A kalesa is a horse-drawn calash used in the Philippines. It was one mode of transportation introduced to the islands in the 18th century by Spanish colonizers, was reserved for only nobles and high-ranking civic officials, they are used in the streets today, except in the tourist-frequented areas of old cities and some rural areas. Composer Ambrosio Del Rosario composed the original music and National Artist of the Philippines Levi Celério wrote the lyrics for a song entitled Kalesa, in honour of the vehicle; the word spelt calesa as in the original Spanish, is related to the terms calèche and was in Spain prior to its colonisation of the islands. The term descends from a Czech word meaning "wheelwork". A kalesa looks like an inclined cart, is drawn by a single horse, it has two round wheels, one on each side, two rows of seats that can accommodate four persons. The driver sits on a block of wood located at the front of the cart near the horse; when the kalesa was introduced in the 18th century, it grew into a significant mode of transportation in the islands.
Rich, educated Filipinos known as the ilustrados used the kalesa for personal travel as well as for the transport of goods to nearby areas. During the American Occupation, the City of Manila was teeming with kalesas, but these declined in popularity after the devastation of the Second World War; the kalesa driver is called as kutsero. When a kutsero wants the horse to turn right, he says "mano” while he says "silla” to make the horse turn left. Although the kalesa has become a rarity, century-old examples are still preserved in areas of the Philippines, such as in Vigan and Laoag. Kalesas can be found in Intramuros, where they cater to tourists and Binondo in Manila, as well as in Iligan, where decorated kalesas can be taken for a ride along a specific street. In Cagayan, kalesas are common in Tuao and other municipalities of the province. In Tuguegarao, the carriages are a part of the traffic along with private cars, tricycles, jeepneys and bicycles. Kalesa de Cebu Philippines Travel Guide for the explorer in you.
Riding The Philippine'Calesa' and Business Kalesa - Video Watch, watch Youtube video, download Youtube video. Vigan City Philippines - Unesco World Heritage City. Kalesa Kinulayan Philippines People's Organization, Inc. website Lifestylebucket Blogsite "Breve diccionario etimológico de la lengua española" by Guido Gómez de Silva PTA Grand Launch - Kalesa Festival. The Official Web Page of Philippine Tourism Authority. Kalesa Kinulayan Philippines People's Organization, Inc. website Lifestylebucket Blogsite
A chaise, sometimes called chay or shay, is a light two- or four-wheeled traveling or pleasure carriage for one or two people with a folding hood or calash top. The name, in use in England before 1700, came from the French word through a transference from a sedan-chair to a wheeled vehicle; the two-wheeled version of a chair-backed type, for one or two persons called a gig or one-horse shay, had a body hung on leather straps or thorough-braces and was drawn by one horse. A chaise-cart was a light carriage fitted with suspension, used for transporting lightweight goods. A bath chair was a hooded and sometimes glassed wheeled chair used by invalids. Other types of chaise included: post chaise: designed for fast long-distance travel curricle: two-wheeled drawn by two horses calesín: small, one-horse, hooded, a seat behind for the driver, used in the Philippines shandrydan or shandradan: with a hoodDuring the winter of 1791/92, in the opening phases of the French Revolution, Henrietta Ponsonby, Countess of Bessborough, noted the lack of ostentation in the streets of Paris, where a few drove themselves about in "little open chaises like the cabriolet but with one horse."
A tilbury is a light, two-wheeled carriage, with or without a top, developed in the early 19th century by the London firm of Tilbury, coachbuilders in Mount Street. A tilbury rig is little more than a single "tilbury seat"—the firm's characteristic spindle-backed seat with a curved padded backrest— mounted over a raked luggage boot, fitted with a dashboard and mounting peg, all on an elaborate suspension system of curved leaf springs above the single axle; the tilbury has large wheels for moving fast over rough roads. A tilbury is fast, light and dangerous: "A bad accident happened yesterday afternoon to M. Adolphe Fould, son of the Minister, he was seized with giddiness while driving his tilbury in the Champs Elysees and fell out of the vehicle. He was taken up senseless and conveyed to the Palace of the Exposition." – The Times, 9 November 1857. There is no connection with Tilbury in Essex. Gig Science and Society Picture Library - Search | Tilbury gig, c 1830
The stanhope was a gig, buggy, or light phaeton having a high seat and closed back. It was named after Captain Hon. Henry FitzRoy Stanhope, a well-known sportsman of his time, built by the London firm of Tilbury, coachbuilders in Mount Street. Stanhope, an early auto body Types of carriages D7849 Stanhope gig, maker unknown, England, c 1862 - Powerhouse Museum Collection. Powerhouse Museum | Science + Design | Sydney Australia. Search "stanhope gig". Morven Park Morven Park Winmill Carriage Museum Seabrook Coaching Stable Dispersal Auction: Stanhope Gig; the Carriage Association of America, Inc
The one-horse shay is a light, two-wheeled carriage for two persons, drawn by a single horse. The body is chairlike in shape and has one seat for passengers positioned above the axle, hung by leather braces from wooden springs connected to the shafts; the one-horse shay is an American adaptation, originating in Maine, of the French chaise. The one-horse shay is colloquially known in the USA as a'one-hoss shay'. A smaller and more constructed version of the one-horse shay is called a chair or'whiskey' because it can "whisk" around other carriages and pass them quickly. Another version of the'whiskey', known as a'whisky', is constructed exceptionally light in weight for the purpose of allowing it to be drawn by small ponies or light horses. American writer Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. memorialized the shay in his satirical poem "The Deacon's Masterpiece or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay". In the poem, a fictional deacon crafts the titular wonderful one-hoss shay in such a logical way that it could not break down.
The shay is constructed from the best of materials so that each part is as strong as every other part. In Holmes' humorous, yet "logical", the shay endures for a hundred years it "went to pieces all at once, nothing first, — just as bubbles do when they burst", it was built in such a "logical way" that it ran for one hundred years to the day. In economics, the term "one-hoss shay" is used, following the scenario in Holmes' poem, to describe a model of depreciation, in which a durable product delivers the same services throughout its lifetime before failing with zero scrap value. A chair is a common example of such a product. Carriage The "One-Hoss Shay" by Oliver Wendell Holmes with illustrations by Howard Pyle. Contains extensive explanatory notes The Deacon’s Masterpiece or The Wonderful "One-Hoss Shay": A Logical Story. Contains explanatory notes and poem info The Deacon’s Masterpiece or The Wonderful "One-Hoss Shay": A Logical Story. Contains discussion of a practical lesson that can be obtained from the poem The One-Hoss Shay public domain audiobook at LibriVox
A sprung cart was a light, one-horse, two-wheeled vehicle with road springs, for the carriage of passengers on informal occasions. Its name varied according to the body mounted on it. Examples were jaunting car, governess cart, tax cart and Whitechapel cart; some light domestic delivery vans were of this pattern. An Australian spring cart was a simple cart designed for carrying goods and did not have seating for driver or passengers; the driver sat on the sacks or goods carried. The shafts were wider than usual to accommodate a part bred one; the un-sprung cart by contrast was a simple, one-horse, two-wheeled vehicle used by roadmen and the like for road metal or dung. Types of carriages
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction