The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
San Antonio the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731; the area was still part of the Spanish Empire, of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality; the city's deep history is contrasted with its rapid recent growth during the past few decades. It was the fastest-growing of the top ten largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the second from 1990 to 2000. Straddling the regional divide between South and Central Texas, San Antonio anchors the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion colloquially known as the "Texas Triangle". San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County. Since San Antonio was founded during the Spanish Colonial Era, it has a church in its center, on the main civic plaza in front, a characteristic of many Spanish-founded cities and villages in Spain and Latin America.
As with many other urban centers in the Southwestern United States, areas outside the city limits are sparsely populated. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan statistical area. Called Greater San Antonio, the metro area has a population of 2,473,974 based on the 2017 U. S. census estimate, making it the 24th-largest metropolitan area in the United States and third-largest in Texas. Growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named by a 1691 Spanish expedition for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is June 13; the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which together were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2015. Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, SeaWorld, the Alamo Bowl, Marriage Island. Commercial entertainment includes Morgan's Wonderland amusement parks.
According to the San Antonio Convention and Visitors Bureau, the city is visited by about 32 million tourists a year. It is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs, hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the U. S; the U. S. Armed Forces have numerous facilities around San Antonio. Lackland Air Force Base, Randolph Air Force Base, Lackland AFB/Kelly Field Annex, Camp Bullis, Camp Stanley are outside the city limits. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, when the airfield was transferred to Lackland AFB; the remaining parts of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, the only medical research and care provider in the South Texas region. At the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, they called the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning "refreshing waters".
In 1691, a group of Spanish explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13, the feast day of St. Anthony of Padua, they named the river "San Antonio" in his honor. It was years. Father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there; the viceroy gave formal approval for a combined mission and presidio in late 1716, as he wanted to forestall any French expansion into the area from their colony of La Louisiane to the east, as well as prevent illegal trading with the Payaya. He directed the governor of Coahuila y Tejas, to establish the mission complex. Differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, construction did not start until 1718. Olivares built, with the help of the Payaya Indians, the Misión de San Antonio de Valero, the Presidio San Antonio de Bexar, the bridge that connected both, the Acequia Madre de Valero; the families who clustered around the presidio and mission were the start of Villa de Béjar, destined to become the most important town in Spanish Texas.
On May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5, 1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14, 1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas, his plan was approved, notice was given the Canary Islanders to furnish 200 families. By June 1730, 25 families had reached Cuba, 10 families had been sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, where they arrived on March 9, 1731. Due to marriages along the way, the party now included a total of 56 persons, they joined the military community established in 1718. The immigrants f
"Muscles" is a 1982 hit single written and produced by Michael Jackson, performed by American singer Diana Ross. It was the first single release from Ross's Gold-certified album Silk Electric; the single reached number # 7 in # 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. It climbed as high as #4 on the Billboard Soul chart; the kinky song, named after Jackson's pet snake, was written for Ross and her "desire" for a muscle-bound lover. It earned Ross a twelfth and latest Grammy Award nomination for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance; the song was recorded in 1997 by producer/DJ Peter Rauhofer recording as Club 69 and was a featured single on the Club 69 album Style. The vocals on this version of "Muscles" are performed by Suzanne Palmer. Lil' Kim sampled "Muscles" for her rap "Diamonds" but it was not included in the final cut of her album The Notorious K. I. M. Young Jeezy sampled "Muscles" for the title track of his album The Inspiration; the single's erotic music video featured Ross in bed dreaming of muscular men.
In one scene she is shown floating through the air over a landscape which turns out to be a man's musclebound body. The video features a young Gil Birmingham in one of his first-ever media appearances. UK vinyl, 12""Muscles" – 4:36 "I Am Me" – 3:50US vinyl, 12", promo"Muscles" – 6:38 "I Am Me" – 3:50US vinyl, 7""Muscles" – 3:59 "I Am Me" – 3:50US vinyl, 7", Gold Standard Stereo"Muscles" – 3:59 "Pieces of Ice" – 3:57FR vinyl, 7""Muscles" – 3:59 "I Am Me" – 3:50NE vinyl, 12""Muscles" – 4:35 "I Am Me" – 3:47NE vinyl, 7""Muscles" – 3:59 "I Am Me" – 3:50 Diana Ross - lead vocals Michael Jackson - producer, uncredited background vocals Ted Jensen at Sterling Sound, NYC - mastering Patti Austin - additional backing vocals Bill Wolfer - synthesizer Michael Boddicker - synthesizer Ray Chew - keyboards Eric Gale - guitar Yogi Horton - drums Neil Jason - bass Denzil Miller - keyboards Jeff Mironov - guitar Jonathan Moffett - drums Julia Tillman Waters - additional backing vocals Greg Smith - synthesizer Maxine Willard Waters - additional backing vocals David Williams - guitar Nathan Watts - bass Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Dame Helen Lydia Mirren, is an English actor. Mirren began her acting career with the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1967, is one of the few performers who have achieved the Triple Crown of Acting, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress in 2007 for her performance as Queen Elizabeth II in The Queen and received the Olivier Award for Best Actress and Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play for the same role in The Audience. Mirren's other Academy Award nominations include The Madness of King George, Gosford Park, The Last Station. For her role as police detective Jane Tennison on the British television series Prime Suspect, which ran from 1991 to 2006, she won three consecutive BAFTA Awards for Best Actress between 1992 and 1994 and two Emmy Awards, she received another Emmy Award and a Golden Globe Award for her performance in the miniseries Elizabeth I. Some of her other notable film roles include Marcella in the 1984 film Cal, for which she won the Cannes Film Festival Award for Best Actress, 2010, The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover, Teaching Mrs. Tingle, Calendar Girls, The Hundred-Foot Journey, Woman in Gold and The Leisure Seeker.
