Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology. In the past the term "insect" was more vague, the definition of entomology included the study of terrestrial animals in other arthropod groups or other phyla, such as arachnids, earthworms, land snails, slugs; this wider meaning may still be encountered in informal use. Like several of the other fields that are categorized within zoology, entomology is a taxon-based category. Entomology therefore overlaps with a cross-section of topics as diverse as molecular genetics, biomechanics, systematics, developmental biology, ecology and paleontology. At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth. Entomology is rooted in nearly all human cultures from prehistoric times in the context of agriculture, but scientific study began only as as the 16th century. William Kirby is considered as the father of Entomology.
In collaboration with William Spence, he published a definitive entomological encyclopedia, Introduction to Entomology, regarded as the subject's foundational text. He helped to found the Royal Entomological Society in London in 1833, one of the earliest such societies in the world. Entomology developed in the 19th and 20th centuries, was studied by large numbers of people, including such notable figures as Charles Darwin, Jean-Henri Fabre, Vladimir Nabokov, Karl von Frisch, two-time Pulitzer Prize winner E. O. Wilson. There has been a history of people becoming entomologists through museum curation and research assistance, such as Sophie Lutterlough at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Insect identification is an common hobby, with butterflies and dragonflies being the most popular. Most insects can be recognized to order such as Hymenoptera or Coleoptera. However, insects other than Lepidoptera are identifiable to genus or species only through the use of Identification keys and Monographs.
Because the class Insecta contains a large number of species and the characteristics separating them are unfamiliar, subtle, this is very difficult for a specialist. This has led to the development of automated species identification systems targeted on insects, for example, Daisy, ABIS, SPIDA and Draw-wing. In 1994, the Entomological Society of America launched a new professional certification program for the pest control industry called the Associate Certified Entomologist. To qualify as a "true entomologist" an individual would require an advanced degree, with most entomologists pursuing a PhD. While not true entomologists in the traditional sense, individuals who attain the ACE certification may be referred to as ACEs or Associate Certified Entomologists. Many entomologists specialize in a single order or a family of insects, a number of these subspecialties are given their own informal names derived from the scientific name of the group: Coleopterology – beetles Dipterology – flies Odonatology – dragonflies and damselflies Hemipterology – true bugs Isopterology – termites Lepidopterology – moths and butterflies Melittology – bees Myrmecology – ants Orthopterology – grasshoppers, etc.
Trichopterology – caddis flies Vespology – Social wasps Like other scientific specialties, entomologists have a number of local and international organizations. There are many organizations specializing in specific subareas. Amateur Entomologists' Society Deutsches Entomologisches Institut Entomological Society of America Entomological Society of Canada Entomological Society of Japan Entomologischer Verein Krefeld Entomological Society of India International Union for the Study of Social Insects Netherlands Entomological Society Royal Belgian Entomological Society Royal Entomological Society of London Société entomologique de France Here is a list of selected museums which contain large insect collections. Zoological survey of India National Pusa Collection, Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India Pakistan Museum of Natural History Garden Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan Natal Museum, South Africa Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, France Museum für Naturkunde, Germany Kelvingrove Art Gallery, Scotland Natural History Museum, Budapest Hungarian Natural History Museum Natural History Museum, Geneva Natural History Museum, the Netherlands Natural History Museum, United Kingdom Natural History Museum, Oslo Norway Natural History Museum, St. Petersburg Zoological Collection of the Russian Academy of Science Naturhistorisches Museum, Austria Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden The Bavarian State Collection of Zoology Zoologische Staatssammlung München World Museum Liverpool, the Bug House Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia American Museum of Natural History, New York City Auburn University Museum of Natural History, Ala
Minor places in Middle-earth
The stories of J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium contain references to numerous places; some of these fictional places are described below. Aldburg is a hill fort and settlement in Rohan, in the region known as the Folde, some miles to the southeast of Edoras. Aldburg was the capital of the realm, where Eorl the Young, the first King of Rohan, founded his hall in T. A. 2510. Though his son, King Brego, moved to Edoras early in Rohan's history, Aldburg remained the residence of the descendants of Éofor, Brego's third son. One of these descendants was Éomer, a nephew of King Théoden. At the time of the War of the Ring, Éomer was the Third Marshal of the Mark and became heir to the king; the All-welcome Inn was an inn located at the junction of the Northway and the East Road on the Hobbiton side of Frogmorton. It was much used by travellers Dwarves from the Ered Luin. Amon Hen is a hill located on the western bank of the river Anduin, at the southern end of Nen Hithoel, the lake above the Falls of Rauros.
