Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor and innovator, credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone. He founded the American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885. Bell's father and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work, his research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which culminated in Bell being awarded the first U. S. patent for the telephone in 1876. Bell considered his invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study. Many other inventions marked Bell's life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications and aeronautics. Although Bell was not one of the 33 founders of the National Geographic Society, he had a strong influence on the magazine while serving as the second president from January 7, 1898, until 1903. Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on March 3, 1847.
The family home was at South Charlotte Street, has a stone inscription marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace. He had two brothers: Melville James Bell and Edward Charles Bell, both of whom would die of tuberculosis, his father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, a phonetician, his mother was Eliza Grace. Born as just "Alexander Bell", at age 10, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers. For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the name "Graham", chosen out of respect for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father who had become a family friend. To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck"; as a child, young Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting at an early age. His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays. Young Bell asked, he was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine, put into operation and used for a number of years.
In return, Ben's father John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop in which to "invent". From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art and music, encouraged by his mother. With no formal training, he became the family's pianist. Despite being quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits. Bell was deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour, he developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity. Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics, his family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known his The Standard Elocutionist, which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone. In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning. Bell's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound. Bell became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities, he could decipher Visible Speech representing every language, including Latin, Scottish Gaelic, Sanskrit reciting written tracts without any prior knowledge of their pronunciation. As a young child, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father. At an early age, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Scotland, which he left at the age of 15, having completed only the first four forms.
His school record was undistinguished, marked by lacklustre grades. His main interest remained in the sciences biology while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father. Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with Alexander Bell. During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study; the elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself. At the age of 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy at Elgin, Scotland. Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session; the following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh. In 1868, not long before he departed for Canada with his f
National Geographic Adventure (magazine)
National Geographic Adventure was a magazine started in 1999 by the National Geographic Society in the United States. The first issue was published in Spring 1999. Regular publication of the magazine ended in December 2009, the name was reused for a biannual newsstand publication; the last issue was December 2009/January 2010. The magazine covered adventure travel, environmental issues, natural science, other topics related to the outdoors, it focused on adventure travel and included: "First In", that featured recent adventure travel news "Gear", that featured experts' recommendations of good gear that would improve ones' vacation experience "Living It" that featured Adventure tips, ways to avoid danger, ways to help, etc. "Next Weekend", that featured good weekend trips from all across the U. S. "Where Next", that featured vacation destinations across the world Annually, a slate of adventurers were named National Geographic Adventure Adventurer of the Year", in a variety of categories. For example, the December 2008/January 2009 issue named "Fourteen people who dreamed big, pushed their limits, made our year".
One, Pemba Gyalje Sherpa, was named for "extreme heroism under trying extreme circumstances" for risking his life to rescue several mountaineers stranded on the mountain, during the 2008 K2 disaster. John Rasmus served as the editor-in-chief of the magazine from its inception to its closure. Sam Serebin and Tom Bentkowski were the design team responsible for the initial prototype and first six issues of the magazine. Official National Geographic Adventure website
North Sea flood of 1953
The 1953 North Sea flood was a major flood caused by a heavy storm that occurred on the night of Saturday, 31 January 1953 and morning of Sunday, 1 February 1953. The floods struck the Netherlands, Belgium and Scotland. A combination of a high spring tide and a severe European windstorm over the North Sea caused a storm tide; the flood and waves caused extensive flooding. The Netherlands, a country with 20% of its territory below mean sea level and 50% less than 1 metre above sea level and which relies on sea defences, was worst affected, recording 1,836 deaths and widespread property damage. Most of the casualties occurred in the southern province of Zeeland. In England, 307 people were killed in the counties of Lincolnshire, Norfolk and Essex. Nineteen were killed in Scotland. Twenty-eight people were killed in Belgium. In addition, more than 230 deaths occurred on water craft along Northern European coasts as well as on ships in deeper waters of the North Sea; the ferry MV Princess Victoria was lost at sea in the North Channel east of Belfast with 133 fatalities, many fishing trawlers sank.
Realising that such infrequent events could recur, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom carried out major studies on strengthening of coastal defences. The Netherlands developed an extensive system of dams and storm surge barriers; the UK constructed storm surge barriers on the River Thames below London and on the River Hull where it meets the Humber Estuary. On the night of 31 January – 1 February 1953, many dykes in the province of Zeeland, the southern parts of the province of South Holland and the northwestern parts of the province of North Brabant proved unable to resist the combination of spring tide and a northwesterly storm. On both the islands and the mainland, large areas of the country were flooded. Many people still commemorate the dead on 1 February. In Dutch history and culture this flood has been named "de Watersnoodramp"; the Rijkswaterstaat had warned about the risk of a flood. At the time of the flood, none of the local radio stations broadcast at night, many of the smaller weather stations operated only during the day.
As a result, the warnings of the KNMI did not penetrate the flood-threatened area in time. People were unable to prepare for the impending flood; the disaster struck on a Saturday night, hence many government and emergency offices in the affected area were not staffed. As telephone and telegraph networks were disrupted by flood damage, amateur radio operators went into the affected areas with their equipment to form a voluntary emergency radio network; these radio amateurs provided radio communications for 10 days and nights, were the only people able to maintain contact from affected areas with the outside world. The Zeeland dikes were breached in 67 locations. Large parts of South Holland and North Brabant were inundated. In North Holland only one polder was flooded; the most extensive flooding occurred on the islands of Schouwen-Duiveland, Sint Philipsland, Goeree-Overflakkee, the Hoeksche Waard, Voorne-Putten and Alblasserwaard. Parts of the islands of Zuid-Beveland, Noord-Beveland, IJsselmonde, Rozenburg and Land van Altena were flooded, as well as parts of the areas around Willemstad, Nieuw-Vossemeer and parts of Zeelandic Flanders.
The highest death tolls were recorded on the islands of Goeree-Overflakkee. Afterward, the government formed the Delta Commission to study the effects of the floods, they estimated that flooding forced the emergency evacuation of 70,000 more. Floods covered 9% of Dutch farmland, sea water flooded 1,365 km2 of land. An estimated 30,000 animals drowned, 47,300 buildings were damaged, of which 10,000 were destroyed; the total damage is estimated at 1 billion Dutch guilders. The Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the river Hollandse IJssel was all that protected three million people in the provinces of South and North Holland from flooding. A section of this dyke, known as the Groenendijk, was not reinforced with stone revetments; the water level was just below the crest and the seaward slope was weak. Volunteers worked to reinforce this stretch. However, the Groenendijk began to collapse under the pressure around 5:30 am on 1 February. Seawater flooded into the deep polder. In desperation, the mayor of Nieuwerkerk commandeered the river ship de Twee Gebroeders and ordered the owner to plug the hole in the dyke by navigating the ship into it.
Fearing that the ship might break through into the polder, Captain Arie Evegroen took a row boat with him. The mayor's plan was successful, as the ship was lodged into the dyke, reinforcing it against failure and saving many lives; the Afsluitdijk across the entrance of the Zuiderzee was said to have paid for its construction cost in that one night, by preventing destructive flooding around the Zuiderzee. Several neighbouring countries sent soldiers to assist in rescuing people; the U. S. Army sent helicopters from Germany to rescue people from rooftops. Queen Juliana and Princess Beatrix visited the flooded area only a few days after. A large aid program - the National Relief Fund came on apace, supported by the radio and soldiers raised funds by selling pea-soup door to door. Internationally, 100,000 commemorative postcards, featuring an illustration by Eppo Doeve, were sold. A national donation program was started and there was a large amount of international aid; the Red Cross was overwhelmed b
Yale College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Yale University. Founded in 1701, it is the original school of the university. Although other schools of the university were founded as early as 1810, all of Yale was known as Yale College until 1887, when its schools were confederated and the institution was renamed Yale University. Established to train Congregationalist ministers, the college began teaching humanities and natural sciences by the late 18th century. At the same time, students began organizing extracurricular organizations, first literary societies, publications, sports teams, singing groups. By the mid-19th century, it was the largest college in the United States. In 1847, it was joined by another undergraduate degree-granting school at Yale, the Sheffield Scientific School, absorbed into the college in the mid-20th century; these merged curricula became the basis of the modern-day liberal arts curriculum, which requires students to take courses in a broad range of subjects, including foreign language, composition and quantitative reasoning, in addition to electing a departmental major in their sophomore year.
The most distinctive feature of undergraduate life is the school's system of residential colleges, established in 1932 and modeled after constituent schools of English universities. All undergraduates live in these colleges after their freshman year, when most live on the school's Old Campus; the Collegiate School was founded in 1701 by a charter drawn by ten Congregationalist ministers led by James Pierpont and approved by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut. Situated in Abraham Pierson's home in Killingworth, the college moved to New Haven in 1718 and was renamed for Elihu Yale, an early benefactor. Founded as a school to train ministers, original curriculum included only coursework in theology and sacred languages. Although early faculty, including Jonathan Edwards and Elisha Williams, maintained strict Congregational orthodoxy, by the time of the American Revolution subsequent rectors Ezra Stiles, relaxed the curriculum to include humanities and limited natural science education.
Scientific courses introduced by chemist Benjamin Silliman in 1801 made the college an early hub of scientific education, a curriculum, grafted into Yale's Sheffield Scientific School in 1847. As in many of Yale's sister institutions, debates about the expansiveness of the undergraduate curriculum were waged throughout the early 19th century, with statements like the Yale Report of 1828 re-asserting Yale's conservative theological heritage and faculty. In the century, William Graham Sumner, the first professor of sociology in the United States, introduced studies in the social sciences; these expanding fields of study were integrated with graduate schools of the university and amalgamated into a course of liberal arts education, which presaged the advent of divisional majors in the twentieth century. The relaxation of curriculum came with expansion of the extracurriculum. Student literary societies emerged as early as 1750, singing groups and student publications in the early 1800s, fraternities and secret societies in the mid-nineteenth century, intercollegiate athletics by the century's end.
Participation and leadership in these groups was an important social signifier and a route to induction into prestigious senior societies. Thus extracurricular participation became central to student life and social advancement, an ethos that became a template for collegiate life across the United States. By 1870, Yale was the largest undergraduate institution in the country; the growth of the student body prompted major growth in the college's physical campus, the greatest expansion of which occurred in 1933, when a gift of Edward S. Harkness created and endowed eight residential colleges. Modeled after the college system of Oxford and Cambridge Universities, the colleges were intended to be the social and residential centers of undergraduate life while leaving academic programs under the oversight of university's departments. Two additional colleges were built by 1940, two more in the 1960s. For most of its history, study at Yale was exclusively restricted to white Protestant men the children of alumni.
Documented exceptions to this paradigm include Hawaiian native Henry ʻŌpūkahaʻia, who became a student of Yale President Timothy Dwight in 1809, Black abolitionist James W. C. Pennington, allowed to audit theology courses in 1837. Moses Simons, a descendent of a slave-holding South Carolinian family, has been suggested to be the first Jew to graduate from Yale. Though his maternal ancestry is disputed, he may have been the first person of African American descent to graduate from any American college. In 1854, Yung Wing graduated from the college and became the first student from China to graduate from an American university, in 1857, Richard Henry Green became the first African American man to receive a degree from the college; until the rediscovery of Green's ethnic descent in 2014, physicist Edward Bouchet, who stayed at Yale to become the first African American PhD recipient, was believed to be the first African American graduate of Yale College. In the early 20th century, the student body was predominantly "old-stock, high-status Protestants Episcopalians, Congregationalists, Presbyterians"—a group called "WASPS".
By the 1970s it was much more diversified. Enrollment at Yale only became competitive in the early 20th century, requiring the college to set up an admissions process; as late as the 1950s, tests and demographic questionnaires for admission to the college worked to exclude non-Christian men Jews, as well as non-white men. By the mid-1960s these pr
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Gardiner Greene Hubbard
Gardiner Greene Hubbard was an American lawyer and community leader. He was a first president of the National Geographic Society. One of his daughters, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard became the wife of Alexander Graham Bell. Hubbard was born and educated in Boston, Massachusetts to Samuel Hubbard, a Massachusetts Supreme Court justice, Mary Greene, his younger brother was Charles Eustice Hubbard, who became the first secretary and clerk of the Bell Telephone Company. Hubbard was a grandson of Boston merchant Gardiner Greene, he was a descendant of Lion Gardiner, an early English settler and soldier in the New World who founded the first English settlement in what became the State of New York, whose legacy includes Gardiners Island which remains in the family. He attended Phillips Academy and graduated from Dartmouth in 1841, he studied law at Harvard, was admitted to the bar in 1843. He first joined the Boston law firm of Benjamin Robbins Curtis. There he became active in local institutions. Hubbard helped establish a city water works in Cambridge, was a founder of the Cambridge Gas Co. and organized a Cambridge to Boston trolley system.
Hubbard played a pivotal role in the founding of Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts. It was the first oral school for the deaf in the United States, Hubbard remained a trustee for the rest of his life. Hubbard entered the national stage by become a proponent for the nationalization of the telegraph system under the U. S. Postal Service stating in an article: "The Proposed Changes in the Telegraphic System", "It is not contended that the postal system is free from defects, but that it removes many of the grave evils of the present system, without the introduction of new ones. During the late 1860s, Hubbard lobbied Congress to pass the U. S. Postal Telegraph Bill known as the Hubbard Bill; the bill would have chartered the U. S. Postal Telegraph Company that would be connected to the U. S. Post Office, but the bill did not pass. To benefit from the Hubbard Bill, Hubbard needed patents which dominated essential aspects of telegraph technology such as sending multiple messages on a single telegraph wire.
This was called acoustic telegraphy. To acquire such patents and his partner Thomas Sanders financed Alexander Graham Bell's experiments and development of an acoustic telegraph, which led to his invention of the telephone. Following Curtis's retirement, Hubbard relocated to Washington, D. C. where he continued to practice law for 5 more years. In 1876, he was appointed by President Grant to determine the proper rates for railway mail and he served as a commissioner to the Centennial Exposition. Hubbard organized the Bell Telephone Company on July 9, 1877, with himself as president, Thomas Sanders as treasurer and Bell as'Chief Electrician'. Two days he became the father-in-law of Bell when his daughter, Mabel Hubbard, married Bell on July 11, 1877. Gardiner Hubbard was intimately connected with the Bell Telephone Company, which subsequently evolved into the National Bell Telephone Company and the American Bell Telephone Company, merging with smaller telephone companies during its growth; the American Bell Telephone Company would, at the end of 1899, evolve into AT&T, at times the world's largest telephone company.
Hubbard has been credited as the entrepreneur. Hubbard became a principal investor in the Edison Speaking Phonograph Company; when Edison neglected development of the phonograph, which at its inception was functional, Hubbard helped his son-in-law, Alexander Graham Bell, organize a competing company in 1881 that developed wax-coated cardboard cylinders and disks for used on a graphophone. These improvements were invented by Alexander Bell's cousin Chester Bell, a chemist, Charles Sumner Tainter, an optical instrument maker, at Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory in Washington, D. C. Hubbard and Chester Bell approached Edison about combining their interests, but Edison refused, resulting in the Volta Laboratory Association merging the shares of their Volta Graphophone Company with the company that evolved into Columbia Records in 1886. Hubbard was interested in the public side of science. After his move to Washington, he was one of the founders and the first president of the National Geographic Society, serving in that capacity from 1888-1897.
Today, the Hubbard Medal is given for distinction in exploration and research. In 1897, he helped to rescue the A. A. A. S, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, founded in 1848, from financial peril and extinction by enabling its purchase of the "Science" magazine, which he founded, in 1883, he served as a trustee of Columbian University from 1883 until his death. He was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution, he created a large collection of etchings and engravings, which were given by his widow to the Library of Congress with a fund for additions. In 1894, Hubbard was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society In 1846, Hubbard married Gertrude Mercer McCurdy (182
The Explorers Club
The Explorers Club is an American-based international multidisciplinary professional society with the goal of promoting scientific exploration and field study. The club was founded in New York City in 1905, has served as a meeting point for explorers and scientists worldwide; the Explorers Club hosts an annual dinner to honor accomplishments in exploration, known for its adventurous, exotic cuisine. In 1904, a group of men active in exploration met at the request of noted journalist and explorer Henry Collins Walsh, to form an organization to unite explorers in the bonds of good fellowship and to promote the work of exploration by every means in its power. Joining Walsh were Adolphus Greely, Donaldson Smith, Carl Lumholtz, Marshall Saville, Frederick Dellenbaugh, David Brainard. After several further informal meetings, The Explorers Club was incorporated on October 25, 1905. Women were first admitted with a class including Sylvia Earle and Kathryn Sullivan. Famous honorary members have included Theodore Roosevelt, John Glenn, Jim Fowler, Walter Cronkite, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh and Albert I, Prince of Monaco.
The Explorers Club has 32 chapters in the United States and around the world, which serve as local contact points for explorers and students. Many chapters hold monthly dinners and seminars, award field-research grants to students, publish newsletters and organize expeditions, field trips and educational events. David Legge Brainard: U. S. Army Lieutenant-Colonel: Sioux and Nez Perce Campaigns; the Explorers Club is renowned for a series of "famous firsts" accomplished by its members, including: First to the North Pole – Robert E. Peary & Matthew Henson First to the South Pole – Roald Amundsen First solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean – Charles Lindbergh First to the summit of Mt. Everest – Sir Edmund Hillary & Tenzing Norgay First to the deepest point in the ocean – Don Walsh & Jacques Piccard First to the surface of the Moon – Neil Armstrong & Buzz Aldrin First recovery of an authenticated pirate ship – Whydah Gally – Barry Clifford The Explorers Club held its first regular meeting at its original headquarters in the Studio Building at 23 West 67th Street in New York City.
The club finished construction on its next headquarters at 544 Cathedral Parkway in 1928 and there the club continued to expand its extensive collection of artifacts and books on exploration. In 1965, spurred by Lowell Thomas, the club purchased its current headquarters on the Upper East Side, a six-story Jacobean revival mansion on East 70th Street, where it houses the James B. Ford Exploration Library, the Sir Edmund Hillary Map Room and a collection of artifacts from more than a century of exploration; the building was the home of Stephen C. Clark. Certain designated rooms of the Club are open to the general public. In the 1920s, the club began to invite both explorers returning from the field and visiting scientists to relate their experiences and findings. By the 1930s these informal gatherings developed into illustrated talks; the club continues to provide weekly lectures and programs, which are open to the public at its headquarters. In November 1921, The Explorers Club published the first edition of The Explorers Journal to share news from the field, remarks from headquarters, recent acquisitions and book reviews.
The Explorers Journal is still published quarterly, with articles and photography from Explorers Club members in the field. To obtain permission to carry the flag, a club member must show that an expedition holds the promise of scientific results. Once approved, the flag must be exhibited at every suitable opportunity on the expedition, must be returned to the club along with a written record of the expedition — the Flag Report; the club's research collections is the repository for these unique reports, including the original "Flag Book" — a bound journal of hand-written reports, vintage prints and assorted records submitted by the explorers who first carried The Explorers Club flag on expeditions. Today there are 202 numbered flags; these include flags carried on such expeditions as: Flag #2 – Roy Chapman Andrews – the Gobi Desert expeditions Flag #7 – Sir George Hubert Wilkins – the first trans-Arctic flights Flag #32 – Capt. Robert A. "Bob" Bartlett – the Effie M. Morrissey expeditions Flag #50 – Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg – Solar Impulse across America Flag #61 – Luc Hardy – the Pax Arctica expedition Flag #80 – Tim Taylor FN’04, Citation of Merit Laureate 2008, Disco