She played Victoria Winslow in the action-comedy films Red and Red 2. In 2003, she was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for services to drama. In 2013, Mirren was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, in 2014, BAFTA announced that Mirren would be the recipient of the Academy Fellowship, she was born Helen Lydia Mironoff at Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital in Hammersmith, the daughter of Kathleen "Kitty" Alexandrina Eva Matilda and Vasily Petrovich Mironoff. Her mother was English and her father was Russian from Kuryanovo, Smolensk Oblast. Mirren's paternal grandfather, Colonel Pyotr Vasilievich Mironov, was in the Imperial Russian Army and fought in the 1904 Russo-Japanese War, he became a diplomat and was negotiating an arms deal in Britain when his family and he were stranded by the Russian Revolution. The former diplomat settled down in England, his son, Helen's father, anglicised the family name to Mirren in the 1950s and changed his name to Basil Mirren.
He played the viola with the London Philharmonic before World War II and drove a taxi cab and was a driving-test examiner, before becoming a civil servant with the Ministry of Transport. Mirren's mother was a working-class Londoner from West Ham, East London, the 13th of 14 children born to a butcher whose own father had been the butcher to Queen Victoria. Mirren considers her upbringing to have been "very anti-monarchist". Mirren was the second of three children, her cousin was Bond girl Tania Mallet. Mirren was brought up in Essex. Mirren attended Hamlet Court primary school in Westcliff-on-Sea, where she had the lead role in a school production of Hansel and Gretel and St Bernard's High School for Girls in Southend-on-Sea, where she acted in school productions, she attended a teaching college, the New College of Speech and Drama in London, "housed within Anna Pavlova's old home, Ivy House" on the North End Road – which runs from Golders Green to Hampstead. Aged eighteen, she was accepted. By the time she was 20, she was playing Cleopatra in the NYT production of Antony and Cleopatra at the Old Vic, which led to her signing with the agent Al Parker.
As a result of her work for the National Youth Theatre, Mirren was invited to join the Royal Shakespeare Company. While with the RSC, she played Castiza in Trevor Nunn's 1966 staging of The Revenger's Tragedy, Diana in All's Well That Ends Well, Cressida in Troilus and Cressida, Rosalind in As You Like It, Julia in The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Tatiana in Gorky's Enemies at the Aldwych, the title role in Miss Julie at The Other Place, she appeared in four productions, directed by Braham Murray for Century Theatre at the University Theatre in Manchester, between 1965 and 1967. In 1970, the director/producer John Goldschmidt made a documentary film, Doing Her Own Thing, about Mirren during her time with the Royal Shakespeare Company; the film was made for ATV and shown on the ITV Network in the UK. In 1972 and 1973, Mirren worked with Peter Brook's International Centre for Theatre Research, joined the group's tour in North Africa and the US, during which they created The Conference of the Birds.
