par.
The phrase is apposite to refer to any identifiable racial sub-group among Australian Aboriginals, while Deanes three-part definition reaches beyond the biological criterion to individuals self-identification, it has been criticised as continuing to accept the biological criterion as primary. It has been difficult to apply, both in each of its parts and as to the relations among the parts, biological descent has been a fall-back criterion. If it is to be used to refer to us as a group of people. This has just really crept up on us and we are very happy with our involvement with indigenous people around the world, on the international forum because theyre our brothers and sisters. But we do object to it being used here in Australia and her lecture offered a new perspective on the terms urban, traditional and of Indigenous descent as used to define and categorise Aboriginal Australians. She said, Not only are these categories inappropriate, they serve to divide us, governments insistence on categorising us with modern words like urban, traditional and of Aboriginal descent are really only replacing old terms half-caste and full-blood – based on our colouring
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Great Dividing Range
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world. The width of the range varies from about 160 km to over 300 km, the Dividing Range does not consist of a single mountain range. It consists of a complex of ranges, upland areas and escarpments with an ancient. The physiographic division name for the landmass is called the East Australian Cordillera, in some places the terrain is relatively flat, consisting of very low hills. Typically the highlands range from 300 m to 1,600 m in height, the mountains and plateaus, which consist of limestones, quartzite and dolomite, have been created by faulting and folding processes. In the north, the rivers on the west side of the drain towards the Gulf of Carpentaria. The higher and more rugged parts of the range do not necessarily part of the crest of the range. At some places it can be up to 400 km wide, notable ranges and other features which form part of the range complex have their own distinctive names.
The Great Dividing Range was formed during the Carboniferous period—over 300 million years ago—when Australia collided with what is now parts of South America, the range has experienced significant erosion since. For tens of thousands of years prior to British colonisation the ranges were home to various Aboriginal Australian nations and clans, evidence remains in some places of their traditional way of life including decorated caves and trails used to travel between the coastal and inland regions. Many descendants of these still exist today and remain the traditional owners. After British colonisation in 1788, the ranges were an obstacle to exploration, although not high, parts of the highlands were very rugged. Towns in the Blue Mountains were named each of these men. This was the start of the development of the districts of inland New South Wales. A road was built to Blaxland by convicts within six months, easier routes to inland New South Wales were discovered towards Goulburn to the southwest, and westwards from Newcastle.
Subsequent explorations were made across and around the ranges by Allan Cunningham, John Oxley, Hamilton Hume, Paul Edmund Strzelecki, Ludwig Leichhardt and these explorers were mainly concerned with finding and appropriating good agricultural land. By the late 1830s the most fertile rangelands adjacent to the ranges had been explored, appropriated from the traditional inhabitants. These included the Gippsland and Riverina regions in the south, up to the Liverpool Plains, various road and railway routes were subsequently established through many parts of the ranges, although many areas remain remote to this day
Tabulam is a rural village in the far north-east of New South Wales, Australia,800 kilometres from the state capital, Sydney. Tabulam is located on the Bruxner Highway between Tenterfield and Casino and on the Clarence River, according to the 2006 Census, there were 573 people living in Tabulam. Tabulam is locally administered by Kyogle Council, the name Tabulam is derived from Bundjalung Dahbalam. Originally and the farm and bushland was inhabited by Bundjalung Aborigines of which many still inhabit the town. The land was first settled by Europeans in 1839 and it is the birthplace of Lieutenant General Sir Harry Chauvel of the Australian Light Horse. During World War II tank traps were built in the area near Paddys Flat, more of the tank traps became visible after flooding of the Clarence River in 2011. Tabulam has a large Indigenous population with a number of Indigenous villages surrounding the local area, the main one being Jubullum Village which is the home to the Tabulum Turtle Divers rugby team.
This village is located on the Rocky River and has around 130-150 people, local cultural leaders and artists live in this village and a team of locals maintains the lawns and houses. Tabulam has a number of recreational activities, Tabulam Golf Course is located near the Clarence river at Tabulam. It is a 9 hole bush-land course, the course is maintained by volunteers. It is open to the public, Tabulam hosts an annual Spring Racing Carnival, occurring each year on the Saturday following the Melbourne Cup. The Tabulam racecourse is managed by the Tabulam Jockey Club, the Tabulam Races are held at the local racetrack, located approximately 1 km south of the township, on the bank of the Clarence River. The 5 race carnival culminates with the Tabulam Cup, a 2220m race, white-water rafting, fishing and other nature activities are available at the town. A local company offers weekend or single day river adventures, with guides, media related to Tabulam, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons Northern Rivers Geology - Tabulam Tabulam travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Logan River is a perennial river located in the Scenic Rim and Gold Coast local government areas of the South East region of Queensland, Australia. The catchment is dominated by urban and agricultural land use, near the river mouth are mangrove forests and a number of aquaculture farms. The river flows north by northeast, joined by eleven minor tributaries, before heading east. The river descends 380 metres over its 184-kilometre course, the river is crossed by the Mount Lindesay Highway near Rathdowney and at North Maclean via Macleans Bridge. The river is crossed by the Pacific Motorway and the Old Pacific Highway south of Loganholme. The Beenleigh railway line crosses the Logan between Loganlea and Bethania, tidal waters reach to just downstream of the Macleans Bridge. Maroon Dam subverts Burnnett Creek, and supplies water to the Beaudesert Shire, maroon is managed by SunWater and covers approximately 106 square kilometres. The Queensland Government has considered several projects to supply water to its Southern Regional Pipeline, the Bromelton off-stream storage facility is under construction on the Logan River, outside Beaudesert, as is the Cedar Grove Weir, near Jimboomba.
In 2006 the Queensland Government decided against the construction of a Logan River dam at Tilleys Bridge in Rathdowney due to mounting public pressure and high road diversion costs. Instead, the Wyaralong Dam was proposed on Teviot Brook near Boonah which will inundate fifteen properties instead of the one hundred properties for the Tilleys Bridge site, the Yugambeh clan of the Jagera people are thought to have once roamed throughout the catchment. Traditional owners in the catchment made use of the abundant natural resources, various plants and animals were used as staple foods as the seasons changed and they called the river Dugulumba in their traditional Yugambeh dialect of the Bandjalang language. The river was discovered by Europeans in August 1826 by Captain Patrick Logan, Logan initially named the river the Darling River, but to avoid confusion, Governor Ralph Darling ordered the name be changed to honour its discoverer. Boat traffic was thriving along the river by the 1860s mostly because it was the best transport route in the area, steam ships and hand-loaded punts were the most common vessels.
For navigation purposes the river was surveyed in 1871 from its mouth upstream to McLean, wharfs were initially built at McLean, Beenleigh and Logan Village with more built due to public demand. Unofficial ferry crossings were conducted as early as 1862, long-term services were established at Alberton and Waterford. The rail bridge at Loganlea was operating in 1885 only to be demolished two years during floods, a new bridge opened in 1888 and lasted until 1972 when another bridge was built. In 1905, a crocodile was found dead on the banks of the river, the find was preceded by reports of sightings for several years which were met with skepticism because southern Queensland is well south of their natural distribution. A toll bridge on the north of Beenleigh was opened and began collecting tolls in 1931
Southern Downs Region
The Southern Downs Region is a local government area in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, along the states boundary with New South Wales. It was created in 2008 from a merger of the Shire of Warwick and it has an estimated operating budget of A$22.8 million. The majority of the former Warwick Shire is home to the Githabul people who have lived around this area for tens of thousands of years before arrival by Europeans in the early 1840s, on 21 July 1869, the Municipality of Allora was established under the Municipal Institutions Act 1864. On 11 November 1879, the Clifton and Stanthorpe Divisions were created as three of 74 divisions within Queensland under the Divisional Boards Act 1879, in 1886, Rosenthal was created out of parts of Glengallan. With the passage of the Local Authorities Act 1902, Warwick and Allora became Towns, on 23 January 1915 the Town of Allora was abolished and a new Shire of Allora was created from the southern part of the Shire of Clifton. On 4 April 1936, Warwick was proclaimed a city, the Local Government Regulation 1994 was gazetted on 20 May 1994.
On 25 June, an election was held for the new Shire of Warwick, and on 1 July 1994, Stanthorpe was unaffected by these changes. In July 2007, the Local Government Reform Commission released its report and recommended that Warwick and it noted that Warwick was the regional centre for the region, with the maximum travelling time between Warwick and any other town being one hour. Both councils opposed the amalgamation citing cultural differences and different river catchment areas, on 15 March 2008, the two Shires formally ceased to exist, and elections were held on the same day to elect eight councillors and a mayor to the Regional Council. The council remains undivided and its elected body consists of eight councillors, the next census, due in 2011, will be the first for the new Region
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964. The editor in chief is Paul Whittaker, the editor is John Lehmann and its chief rivals are the business-focused Australian Financial Review, and on weekends, The Saturday Paper. In May 2010, the newspaper launched the first Australian newspaper iPad app, the Australian is owned by News Corp Australia. News Corps Chairman and Founder is Rupert Murdoch, the Australian integrates content from overseas newspapers owned by News Corp Australias parent, News Corp, including The Wall Street Journal and The Times of London. Unlike other Murdoch newspapers, it was neither a tabloid nor an acquired publication, from its inception The Australian struggled for financial viability and ran at a loss for several decades. The Australians first editor was Maxwell Newton, though he would leave the paper within a year and was succeeded by Walter Kommer, during the 1975 election, campaigning against the Whitlam government by its owner led to the papers journalists striking over editorial direction.
Editor-in-chief Chris Mitchell was appointed in 2002 and retired on 11 December 2015, Daily sections include National News followed by Worldwide News and Business News. Contained within each issue is a prominent op/ed section, including regular columnists, other regular sections include Technology, Features, Legal Affairs, Defence, Horse-Racing, The Arts, Health and Higher Education. A Travel & Indulgence section is included on Saturdays, along with The Inquirer, Saturday lift-outs include Review, focusing on books, arts and television, and The Weekend Australian Magazine, the only national weekly glossy insert magazine. A glossy magazine, Wish, is published on the first Friday of the month, the Australian has long maintained a focus on issues relating to Aboriginal disadvantage. It devotes attention to the technology and mining industries, as well as the science, economics. It has published special reports into Australian energy policy. The Australian Literary Review was a supplement from September 2006 October 2011.
The Australian has often criticised for being biased against recent Labor governments. In recent years, the paper was scathing of Labors decision to introduce a tax and other carbon emission reduction measures, using reporting. On the newspapers website, there was a section named Stimulus Watch, subtitled How your Billions Are Being Spent, along with the governments insulation stimulus policy, it contributed to perceptions of incompetence and general dissatisfaction with the governments performance. In 2011, Glenn Milne reported on the allegations against Prime Minister Julia Gillard concerning the AWU affair including a claim regarding Gillards living arrangements with Wilson. Gillard contacted the chief executive of The Australian, resulting in the story being removed, the story was ignored for a long time by other media outlets
Rathdowney is a small town in south-eastern Queensland, Australia. It is on the Mount Lindesay Highway 32 kilometres south of Beaudesert at the base of the McPherson Range and it is located in the Scenic Rim local government area. At the 2011 census, Rathdowney had a population of 434, the town was named after the former Rathdowney station, which derived its name from Rathdowney in Ireland. The Beaudesert Shire Tramway was extended to Rathdowney in 1911 but closed in 1944, timber clearing was the first major industry in the area. Cattle grazing and dairy farming are now the main industries, in the west, where Burnetts Creek enters the Logan is Bigriggen Reserve Park. The park provides camp sites with a kiosk by the river with access available to caravans, there are many tours, farm stays, guest houses and other opportunities available for visitors to experience this region, which is about a 90-minute drive from Brisbane or the Gold Coast. Mount Maroon is 12 km west of Rathdowney, at 966 m the summit provides 360 degree views.
Currently the small town has a station, a small shop, a pub, a service station, a post office, memorial grounds, information centre, a bowls club. The Rathdowney Primary School opened in 1912 and has a 25 m swimming pool in which every spring, the swimming club has swimming training during the week after school. Boonah, Queensland Media related to Rathdowney, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Kyogle Council is a local government area in the Northern Rivers region of New South Wales, Australia. Kyogle Council comprises a large and diverse region with natural attributes, including the Border Ranges National Park and other heritage listed areas. The Mayor of Kyogle Council is Clr, at the 2011 census, there were 9,228 people in the Kyogle local government area, of these 50.3 per cent were male and 49.7 per cent were female. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.3 per cent of the population, the median age of people in the Kyogle Council area was 45 years, which was significantly higher than the national median of 37 years. Children aged 0 –14 years made up 19.1 per cent of the population and people aged 65 years, of people in the area aged 15 years and over,46.6 per cent were married and 15.1 per cent were either divorced or separated. Population growth in the Kyogle Council area between the 2001 census and the 2006 census was 1.06 per cent, and in the subsequent five years to the 2011 census, the median weekly income for residents within the Kyogle Council area was significantly lower than the national average.
At the 2011 census, the proportion of residents in the Kyogle local government area who stated their ancestry as Australian or Anglo-Saxon exceeded 85 per cent of all residents. In excess of 23 per cent of all residents in the Kyogle Council at the 2011 census nominated no religious affiliation, affiliation with Christianity was 55 per cent, which was slightly higher than the national average of 50.2 per cent. Kyogle Council is composed of nine Councillors elected proportionally as three separate wards, each electing three Councillors, the Councillors are elected for a fixed four-year term of office. The Mayor is elected by the Councillors at the first meeting of the Council