It was one of the three peaks at the Falls of Rauros at the southern end of the Emyn Muil, the others being Amon Lhaw, the Hill of the Ear, Tol Brandir, an island located between the two hills. The Seat of Seeing was built at the summit of Amon Hen, serving as a watchtower for the northern borders of Gondor, it was constructed in the early days of Gondor. In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship travelled down the Anduin from Lothlórien to Parth Galen, the lake-side lawn at the feet of Amon Hen, but here the Fellowship was broken: Boromir attempted to take the One Ring by force from Frodo Baggins, who fled. After Frodo escaped from Boromir, he sat upon the Seat of Seeing while still wearing the Ring, was able to see events hundreds of miles distant. From Amon Hen and Samwise Gamgee crossed the Anduin on their way east to Mordor, while Merry and Pippin were carried by Saruman's Orcs in the direction of his hold at Isengard, the rest of the Fellowship set out in pursuit of the Orcs. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Hen and Amon Lhaw.
The sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator; the bulletin of The Tolkien Society has been named Amon Hen since December 1972. Amon Lhaw is one of the three peaks above the Falls of Rauros which drained the lake known as Nen Hithoel, it towered amongst the Emyn Muil on the eastern banks of the Anduin, its twin, Amon Hen, lay upon the western bank. Between them, at the centre of the stream above Rauros, was the island peak Tol Brandir upon which none had set foot. Although at one time Amon Lhaw had been on the northern boundary of Gondor and a high seat was built there, this was no longer the case at the time of the War of the Ring. Called the Hill of Hearing and Hill of the Ear in Westron. Tolkien's aerial view of the Emyn Muil shows Tol Brandir to be much taller than Amon Lhaw and Amon Hen; the sketch is published in J. R. R. Tolkien: Illustrator. See: Hill of Guard Andrath is a narrow pass through which the North-South Road passed between the Barrow-downs on the west and the South Downs on the east.
To the north of Andrath the road met the Great East Road, just west of the gates of Bree. When the Nazgûl came north from Mordor to seek the Ring in the Shire at the end of the Third Age, their leader, the Witch-king of Angmar, camped in Andrath, it is mentioned in the appendices of The Return of the King that it is that the Witch-king aroused the Barrow-wights in the nearby Barrow-downs while camped at Andrath. Two separate areas in Middle-earth were known as the Angle, each defined by the angle between two converging rivers; the Angle in Lothlórien lay between the Silverlode. It was more referred to as Egladil; the Angle in Eriador was a much larger area. It lay between the Mitheithel on the Bruinen on the east; this Angle was part of the province of Rhudaur in the kingdom of Arnor. Many Stoors, a tribe of Hobbits, settled in the Angle circa T. A. 1150, but left about T. A. 1356. Tom Shippey notes a number of similarities between the migration history of Hobbits and that of the Anglo-Saxons; the Argonath is a monument comprising two enormous pillars carved in the likenesses of Isildur and Anárion, standing upon either side of the River Anduin at the northern approach to Nen Hithoel.
The figures were constructed about T. A. 1240 at the order of King Rómendacil II to mark the northern border of Gondor. However the effective border had receded southwards by the time of the War of the Ring. A. 3019. Each of the two figures was shown wearing a crown and a helm, with an axe in its right hand and its left hand raised in a gesture of defiance to the enemies of Gondor. It's that the figure on the east bank, which technically stood in the province of Ithilien, represented Isildur, while the western figure, standing in the province of Anórien, represented Anárion. Known as the Pillars of the Kings or the Gate of Kings. See Ered Lithui see Dimrill Dale Bamfurlong is the farmland of Farmer Maggot, located in the Marish of the eastern part of the Shire; the boggy nature of the land makes fo
In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, Elves are one of the races that inhabit a fictional Earth called Middle-earth, set in the remote past, they appear in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings, but their complex history is described more in The Silmarillion. Tolkien had been writing about Elves; the modern English word elf derives from the Old English word ælf. Numerous types of elves appear in Germanic mythology, the West Germanic concept appears to have come to differ from the Scandinavian notion in the early Middle Ages, Anglo-Saxon concept diverged further under Celtic influence. Tolkien would make it clear in a letter that his Elves differ from those "of the better known lore", referring to Scandinavian mythology. By 1915 when Tolkien was writing his first elven poems, the words elf and gnome had many divergent and contradictory associations. Tolkien had been warned against using the term'fairy', which John Garth supposes may have been due to the word becoming used to indicate homosexuality, although despite this warning Tolkien continued to use it.
By the late 19th century, the term'fairy' had been taken up as a utopian theme, was used to critique social and religious values, a tradition which Tolkien along with T. H. White are seen to continue. One of the last of the Victorian Fairy-paintings, The Piper of Dreams by Estella Canziani, sold 250,000 copies and was well known within the trenches of World War I where Tolkien saw active service. Illustrated posters of Robert Louis Stevenson's poem Land of Nod had been sent out by a philanthropist to brighten servicemen's quarters, Faery was used in other contexts as an image of "Old England" to inspire patriotism. According to Marjorie Burns, Tolkien chose the term elf over fairy, but still retained some doubts. In his 1939 essay On Fairy-Stories, Tolkien wrote that "English words such as elf have long been influenced by French. Traditional Victorian dancing fairies and elves appear in much of Tolkien's early poetry, have influence upon his works in part due to the influence of a production of J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Birmingham in 1910 and his familiarity with the work of Catholic mystic poet, Francis Thompson which Tolkien had acquired in 1914.
O! I hear the tiny horns Of enchanted leprechauns And the padded feet of many gnomes a-coming! As a philologist, Tolkien's interest in languages led him to invent several languages of his own as a pastime. In considering the nature of who might speak these languages, what stories they might tell, Tolkien again turned to the concept of elves. In his The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien develops a theme that the diminutive fairy-like race of Elves had once been a great and mighty people, that as Men took over the world, these Elves had "diminished" themselves; this theme was influenced by the god-like and human-sized Ljósálfar of Norse mythology, medieval works such as Sir Orfeo, the Welsh Mabinogion, Arthurian romances and the legends of the Tuatha Dé Danann. Some of the stories Tolkien wrote as elven history have been seen to be directly influenced by Celtic mythology. For example, "Flight of The Noldoli" is based on the Tuatha Dé Danann and Lebor Gabála Érenn, their migratory nature comes from early Irish/Celtic history.
John Garth sees that with the underground enslavement of the Noldoli to Melkor, Tolkien was rewriting Irish myth regarding the Tuatha Dé Danann into a Christian eschatology. The name Inwe, given by Tolkien to the eldest of the elves and his clan, is similar to the name found in Norse mythology as that of the god Ingwi-Freyr, a god, gifted the elf world Álfheimr. Terry Gunnell claims that the relationship between beautiful ships and the Elves is reminiscent of the god Njörðr and the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir, he retains the usage of the French derived term "fairy" for the same creatures. The larger Elves are inspired by Tolkien's personal Catholic theology—as representing the state of Men in Eden who have not yet "fallen", similar to humans but fairer and wiser, with greater spiritual powers, keener senses, a closer empathy with nature. Tolkien wrote of them: "They are made by man in his own likeness, they are immortal, their will is directly effective for the achievement of imagination and desire."In The Book of Lost Tales, Tolkien includes both the more serious "medieval" type of elves such as Fëanor and Turgon alongside the frivolous, Jacobean type of elves such as the Solosimpi and Tinúviel.
Alongside the idea of the greater Elves, Tolkien developed the idea of children visiting Valinor, the island-homeland of the Elves in their sleep. Elves would visit children at night and comfort them if they had been chided or were upset; this theme, linking elves with children's dreams and nocturnal travelling was abandoned in Tolkien's writing. Along with Book of Lost Tales, Douglas Anderson shows that in The Hobbit, Tolkien again includes both the more serious'medieval' type of elves, such as Elrond and the Wood-elf king, frivolous elves, such as those at Rivendell. In 1937, having had his manuscript for The Silmarillion rejected by a publisher who disparaged all the "eye-splitting Celtic names" that Tolkien had given his Elves, Tolkien denied the names had a Celtic origin: Needless t
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
The Nazgûl called Ringwraiths, Ring-wraiths, Black Riders, Dark Riders, the Nine Riders, or the Nine, are fictional characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, they were nine men who succumbed to Sauron's power and attained immortality as wraiths, servants bound to the power of the One Ring and under the dominion of Sauron. They are first mentioned in The Lord of the Rings published in 1954–1955; the book calls the Nazgûl Sauron's "most terrible servants". According to Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, the Nazgûl arose as Sauron's most powerful servants in the Second Age of Middle-earth, they were once mortal men. Sauron gave each of them one of nine Rings of Power. However, they were bound to the One Ring and enslaved by the will of Sauron; those who used the Nine Rings became mighty in their day, kings and warriors of old. They obtained glory and great wealth, they had, as it seemed, unending life, yet life became unendurable to them. They could walk, if they would, unseen by all eyes in this world beneath the sun, they could see things in worlds invisible to mortal men.
And one by one, sooner or according to their native strength and to the good or evil of their wills in the beginning, they fell under the thraldom of the ring that they bore and of the domination of the One, Sauron's. And they became forever invisible save to him that wore the Ruling Ring, they entered into the realm of shadows; the Nazgûl were the Ringwraiths, the Úlairi, the Enemy's most terrible servants. — The Silmarillion, "Of the Rings of Power and the Third Age", 346 The corrupting effect of the rings extended the bearers' earthly lives far beyond their normal lifespans. Some passages in the novel suggest that the Nazgûl wore their rings, while others suggest that Sauron held them. In a letter from circa 1963 Tolkien says explicitly that Sauron held the rings: They would have obeyed... any minor command of his that did not interfere with their errand — laid upon them by Sauron, who still through their nine rings had primary control of their wills... — The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien, Letter 246 They were by far the most powerful of his servants, the most suitable for such a mission, since they were enslaved to their Nine Rings, which he now himself held...
— Unfinished Tales, p. 338 The Nazgûl are called Úlairi in Tolkien's invented language of Quenya. They are called the Fell Riders and the Black Wings, as well as the Shadows, the Servants of Sauron, the Nine Servants of the Lord of the Rings; the Orcs of the Tower of Cirith Ungol call. In her duel with the Witch-king, Éowyn calls him a "dwimmerlaik"; this is intended to be a word in Rohirric, the speech of Rohan, translated into Anglo-Saxon, that Tolkien glosses in the index as a "work of necromancy", a "spectre". It derives from Anglo-Saxon dwimor, "phantom, illusion" and -leikr, the Old Norse ending corresponding to Anglo-Saxon -lac, meaning "a state or act". Only two of the Nazgûl are identified individually in Tolkien's works, their leader was the Witch-king of Angmar. Writings unpublished in Tolkien's lifetime identify his second-in-command as Khamûl, the "Black Easterling" or the "Shadow of the East". In the text of The Lord of the Rings, after the fall of the Lord of the Nazgûl, command of Mordor's army in the field falls to Gothmog, the "lieutenant of Morgul".
Tolkien stated. The Nazgûl wore their rings for so long that their physical forms faded away: they became invisible to mortal eyes, their black robes gave them visible form. While wearing the One Ring during their assault on Weathertop, Frodo saw them as pale figures robed in white, with "haggard hands" and wearing crowns; the Witch-king was taller than the others, with "long and gleaming" hair. During the assault on Minas Tirith, the leader of the Nine, the Witch-king of Angmar, cast back his hood to reveal a crown, but the head that wore it was invisible. Having no physical bodies, they cannot be destroyed by conventional means: ordinary weapons have no effect on them, they still can be temporarily impaired, for example when their horses were drowned upon their arrival at Rivendell. Some of their senses smell, are enhanced; as the Nazgûl hunted Frodo across The Shire, they can hear what they think to be snuffling, sometimes sees them crawling/crouching on the ground. On Weathertop, Aragorn explains.
They can keenly feel the presence of others, more-so than mortals. Their sight works differently as well:They themselves do not see the world of light as we do, but our shapes cast shadows in their minds, which only the noon sun destroys. — "A Knife in the Dark", The Fellowship of the Ring, p. 237Since they cannot see the daylight world like living beings can, they may use spies or
Lindon is the land beyond the Ered Luin, the Blue Mountains, in the northwest of Middle-earth in the fictional universe of J. R. R. Tolkien, it is the westernmost land of the continent. The Gulf of Lune divides it into Harlindon. Mithlond or the Grey Havens stood near the mouth of the River Lhûn at the gulf's eastern end. Lindon serves as a narrative plot device, the final point of transition from the mortal changing world of Middle-earth to the unchanged Arda of the past. Ossiriand was the most eastern region of Beleriand during the First Age, lying between the Ered Luin and the river Gelion. Ossiriand was a forested land; the Seven Rivers were, from north to south: River Gelion River Ascar or Rathlóriel River Thalos River Legolin River Brilthor River Duilwen River Adurant Along the northern side of the Ascar ran the Dwarf-road to Nogrod. North of Ossiriand lay the land of Thargelion, ruled by Caranthir son of Fëanor; the island Tol Galen in Ossiriand's southernmost river, the Adurant, was named the Land of the Dead that Live when Lúthien and Beren lived their second lives there.
The first settlers of Beleriand were the Sindarin Elves, but they did not venture into Ossiriand except as "wandering hunters". Ossiriand continued to remain unoccupied for many centuries, a situation not disturbed when Dwarves appeared, built their road along the northern boundary. Another Elven people, the Nandor, entered Ossiriand under their leader Denethor; the Nandor were given permission by Thingol to settle the lands. There they lived in "long years of peace", they chose no more leaders, many of them removed to Thingol's kingdom of Doriath. The Nandor remaining in Ossiriand withdrew into its woods, became known as the Laiquendi, or Green Elves; the Laiquendi were prodigious singers. At the drowning of Beleriand in the War of Wrath, only parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion survived, along with what became the islands of Tol Fuin and Himring. Belegaer the Great Sea broke through the Blue Mountains on the eastern boundary of Beleriand to create the Gulf of Lhûn; the War of Wrath ended the First Age, thereafter the name Lindon was applied to the surviving parts of Ossiriand and Thargelion.
This new Elven realm was ruled by King Gil-galad until his death in S. A. 3441, subsequently by the lord Círdan. Many of the Elves of Beleriand relocated to Lindon at the beginning of the Second Age, where they were ruled by King Gil-galad; the Noldor dwelt in the northern section of Forlindon, while the Sindar and surviving Laiquendi were in the southern section of Harlindon. Together they built Mithlond, the Grey Havens, on the eastern end of the Gulf of Lhûn along the banks of the River Lhûn in its deep firth. Círdan the Shipwright was the master of the Havens since its founding; the general map of Middle-earth in The Lord of the Rings shows other anchorages farther west in the Gulf of Lhûn: Harlond and Forlond on the southern and northern shores, respectively. Lindon was one of the two Noldorin realms during the other being Eregion, or Hollin; because of its cultural and spiritual importance to the Elves, Mithlond in time became the primary Elvish settlement west of the Misty Mountains prior to the establishment of Eregion and of Imladris.
