Coca-Cola, or Coke, is a carbonated soft drink manufactured by The Coca-Cola Company. Intended as a patent medicine, it was invented in the late 19th century by John Stith Pemberton and was bought out by businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing tactics led Coca-Cola to its dominance of the world soft-drink market throughout the 20th century; the drink's name refers to two of its original ingredients: coca leaves, kola nuts. The current formula of Coca-Cola remains a trade secret, although a variety of reported recipes and experimental recreations have been published; the Coca-Cola Company produces concentrate, sold to licensed Coca-Cola bottlers throughout the world. The bottlers, who hold exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce the finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate, in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-US-fluid-ounce can contains 38 grams of sugar; the bottlers sell and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines throughout the world.
The Coca-Cola Company sells concentrate for soda fountains of major restaurants and foodservice distributors. The Coca-Cola Company has on occasion introduced other cola drinks under the Coke name; the most common of these is Diet Coke, along with others including Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola, Diet Coke Caffeine-Free, Coca-Cola Zero Sugar, Coca-Cola Cherry, Coca-Cola Vanilla, special versions with lemon and coffee. Based on Interbrand's "best global brand" study of 2015, Coca-Cola was the world's third most valuable brand, after Apple and Google. In 2013, Coke products were sold in over 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage servings each day. Coca-Cola ranked No. 87 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Confederate Colonel John Pemberton, wounded in the American Civil War and became addicted to morphine, began a quest to find a substitute for the problematic drug. In 1885 at Pemberton's Eagle Drug and Chemical House, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, he registered Pemberton's French Wine Coca nerve tonic.
Pemberton's tonic may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a French-Corsican coca wine, but his recipe additionally included the African kola nut, the beverage's source of caffeine. It is worth noting that a Spanish drink called "Kola Coca" was presented at a contest in Philadelphia in 1885, a year before the official birth of Coca-Cola; the rights for this Spanish drink were bought by Coca-Cola in 1953. In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a nonalcoholic version of Pemberton's French Wine Coca; the first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886, where it sold for five cents a glass. Drugstore soda fountains were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health, Pemberton's new drink was marketed and sold as a patent medicine, Pemberton claiming it a cure for many diseases, including morphine addiction, nerve disorders and impotence.
Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal. By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A co-partnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J. C. Mayfield, A. O. Murphey, C. O. Mullahy, E. H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887. John Pemberton declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged to his son, but the other two manufacturers could continue to use the formula. Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place. Charley's exclusive control over the "Coca-Cola" name became a continual thorn in Asa Candler's side.
Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler states: "... on April 14, 1888, the young druggist Asa Griggs Candler purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola." The deal was between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. – with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14 deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750. In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; when Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" destroyed in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.
After Candler had gained a better foothold on Coca-Cola in April 1888, he was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the middle of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious t
An illustration is a decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media, such as posters, magazines, teaching materials, video games and films. Illustration means providing an example; the origin of the word “illustration” is late Middle English: via Old French from Latin illustratio, from the verb illustrate. Contemporary illustration uses a wide range of styles and techniques, including drawing, printmaking, montage, digital design, multimedia, 3D modelling. Most illustrators work on a freelance basis. Depending on the purpose, illustration may be expressive, realistic or technical. Specialist areas include: Architectural illustration Archaeological illustration Botanical illustration Concept art Fashion illustration Information graphics Technical illustration Medical illustration Narrative illustration Picture books Scientific illustration Technical and scientific illustration communicates information of a technical or scientific nature.
This may include exploded views, fly-throughs, instructional images, component designs, diagrams. The aim is "to generate expressive images that convey certain information via the visual channel to the human observer"Technical and scientific illustration is designed to describe or explain subjects to a nontechnical audience, so must provide "an overall impression of what an object is or does, to enhance the viewer's interest and understanding". In contemporary illustration practice, 2D and 3D software is used to create accurate representations that can be updated and reused in a variety of contexts. In the art world, illustration has at times been considered of less importance than graphic design and fine art. Today, due in part to the growth of graphic novel and video game industries, as well as increased use of illustration in magazines and other publications, illustration is now becoming a valued art form, capable of engaging a global market. Original illustration art has been known to attract high prices at auction.
The US artist Norman Rockwell's painting "Breaking Home Ties" sold in a 2006 Sotheby's auction for USD15.4 million. Many other illustration genres are valued, with pinup artists such as Gil Elvgren and Alberto Vargas, for example attracting high prices; the art of illustration is linked to the industrial processes of printing and publishing. The illustrations of medieval codices were known as illuminations, were individually hand drawn and painted. With the invention of the printing press during the 15th century, books became more distributed illustrated with woodcuts. 1600s Japan saw the origination of Ukiyo-e, an influential illustration style characterised by expressive line, vivid colour and subtle tones, resulting from the ink-brushed wood block printing technique. Subjects included popular figures and every day life. Hokusai’s The Great Wave of Kanazawa is a famous image of the time. During the 16th and 17th centuries in Europe, the main reproduction processes for illustration were engraving and etching.
In 18th Century England, a notable illustrator was William Blake. By the early 19th century, the introduction of lithography improved reproduction quality. In Europe, notable figures of the early 19th Century were John Leech, George Cruikshank, Dickens illustrator Hablot Knight Browne, and, in France, Honoré Daumier. All contributed to "serious" publications. At this time, there was a great demand for caricature drawings encapsulating social mores and classes; the British humorous magazine Punch built on the success of Cruikshank's Comic Almanac and employed many well-regarded illustrators, including Sir John Tenniel, the Dalziel Brothers, Georges du Maurier. Although all fine art trained, their reputations were gained as illustrators. Punch was most influential in the 1840s and 1850s; the magazine was the first to use the term "cartoon" to describe a humorous illustration and its widespread use led to John Leech being known as the world's first "cartoonist". In common with similar magazines such as the Parisian Le Voleur, Punch realised good illustration sold as well as good text.
With publication continuing into the 21st Century, Punch chronicles a gradual shift in popular illustration, from reliance on caricature to sophisticated topical observation. From the early 1800s newspapers, mass market magazines, illustrated books had become the dominant consumer media in Europe and the New World. By the 19th century, improvements in printing technology freed illustrators to experiment with color and rendering techniques; these developments in printing effected all areas of literature from cookbooks and traveling guides, as well as children's books. Due to advances in printing, it became more affordable to produce color photographs within books and other materials. By 1900 100 percent of paper was machine-made, while a person working by hand could produce 60-100lbs of paper per day, mechanization yielded around 1,000lbs per day. Additionally, in the 50 year period between 1846 and 1916, book production increased 400% and the price of books was cut in half. In America, this led to a "golden age of illustration" from before the 1880s until the early 20th century.
A small group of illustrators became successful, with the imagery they created considered a portrait of American aspirations of the time. Among the best known illustrators of that period were N. C. Wyeth and Howard Pyl
Cursive is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner for the purpose of making writing faster. Formal cursive is joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts; the writing style can be further divided as "looped", "italic" or "connected". The cursive method is used with many alphabets due to its improved writing speed and infrequent pen lifting. In some alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected, sometimes making a word one single complex stroke. Cursive is a style of penmanship in which the symbols of the language are written in a conjoined and/or flowing manner for the purpose of making writing faster; this writing style is distinct from "printscript" using block letters, in which the letters of a word are unconnected and in Roman/Gothic letterform rather than joined-up script. Not all cursive copybooks join all letters: formal cursive is joined, but casual cursive is a combination of joins and pen lifts.
In the Arabic, Syriac and Cyrillic alphabets, many or all letters in a word are connected, sometimes making a word one single complex stroke. In Hebrew cursive and Roman cursive, the letters are not connected. In Maharashtra, there is a version of Cursive called'Modi' Ligature is writing the letters of words with lines connecting the letters so that one does not have to pick up the pen or pencil between letters; some of the letters are written in a looped manner to facilitate the connections. In common printed Greek texts, the modern small letter fonts are called "cursive" though the letters do not connect. In looped cursive penmanship, some ascenders and descenders have loops; this is what people refer to when they say "cursive". Cursive italic penmanship -- derived from chancery cursive -- uses no joins. In italic cursive, there are no joins from g, j, q or y, a few other joins are discouraged. Italic penmanship became popular in the 15th-century Italian Renaissance; the term "italic" as it relates to handwriting is not to be confused with italic typed letters that slant forward.
Many, but not all, letters in the handwriting of the Renaissance were joined, as most are today in cursive italic. The origins of the cursive method are associated with practical advantages of writing speed and infrequent pen-lifting to accommodate the limitations of the quill. Quills are fragile broken, will spatter unless used properly, they run out of ink faster than most contemporary writing utensils. Steel dip pens followed quills; the individuality of the provenance of a document was a factor as opposed to machine font. Cursive was favored because the writing tool was taken off the paper; the term cursive derives from the 18th century Italian corsivo from Medieval Latin cursivus, which means running. This term in turn derives from Latin currere. In Bengali cursive script the letters are more to be more curvy in appearance than in standard Bengali handwriting; the horizontal supporting bar on each letter runs continuously through the entire word, unlike in standard handwriting. This cursive handwriting used by literature experts differs in appearance from the standard Bengali alphabet as it is free hand writing, where sometimes the alphabets are complex and appear different from the standard handwriting.
Roman cursive is a form of handwriting used to some extent into the Middle Ages. It is customarily divided into old cursive, new cursive. Old Roman cursive called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, by emperors issuing commands. New Roman called minuscule cursive or cursive, developed from old cursive, it was used from the 3rd century to the 7th century, uses letter forms that are more recognizable to modern eyes. The Greek alphabet has had several cursive forms in the course of its development. In antiquity, a cursive form of handwriting was used in writing on papyrus, it employed slanted and connected letter forms as well as many ligatures. Some features of this handwriting were adopted into Greek minuscule, the dominant form of handwriting in the medieval and early modern era. In the 19th and 20th centuries, an new form of cursive Greek, more similar to contemporary Western European cursive scripts, was developed.
During the Middle Ages, the flowing, connected cursive script of the Arabic language inspired Western Christian scholars to develop similar cursive scripts for Latin. These scripts became the basis for all of the Latin-based cursive scripts used in Europe. Cursive writing was used in English before the Norman conquest. Anglo-Saxon Charters include a boundary clause written in Old English in a cursive script. A cursive handwriting style—secretary hand—was used for both personal correspondence and official documents in England from early in the 16th century. Cursive handwriting developed into something approximating its current form from the 17th century, but its use was neither uniform, nor standardized either in England itself or elsewhere in the British Empire. In the English colonies of the early 17th century, most of the letters are separated
Marilyn Pauline "Kim" Novak is a retired American film and television actress. She began her film career in 1954 after signing with Columbia Pictures. There she starred among them the well received Picnic, she starred in such films as The Man with the Golden Arm and Pal Joey. However, she is best known today for her performance as Madeline Elster/Judy Barton in Alfred Hitchcock's thriller Vertigo with James Stewart. Novak enjoyed box-office success and starred opposite several prominent leading men of the era, including Fred MacMurray, William Holden, Frank Sinatra, Tyrone Power, Kirk Douglas, Laurence Harvey. Although still only in her mid-30s, Novak withdrew from acting in 1966, has only sporadically worked in films since, she appeared in The Mirror Crack'd, had a regular role on the primetime series Falcon Crest. After a disappointing experience during the filming of Liebestraum, she permanently retired from acting, stating she had no desire to return, her contributions to world cinema have been honored with two Golden Globe Awards, an Honorary Golden Bear Award, a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame among others.
She works as a visual artist. Novak was born in Chicago, Illinois on February 13, 1933, she is the daughter of Blanche Novak. Both her parents were of Czech descent, her father was a history teacher who took a job as a freight dispatcher on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad during the Depression, her mother was a factory worker, she was raised Catholic. She attended William Penn Elementary, Farragut High School, Wright Junior College, she won two scholarships to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, during the summer break in her last semester of junior college, Novak went on a cross-country tour modeling for a refrigerator company at trade shows. While stopping by Los Angeles, Novak was crowned "Miss Deepfreeze" by the refrigerator company. While there and two other models stood in line to be extras in two RKO films: The French Line, starring Jane Russell and Son of Sinbad. There she was discovered by an agent. From the beginning of her career, she wanted to be an original and not another stereotype.
Therefore, she fought with Harry Cohn, over the changing of her name. He suggested the name "Kit Marlowe", arguing, "Nobody's gonna go see a girl with a Polack name!", but she insisted on keeping her name, saying, "I'm Czech, but Polish, Czech, no matter, it's my name!" The two sides settled on the name "Kim Novak" as a compromise. Columbia intended for Novak to be their successor to Rita Hayworth, their biggest star of the 1940s, whose career had declined. Novak's first role for the studio was in the film noir Pushover, in which she received third billing below Fred MacMurray and Philip Carey, she co-starred in the romantic comedy Phffft as Janis, a character who finds Robert Tracey "real cute". Both films were reasonably successful at the box office, Novak received favorable reviews for her performances. In her third feature film, 5 Against the House, a gritty crime drama, she received equal billing with Guy Madison, it was only a minor box-office success. She played Madge Owens in the film version of Picnic, from the William Inge play, co-starring William Holden and Rosalind Russell.
Its director, Joshua Logan, felt. Picnic was a resounding critical and box-office triumph, Novak won a Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer, she was nominated for BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actress, but did not win. She appeared as a mystery guest on the game show What's My Line? on February 5, 1956, to promote the film's opening at the Radio City Music Hall. Director Otto Preminger cast her in The Man with the Golden Arm, in which she played Frank Sinatra's sultry ex-girlfriend. In a cast which included Eleanor Parker, Novak received praise for being one of the film's bright spots, the film was a box-office hit Novak's next project, The Eddy Duchin Story, cast her as Marjorie Oelrichs, the wife of pianist Eddy Duchin, played by Tyrone Power; because the two leads did not get along during filming, Novak nearly considered backing out of the production, but decided against it. At the time of its release, the film was a critical and box-office hit, with many suggesting that Novak's advertisements for No-Cal diet soda contributed positively to the film's success.
Offered a choice for her next project, she selected the biopic Jeanne Eagels, in which she portrayed the stage and silent-screen actress, addicted to heroin. Co-starring Jeff Chandler, the film was a fictional account of Eagels' life. Eagels' family sued. After appearing in a series of successful movies, Novak became one of the biggest box-office draws of 1957 and 1958. Columbia placed her in a film adaptation of Pal Joey, based on the 1940 novel and Broadway play, both written by John O'Hara. Playing Linda English, a naive showgirl, she again co-starred opposite Frank Sinatra and Rita Hayworth. Released in October, the film received favorable reviews; the movie was a box-office hit and has been considered one o
American Academy of Art
The American Academy of Art is an art school located in downtown Chicago, Illinois. It was founded in 1923 for the education of commercial arts students; the American Academy of Art offers four-year, accredited Bachelor of Fine Arts degree programs in web design, modeling and others. The school's Bill L. Parks Gallery is open to the public and features exhibitions of works by students, visiting arts and works from the Academy's permanent collection; the American Academy of Art was founded in 1923 by Frank Young and Harry L. Timmins to train students for careers in commercial and fine art. Enrollment is between 400 and 500 students. Annual tuition is $24,000+; the Academy has curriculum for bachelor's degrees. Eight areas of study are offered for a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, all of which require 126 credit hours to graduate; these programs include: 3D modeling and animation Life drawing Multimedia/web design Oil painting Graphic design Watercolor painting Illustration / Digital illustration PhotographyThe Academy requires all incoming freshmen to take both life drawing and art composition for the freshman year.
The Academy is accredited by: The Higher Learning Commission. The Accrediting Commission of Career Schools and Colleges of Technology. Jason Seiler Alex Ross Richard Schmid John Tobias Kanye West Sandy Dvore Gil Elvgren Jill Thompson Joyce Ballantyne Loren Long Paul Lamantia Rupert Kinnard Howard Turpning Haddon Sundblom Mary KrisSmith David E. Garrison
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d