A cyborg, short for "cybernetic organism", is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Nathan S. Kline; the term cyborg is not the same thing as biorobot or android. While cyborgs are thought of as mammals, including humans, they might conceivably be any kind of organism. D. S. Halacy's Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a "new frontier", "not space, but more profoundly the relationship between'inner space' to'outer space' – a bridge...between mind and matter."In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical or as indistinguishable from humans. Cyborgs in fiction play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology when used for war, when used in ways that seem to threaten free will. Cyborgs are often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart, such as RoboCop. According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with the most basic technologies have made them cyborgs.
In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are cyborg enhancements; some theorists cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested; the term is used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only used pieces of technology such as phones, the Internet, etc. but artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology.
When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares. Cybernetic technologies include highways, electrical wiring, electrical plants and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within. Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell. Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally, Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally; the computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where "Omar" is a Russian translation of the word "Lobster".
The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story "The Man That Was Used Up". In 1911, Jean de La Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero, the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystère des XV. Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928, he featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, "After a Judgment Day," to describe the "mechanical analogs" called "Charlies," explaining that "yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s...cybernetic organisms." In the short story "No Woman Born" in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.
The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments: Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York; the term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper. A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possib
H. R. Giger
Hans Ruedi Giger was a Swiss painter, best known for airbrush images of humans and machines linked together in a cold biomechanical relationship. He abandoned airbrush work for pastels and ink, he was part of the special effects team. In Switzerland there are two themed bars that reflect his interior designs, his work is on permanent display at the H. R. Giger Museum at Gruyères, his style has been adapted to many forms of media, including record album covers and tattoos. Giger was born in 1940 in Chur, the capital city of Graubünden, the largest and easternmost Swiss canton, his father, a pharmacist, viewed art as a "breadless profession" and encouraged him to enter pharmacy. He moved to Zürich in 1962, where he studied architecture and industrial design at the School of Applied Arts until 1970. Giger's first success was when H. H. Kunz, co-owner of Switzerland's first poster publishing company and distributed Giger's first posters, beginning in 1969. Giger's style and thematic execution were influential.
He was part of the special effects team that won an Academy Award for Best Achievement in Visual Effects for their design work on the film Alien. His design for the Alien was inspired by his painting Necronom IV and earned him an Oscar in 1980, his books of paintings Necronomicon and Necronomicon II and the frequent appearance of his art in Omni magazine continued his rise to international prominence. Giger was admitted to the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame in 2013, he is well known for artwork on several music recording albums including Danzig III: How The Gods Kill by Danzig, Brain Salad Surgery by Emerson, Lake & Palmer and Deborah Harry's KooKoo. In 1998, Giger acquired the Château St. Germain in Gruyères, it now houses the H. R. Giger Museum, a permanent repository of his work. Giger had a relationship with Swiss actress Li Tobler until she committed suicide in 1975. Li's image appears in many of his paintings, he married Mia Bonzanigo in 1979. The artist lived and worked in Zürich with his second wife, Carmen Maria Scheifele Giger, the Director of the H.
R. Giger Museum. On 12 May 2014, Giger died in a hospital in Zürich after having suffered injuries in a fall. In addition to his awards, Giger was recognized by a variety of institutions. On the one year anniversary of his death, the Museum of Arts and Design in New York City staged the series The Unseen Cinema of HR Giger in May 2015. Dark Star: H. R. Giger's World, a biographical documentary by Belinda Sallin, debuted 27 September 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland. On 11 July 2018, the asteroid 109712 Giger was named in his memory. Giger started with small ink drawings before progressing to oil paintings. For most of his career, Giger had worked predominantly in airbrush, creating monochromatic canvasses depicting surreal, nightmarish dreamscapes, he worked with pastels and ink. Giger's most distinctive stylistic innovation was that of a representation of human bodies and machines in a cold, interconnected relationship, he described as "biomechanical", his main influences were painters Dado, Ernst Fuchs and Salvador Dalí.
He met Salvador Dalí. Giger was influenced by the work of the sculptor Stanislas Szukalski, by the painters Austin Osman Spare and Mati Klarwein, he was a personal friend of Timothy Leary. Giger studied interior and industrial design at the School of Commercial Art in Zurich and made his first paintings as a means of art therapy. Giger directed a number of films, including Swiss Made, Giger's Necronomicon and Giger's Alien. Giger created furniture designs the Harkonnen Capo Chair for a film of the novel Dune, to be directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky. Many years David Lynch directed the film, using only rough concepts by Giger. Giger had wished to work with Lynch, as he stated in one of his books that Lynch's film Eraserhead was closer than Giger's own films to realizing his vision. Giger applied his biomechanical style to interior design. One "Giger Bar" appeared in Tokyo, but the realization of his designs was a great disappointment to him, since the Japanese organization behind the venture did not wait for his final designs, instead used Giger's rough preliminary sketches.
For that reason Giger disowned the Tokyo bar. The two Giger Bars in his native Switzerland, in Gruyères and Chur, were built under Giger's close supervision and they reflect his original concepts. At The Limelight in Manhattan, Giger's artwork was licensed to decorate the VIP room, the uppermost chapel of the landmarked church, but it was never intended to be a permanent installation and bore no similarity to the bars in Switzerland; the arrangement was terminated after two years. Giger's art has influenced tattooists and fetishists worldwide. Under a licensing deal Ibanez guitars released an H. R. Giger signature series: the Ibanez ICHRG2, an Ibanez Iceman, features "NY City VI", the Ibanez RGTHRG1 has "NY City XI" printed on it, the S Series SHRG1Z has a metal-coated engraving of "Biomechanical Matrix" on it, a 4-string SRX bass, SRXHRG1, has "N. Y. City X" on it. Giger is referred to in popular culture in science fiction and cyberpunk. William Gibson seems fascinated: A minor character in Virtual Light, Lowell, is described as having New York XXIV tattooed across his back, in Idoru a secondary character, describes the buildings of nanotech Japan as Giger-esque.
Dune is a 1965 science fiction novel by American author Frank Herbert published as two separate serials in Analog magazine. It tied with Roger Zelazny's This Immortal for the Hugo Award in 1966, it won the inaugural Nebula Award for Best Novel, it is the first installment of the Dune saga, in 2003 was cited as the world's best-selling science fiction novel. Set in the distant future amidst a feudal interstellar society in which various noble houses control planetary fiefs, Dune tells the story of young Paul Atreides, whose family accepts the stewardship of the planet Arrakis. While the planet is an inhospitable and sparsely populated desert wasteland, it is the only source of melange, or "the spice", a drug that extends life and enhances mental abilities; as melange can only be produced on Arrakis, control of the planet is a coveted and dangerous undertaking. The story explores the multi-layered interactions of politics, ecology and human emotion, as the factions of the empire confront each other in a struggle for the control of Arrakis and its spice.
The scion and heir of the Atreides family, Paul is believed to be a candidate for the Kwisatz Haderach, a messianic figure whose coming is fortold by the Bene Gesserit sisterhood. On Arrakis and his family are betrayed by the Emperor and the former overlords of the planet, House Harkonnen, Paul seeks refuge with the Fremen, the nomadic natives of Arrakis. Paul is dubbed Muad ` Dib, he is trained in the Fremen ways, including the riding of gigantic sandworms, whose life cycle is important in the production of melange. Paul trains the Fremen into a fighting force, leads an assault on the Emperor and the Harkonnen for control of Arrakis; the book ends with Paul's defeat of the Emperor, upon assuming the Imperial throne himself, he expresses doubt that he can control the Fremen or stop the coming revolution that he has unleashed on the universe. Herbert wrote five sequels: Dune Messiah, Children of Dune, God Emperor of Dune, Heretics of Dune, Chapterhouse: Dune; the first novel inspired a 1984 film adaptation by David Lynch, the 2000 Sci-Fi Channel miniseries Frank Herbert's Dune and its 2003 sequel Frank Herbert's Children of Dune, a series of computer games, several board games, a series of followups, including prequels and sequels, that were co-written by Kevin J. Anderson and the author's son, Brian Herbert, starting in 1999.
A new film adaptation directed by Denis Villeneuve is scheduled to be released on November 20, 2020. Since 2009, the names of planets from the Dune novels have been adopted for the real-life nomenclature of plains and other features on Saturn's moon Titan. After his novel The Dragon in the Sea was published in 1957, Herbert traveled to Florence, Oregon, at the north end of the Oregon Dunes. Here, the United States Department of Agriculture was attempting to use poverty grasses to stabilize the sand dunes. Herbert claimed in a letter to his literary agent, Lurton Blassingame, that the moving dunes could "swallow whole cities, rivers, highways." Herbert's article on the dunes, "They Stopped the Moving Sands", was never completed but its research sparked Herbert's interest in ecology. Herbert spent the next five years researching and revising, he published a three-part serial Dune World in the monthly Analog, from December 1963 to February 1964. The serial was accompanied by several illustrations.
After an interval of a year, he published the much slower-paced five-part The Prophet of Dune in the January – May 1965 issues. The serialized version was expanded and submitted to more than twenty publishers, each of whom rejected it; the novel, was accepted and published in August 1965 by Chilton Books, a printing house better known for publishing auto repair manuals. Herbert dedicated his work "to the people whose labors go beyond ideas into the realm of'real materials'—to the dry-land ecologists, wherever they may be, in whatever time they work, this effort at prediction is dedicated in humility and admiration." In the far future, humanity has eschewed advanced computers due to a religious prohibition, in favor of adapting their minds to be capable of complex tasks. Much of this is enabled by the spice melange, found only on Arrakis, a desert planet with giant sandworms as its most notable native lifeform. Melange improves general health, extends life and can bestow limited prescience, its rarity makes it a form of currency in the interstellar empire.
Melange allows the Spacing Guild's Navigators to safely route faster-than-light travel between planets, helps the Reverend Mothers of the matriarchal Bene Gesserit to access their Other Memory, the ego and experiences of their female ancestors. As the novel opens, each planet is ruled by a Great House that owes allegiance to the Padishah Emperor Shaddam IV; the Emperor suspects that Duke Leto Atreides of House Atreides has become a potential challenger to his throne as Leto gains favor with other Great Houses in the Landsraad. The Emperor seeks the downfall of House Atreides by assigning them control of Arrakis ruled by Baron Vladimir Harkonnen of House Harkonnen; the Atreides and Harkonnen houses have had a generations-long feud, the Emperor secretly plots with the Baron to attack House Atreides after its move to Arrakis. While masking his involvement in the Baron's attack, the Emperor plans to ensure its success by deploying some of his elite Sardaukar troopers in Harkonnen disguise. Leto Atreides, on hearing of thi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Chur or Coire is the capital and largest town of the Swiss canton of Grisons and lies in the Grisonian Rhine Valley, where the Rhine turns towards the north, in the northern part of the canton. The city, located on the right bank of the Rhine, is reputedly the oldest town of Switzerland; the official language of Chur is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the High Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Archaeological evidence of settlement at the site, in the Eastern Alps, goes back as far as the Pfyn culture, making Chur one of the oldest settlements in Switzerland. Remains and objects from the Bronze and Iron Ages have been found in the eastern sector of the current city's centre; these include Bronze Age Urnfield and Luco-Meluno settlements from 1300-800 BC and Iron Age settlements from the 5th to 3rd centuries BC. The Roman Empire conquered the area that came to be known as the Roman province of Raetia in 15 BC. Under emperor Diocletian, the existing settlement of Curia Raetorum was made the capital of the newly established province of Raetia prima.
In the 4th century Chur became the seat of the first Christian bishopric north of the Alps. Despite a legend assigning its foundation to an alleged Briton king, St. Lucius, the first known bishop is one Asinio in 451 AD. After the invasion of the Ostrogoths, it was rechristened Theodoricopolis; the city suffered several invasions, by the Magyars in 925-926, when the cathedral was destroyed, by the Saracens, but afterwards it flourished thanks to its location, where the roads from several major Alpine transit routes come together and continue down the Rhine. The routes had been used under the Romans but acquired greater importance under the Ottonian dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire. Emperor Otto I granted the town the right to collect tolls in 952 and appointed his vassal Hartpert as bishop of Chur in 958, giving the bishopric numerous privileges. In 1170 the bishop became a prince-bishop and kept total control over the road between Chur and Chiavenna. In the 13th century the town had some 1,300 inhabitants, was surrounded by a line of walls.
In the 14th century, at least six fires damaged or destroyed the monasteries of St. Luzi and St. Nicolai, St. Martin's church and twice destroyed much of the town; the Gotteshausbund was formed in 1367 in Chur to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House of Habsburg. Chur was one of the places the Leagues' assemblies met regularly. A burgmeister of Chur is first mentioned in 1413, The bishop's residence was attacked by the inhabitants in 1418 and 1422, when a series of concessions were wrung out of him. On 27 April 1464 most of the town was destroyed in a fire, which only the bishop's estates and St. Luzi monastery survived. With the bishops' power waning as he came under the influence of the nearby Habsburg County of Tyrol, the citizens sent a delegation to Emperor Frederick III; the Emperor reconfirmed the historic rights of Chur and granted them extensive new rights which freed the city from the bishop's power. In 1465 the citizens wrote a constitution. All government positions were restricted to guild members, allowing the guilds to regulate all aspects of life in Chur.
Because guild membership was the only route to political power, local patricians and nobles became guild members joining the winemakers guild. The Chur lead League of the House of God allied with the Grey League and the League of the Ten Jurisdictions in 1471 to form the Three Leagues. In 1489 Chur obtained the right to have a tribunal of its own, but never had the title of Free Imperial City. In 1497-98, concerned about Habsburg expansion and with the Bishop of Chur quarrelling with Austria, the Three Leagues formed an alliance with the Swiss Confederation. In 1499 the Swabian War broke out between the Three Leagues and Austria and expanded to include the Confederation. During the war, troops from Chur fought under the Bishop's Vogt Heinrich Ammann in the Lower Engadin, in Prättigau and near Balzers. Troops from Chur took part in the 1512 invasion of the Valtellina and the Second Musso War in 1530-31. In 1523 Johannes Comander was appointed parish priest of St. Martin's Church and began preaching the new faith of the Protestant Reformation.
It spread and by 1524-25 the bishop had fled the city and Protestant services were taking place in the churches of St. Martin and St. Regula; the Ilanz articles of 1524 and 1526 allowed each resident of the Three Leagues to choose their religion, reduced the political and secular power of the Bishop of Chur and all monasteries in League territory. By 1527 all of Chur, except the bishop's estates, had adopted the Reformation. On 1 January 1529 Abbot Theodore Schlegel was publicly beheaded. Bishop Thomas Planta, a friend of St. Charles Borromeo, but without success, to suppress Protestantism, he died poisoned, 5 May 1565. During the 16th century the German language started to prevail over Romansh. In 1479 about 300 houses and stalls burned in another fire. Nearly a century on 23 July 1574 a fire destroyed 174 houses and 114 stalls, or about half the city. Two years on 21 October 1576, another 53 houses were burned. Two years after the 1576 fire, the perpetrator, Hauptmann Stör, was executed. After the Napoleonic Wars, the Three Leagues became the canton of Graubünden in 1803.
The guild constitution of the city of Chur lasted until 1839, while in
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The Harkonnen Chairs are a series of H. R. Giger's furniture designs, they were manufactured by hand chiefly out of aluminium or black fiberglass and made to resemble a human skeleton. The chairs were designed for an unproduced movie version of the 1965 Frank Herbert science fiction novel Dune, to be directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky in the 1970s. Baron Harkonnen is the villain of Herbert's novel; the series consisted of a regular chair and a more elaborate "Capo" chair intended to be used as Baron Harkonnen's main chair. The most prominent feature of the Capo Chair is a crown of three noseless skulls stacked on top of each other in a column above the back of the chair; this feature is what distinguishes the Capo Chair from regular Harkonnen Chairs, which lack the triple skull crown as well as armrests. Giger sold replicas for $30,000 to $50,000. Versions of the regular Harkonnen Chairs are in use at the two Swiss Giger Bar locations. Official website