She rejoined the RSC, playing Lady Macbeth at Stratford in 1974 and at the Aldwych Theatre in 1975. Sally Beauman reported, in her 1982 history of the RSC, that Mirren—while appearing in Nunn's Macbeth, in a publicised letter to The Guardian newspaper—had criticised both the National Theatre and the RSC for their lavish production expenditure, declaring it "unnecessary and destructive to the art of the Theatre," and adding, "The realms of truth and imagination reached for in acting a great play have become more and more remote totally unreachable across an abyss of costume and technicalities..." According to Beauman, there were no discernible repercussions for this rebuke of the RSC. At the West End's Royal Court Theatre in September 1975, she played the role of a rock star named Maggie in Teeth'n' Smiles, a musical play by David Hare, her perfor
The Twilight Saga: Eclipse
The Twilight Saga: Eclipse is a 2010 American romantic fantasy film based on Stephenie Meyer's 2007 novel Eclipse. It is the third installment of The Twilight Saga film series, following 2008's Twilight and 2009's New Moon. Summit Entertainment greenlit the film in February 2009. Directed by David Slade, the film stars Kristen Stewart, Robert Pattinson, Taylor Lautner, reprising their roles as Bella Swan, Edward Cullen, Jacob Black, respectively. Melissa Rosenberg, who penned the scripts for both Twilight and New Moon, returned as screenwriter. Filming began on August 17, 2009, at Vancouver Film Studios, finished in late October, with post-production began early the following month. Bryce Dallas Howard was cast as Victoria, replacing Rachelle Lefevre who played her; the film was released worldwide on June 30, 2010 in theatres, became the first Twilight film to be released in IMAX. The film has received mixed reception from critics, it held the record for biggest midnight opening in the United States and Canada in box office history, grossing an estimated $30 million, until it was surpassed by Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 in 2011.
The film scored the biggest Wednesday opening in the United States and Canada history with $68,533,840 beating Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen's $62 million. Eclipse has become the film with the widest independent release, playing in over 4,416 theaters, surpassing its predecessor, The Twilight Saga: New Moon, which held the record since November 2009. In Seattle, not far from Forks, Victoria still seeks vengeance on Bella for James’s death. Learning that Laurent is killed by wolves and to replace him and James, she attacks and bites Riley Biers in order to begin creating an army of newborns, who are many times stronger during their first few months than older vampires. Back in Forks, Edward Cullen and Bella Swan resume their relationship, discuss the complications of becoming a vampire. At eighteen years old, one year older than Edward was when he became a vampire, Bella dislikes the idea of marrying so young, though Edward refuses to turn her into a vampire until they are married, his argument being that she should have a normal, human life.
While Bella's father, Charlie Swan, investigates the disappearance of Riley Biers, Edward suspects his disappearance was caused by Victoria and her newborn's army, furthering his suspicions of Riley Biers' intrusion into Bella's bedroom to steal her red blouse. Bella insists that the rest of the wolf pack would never harm her. Bella wants to go to Jacob's home though Edward expresses his dislike of Jacob and concern for her safety, but she returns unharmed. During one of her visits, Jacob confesses that he is in love with Bella, forcefully kisses her. Furious, she punches him and sprains her hand, Edward threatens Jacob and tells him to only kiss her if she asks him to. Bella revokes the invitations of Jacob and his pack members to her graduation party at the Cullen house, but when Jacob apologizes for his behavior, she forgives him and lets him and the wolf pack attend the party. Meanwhile, Alice sees a vision that the newborn army will attack Forks within the week, led by Riley Biers. Jacob, accompanied by Quil and Embry, overhear this, which leads to an alliance between the Cullens and wolf pack.
The Cullens and the wolves agree to a meeting place and time to train and discuss strategy against the powerful newborns. During their training Jasper explains to Bella that he was a Major in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, he was created by a vampire named Maria to control a newborn army, he realized that Maria used him to fulfill her own ambitions. He didn't know there was another way until he joined the Cullens. Bella begins to understand Jasper better. Despite her reluctance to marry young, Bella realizes that spending eternity with Edward is more important to her than anything else and accepts his marriage proposal, along with his late mother's engagement ring. Edward and Bella camp in the mountains to hide Bella from the bloodthirsty newborns. During the night, Bella overhears a conversation between Edward and Jacob, in which they temporarily put aside their hatred towards each other. In the morning, Jacob is furious. Bella asks Jacob to kiss her, she realizes that she loves him.
Edward is not upset, because Bella says she loves him more than Jacob. When Victoria appears, Edward kills her; the Cullens and the wolves, destroy her "army", though Jacob is injured saving Leah from a newborn. Several members of the vampire overlords, the Volturi, arrive to deal with the newborn army, are surprised the Cullens weren't killed, they see that the Cullens are guarding the newborn, Bree Tanner, who had refused to fight and surrendered to Carlisle. Jane tortures Bree to get information has Felix kill her, despite the Cullens' efforts to spare her. Carlisle treats Jacob at his home, Bella visits him to tell him that though she loves him, she has chosen Edward. Devastated by her choice, Jacob reluctantly agrees not to come between Edward. Bella and Edward go to the meadow, where she tells him she has decided to do things his way: Get married, have a normal honeymoon be transformed into a vampire, she explains that she never has been normal and never will be, that she's felt out of place her entire life, but when she is in Edward's world she feels stronger and complete.
At the end of the story, they know they need to tell Charlie about their engagement, for which Bella is happy Edward is "bulletproof." In early November 20
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin