Chalk is a soft, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3, it forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint is common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk, it is derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified. Chalk as seen in Cretaceous deposits of Western Europe is unusual among sedimentary limestones in the thickness of the beds. Most cliffs of chalk have few obvious bedding planes unlike most thick sequences of limestone such as the Carboniferous Limestone or the Jurassic oolitic limestones; this indicates stable conditions over tens of millions of years. Chalk has greater resistance to weathering and slumping than the clays with which it is associated, thus forming tall, steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea.
Chalk hills, known as chalk downland form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is well jointed it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water through dry seasons. Chalk is mined from chalk deposits both above underground. Chalk mining boomed during the Industrial Revolution, due to the need for chalk products such as quicklime and bricks; some abandoned chalk mines remain tourist destinations due to their massive expanse and natural beauty. The Chalk Group is a European stratigraphic unit, it forms the famous White Cliffs of Dover in Kent, England, as well as their counterparts of the Cap Blanc Nez on the other side of the Dover Strait. The Champagne region of France is underlain by chalk deposits, which contain artificial caves used for wine storage; some of the highest chalk cliffs in the world occur at Jasmund National Park in Germany and at Møns Klint in Denmark – both once formed a single island.
Ninety million years ago what is now the chalk downland of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea. Chalk was one of the earliest rocks made up of microscopic particles to be studied under the microscope, when it was found to be composed entirely of coccoliths, their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich seawater. As they died, a substantial layer built up over millions of years and, through the weight of overlying sediments became consolidated into rock. Earth movements related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor deposits above sea level; the chemical composition of chalk is calcium carbonate, with minor amounts of clay. It is formed in the sea by sub-microscopic plankton, which fall to the sea floor and are consolidated and compressed during diagenesis into chalk rock. Most people first encounter the word "chalk" in school where it refers to blackboard chalk, made of mineral chalk, since it crumbles and leaves particles that stick loosely to rough surfaces, allowing it to make writing that can be erased.
Blackboard chalk manufacture now may use mineral chalk, other mineral sources of calcium carbonate, or the mineral gypsum. While gypsum-based blackboard chalk is the lowest cost to produce, thus used in the developing world, calcium-based chalk can be made where the crumbling particles are larger and thus produce less dust, is marketed as "dustless chalk". Colored chalks, pastel chalks, sidewalk chalk, used to draw on sidewalks and driveways, are made of gypsum. Chalk is a source of quicklime by thermal decomposition, or slaked lime following quenching of quicklime with water. In southeast England, deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits; such bell pits may mark the sites of ancient flint mines, where the prime object was to remove flint nodules for stone tool manufacture. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such example, but the most famous is the extensive complex at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. Woodworking joints may be fitted by chalking one of the mating surfaces. A trial fit will leave a chalk mark on the high spots of the corresponding surface.
Chalk transferring to cover the complete surface indicates a good fit. Builder's putty mainly contains chalk as a filler in linseed oil. Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity; the most common forms are CaCO3 and CaO. Small doses of chalk can be used as an antacid. Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance ideal for polishing. For example, toothpaste contains small amounts of chalk, which serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a controlled grain size, for fine polishing of metals. Chalk can be used as fingerprint powder. Several traditional uses of chalk have been replaced by other substances, although the word "chalk" is still applied to the usual replacements. Tailor's chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth by tailors, it is now made of talc. Chalk was traditionally used in recreation. In field sports, such as tennis played on grass, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the playing field or court.
If a ball hits the line, a cloud of chalk or p
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Hunt Oil Company
Hunt Oil Co. is an independent oil and gas company headquartered in Dallas, Texas. It conducts its main oil production activities in the United States, Canada and, as of 1984, in Yemen, it participates in liquefied natural gas production projects in Yemen and Peru. Together with Magnum Hunter Resources Corp. the company drills wells in the Eagle Ford Shale Play, located in the Western Gulf Basin in South Texas. Hunt Oil is one of the largest held companies in the United States, with $4 billion in 2013 revenues, it is one of several Hunt companies active in energy, real estate, investments and infrastructure. In 2007 Hunt Oil signed a production sharing contract with the Kurdistan Regional Government to engage in oil and gas exploration and extraction. Official website
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Paul B. Ruffin, Ph. D. is educator. He is active in the field of applied science during his career as a research physicist conducting exploratory and advanced research and development in Fiber-optic communication, Microelectromechanical systems, Nanotechnology at the U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research and Engineering Center. In July 2003, Ruffin was promoted to the highest rank for a research scientist — Senior Research Scientist — that anyone could achieve in Government service, making him the first African American to attain such status in the Civilian Army workforce. Ruffin was born to Catherine Ruffin in Toxey, Alabama. A native of Gilbertown, Alabama, he attended the public schools of Alabama, he received the undergraduate degree in Physics from Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Alabama in 1977. During the summer of 1976, Ruffin worked at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois as an intern student where he investigated the fall-off of radiation in multi-legged labyrinths and measured radiation levels in beam lines using ionization chambers.
He became the first African American to receive advanced degrees in physics from any post secondary school in the State of Alabama when he received his master's degree in physics in 1982 and a PhD degree in physics in 1986 from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He was the first person from Gilbertown. Ruffin began his professional career in industry as an associate member of the technical staff at Dynetics, Inc. in May 1977. He became a Government employee in October 1982 when he accepted employment with the U. S. Army Missile Command, he professionally progressed from a bench scientist to a Senior Research Scientist, one of only 40 positions within the entire U. S. Army civilian workforce. Ruffin was the first civilian to be appointed Senior Research Scientist for Micro-Sensors and Systems within the Army civilian workforce and the first African American to be promoted to this Senior Executive Service -level position. Ruffin and his team developed MEMS modeling design tools, along with MEMS device fabrication techniques and advanced laboratory facilities.
His technical contributions and leadership in the inertial MEMS technology area raised the US Army's inertial MEMS design and development capabilities to global recognition. Ruffin's research in Fiber Optic Communication, MEMS, Nanotechnology resulted in eight patents, one book, seven book chapters, numerous peer-reviewed journal articles, his fiber winding patent solved the 20-year-old problem associated with adverse temperature effects on Fibre optic gyroscope performance. Ruffin published the advanced technologies for FOGs in Chapter 8, Pages 383 through 416 of the book entitled “Fiber Optics Sensors,” Marcel Dekker, Inc. 2002. He is the co-editor of the book “Fiber Optics Sensors: Second Edition,” CRC Press, 2007. Ruffin's precision sensing and treatment delivery device for promoting healing in living tissue patent revealed a minimal invasive technique for treating cancer patients. Ruffin's achievements in applied science have been recognized with multiple prestigious awards including the Army Research and Development Achievement Award from the United States Secretary of the Army, the Black Engineer of the Year Special Recognition Award by the Council of Engineering Deans for Historically Black Universities, the Technologist of the Year Award from the National Society of Black Engineers, the Top Ten Army Materiel Command Personnel of the Year Award, the Material Acquisition/Technology Award from the American Defense Preparedness Association and Recognition for a Canadian Patent.
On February 17, 2011, Ruffin was awarded the Black Engineer of the Year Emerald Award for Government Professional Achievement for his technical achievements and leadership in the advancement of Fiber Optics, Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems, Nanotechnology to ensure that the US Army remained at the forefront of a scientific and technological competence, mission critical to the future soldier. In 2011, President Barack Obama bestowed upon Ruffin the Rank of Meritorious Senior Professional for sustained superior accomplishment in the conduct of programs of the U. S. Government and noteworthy achievement of quality and efficiency in public service. On June 29, 2011, the Secretary of the Army, Mr. John M. McHugh, presented Ruffin with the 2010 Presidential Rank Awards of Meritorious Executive. Ruffin was presented two Civilian Service Medal of the U. S. Federal Government for sustained meritorious service: the Department of the Army Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service Medal and the Department of the Army Commander's Award for Civilian Service.
Ruffin received top awards from his Alma Maters. In May 2005, Ruffin was inducted into the Alabama A&M University Alumni Hall of Fame in Science for his lifetime technical contributions to the field of applied science. In July 2005, he was presented the William Hooper Council Alumni Award from the Progressive Alumni Chapter. In April 2003, he was presented the Alumni of Achievement Award from the University of Alabama in Huntsville and in April 2005 the College of Science presented him with the Distinguished Alumnus Award. Oakwood University in Huntsville, Alabama presented Ruffin with the United Negro College Fund Educator Award on April 9, 2009, during the 31st Annual UNCF Salute to Education Gala. Ruffin has been featured in national journals such as the Black Engineer Magazine, the US Black Engineer Information Technology Magazine [8th Annual Homeland Security, Government and D
Choctaw County, Alabama
Choctaw County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 13,859; the county seat is Butler. The county was named for the Choctaw tribe of American Indians. Most of the early pioneers of Choctaw County were farmers from South Carolina. In 1912 the Alabama and Northern Railroad was completed through the county from north to south, connecting the area to the Port of Mobile and northern Alabama, it induced a population shift from areas near the Tombigbee River to the central part of the county. The county's population reached its peak in the 1920s, due in part from jobs created by a sawmill boom with companies as the E. E. Jackson Lumber Company and Choctaw Lumber Company; the sawmill industry collapsed during the Great Depression. The first successful oil well in Alabama was drilled at Gilbertown in 1944, with oil and gas becoming the county's most important industry; this industry waned by the 1970s. An African-American family, the Thorntons of Mobile, was featured in the September 24, 1956, issue of Life Magazine.
The article included an interview with the Thorntons' daughter, Allie Lee Causey, of Shady Grove in Choctaw County. In the article, Mrs. Causey, a schoolteacher, spoke about her family's life, stating that "integration is the only way in which Negroes will receive justice. We cannot get it as a separate people. If we can get justice on our jobs, equal pay we'll be able to afford better homes and good education." When the magazine was seen in Choctaw County, the Causeys were subjected to brutal economic retaliation by white residents, who tried to coerce Mrs. Causey into recanting her remarks, their loans were called in, local stores refused to sell them food and gasoline, Willie Causey was cut off from his employment as a woodcutter, Mrs. Causey was fired from her job as a teacher; the Causeys left Shady Grove and Alabama for good in October 1956. Apparel factories opened during the 1950s–60s in Silas and Butler, although the plants had closed by the 21st century; the 1950s saw the building a paper mill at Naheola, now owned and operated by Georgia-Pacific.
The county was declared a disaster area in September 1979, due to damage from Hurricane Frederic. The 1980s saw the tracks removed. Choctaw County has one site listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Mount Sterling Methodist Church. Additionally, five sites are listed on the Alabama Register of Heritage. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 921 square miles, of which 914 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 84 State Route 10 State Route 17 State Route 114 State Route 156 Sumter County Marengo County Clarke County Washington County Wayne County, Mississippi Clarke County, Mississippi Lauderdale County, Mississippi Choctaw National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,859 people residing in the county. 55.8% were White, 43.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.2% of some other race and 0.4% of two or more races. 0.5 % were Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 15,922 people, 6,363 households, 4,574 families residing in the county.
The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 7,839 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 55.14% White, 44.13% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.11% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races. 0.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,363 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.00% were married couples living together, 16.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.10% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 26.20% from 25 to 44, 25.20% from 45 to 64, 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 88.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,749, the median income for a family was $31,870. Males had a median income of $32,316 versus $18,760 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,635. About 20.70% of families and 24.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.80% of those under age 18 and 26.10% of those age 65 or over. Butler Gilbertown Lisman Needham Pennington Silas Toxey Cullomburg National Register of Historic Places listings in Choctaw County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Choctaw County, Alabama The Choctaw Sun-Advocate Coastal Gateway Regional Economic Development Alliance Choctaw County map of roads/towns. Choctaw County Tourism and Business Directory