After the death of Gil-galad, as the Elves dwindled in numbers by the year, Mithlond remained a focal point of the history of the northern part of Middle-earth. During the War of the Elves and Sauron, the Dark Lord Sauron attempted to invade and conquer the Havens in order to gain the Three Elven Rings but was halted and defeated at the Lhûn by Gil-galad with the timely arrival of the great Númenórean armament of Tar-Minastir; the Second Age ended with the Last Alliance of Men. The Last Alliance was the final great military effort of the Elves and they raised their largest army since the First Age for the war. Gil-galad was killed by Sauron during the last battle of the war; the Elves of Lindon suffered severe losses in the war and afterwards most of the surviving Noldor departed for Valinor and much of Lindon became depopulated. In the Third Age Lindon was ruled by Gil-galad's ally, the Sindarin elf Círdan the Shipwright, master of Mithlond. Círdan ruled as a "lord" and never with Gil-galad's title "king".
Círdan's main task was to build ships for the Elves departing Middle-earth to sail to the West. By the end of the Third Age, the majority of Lindon's population resided in or around the harbour of the Grey Havens, while the rest settled along the shores of the Gulf of Lhûn. Lindon was one of the few populated areas of northwestern Middle-earth that remained untouched by the War of the Ring. Sauron never achieved the strength and reach he had in the Second Age and he was unable to make a direct assault though the realm was a strategically important location populated by his enemies. During the Fourth Age, it was one of the last Elven havens as the remaining Elves of Rivendell and Lothlórien left Middle-earth. In the beginning of the first century, Fourth Age, it experienced a population growth as migrants from the east came to
Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in his Middle-earth legendarium, she appears in The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. She was a royal Elf of both the Noldor and the Teleri, being a grandchild of both King Finwë and King Olwë, was close kin of King Ingwë of the Vanyar through her grandmother Indis, she was one of the leaders in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor during the First Age, she was the only prominent Noldo to survive and return, at the end of the Third Age. Towards the end of her stay in Middle-earth she was co-ruler of Lothlórien with her husband, Lord Celeborn, was referred to variously as the Lady of Lórien, the Lady of the Galadhrim, the Lady of Light, or the Lady of the Golden Wood, her daughter Celebrían was the wife of Elrond and mother of Arwen and Elrohir. Tolkien describes Galadriel as "the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth" and the "greatest of elven women".
Stories of Galadriel's life prior to The Lord of the Rings appear in both The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Galadriel was the only daughter and youngest child of Finarfin, prince of the Noldor, of Eärwen, cousin to Lúthien, her elder brothers were Finrod Felagund and Aegnor. She was born in Valinor during the Years of the Trees. Galadriel is described as having been "blessed with the ability to peer into the minds of others and she judged them so fairly, but in Fëanor, she only sees darkness". As one of the members of the royal house of Finwë and having the blood of the Vanyar from her paternal grandmother, she was called the fairest of all Elves, either in Aman or Middle-earth. According to the older account of her story, sketched by Tolkien in The Road Goes Ever On and used in The Silmarillion, Galadriel was an eager participant and leader in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor, she had, long since parted ways with Fëanor and his sons, did not participate in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë.
In Beleriand she lived with her brother Finrod Felagund at Nargothrond and at the court of Thingol and Melian in Doriath. In this account she met a kinsman of Thingol, in Doriath. After the War of Wrath, the Valar prohibited the leaders of the Exiles from returning to the Undying Lands, so as one of those leaders Galadriel remained an Exile in Middle-earth. At the end of the Third Age, when she refused the One Ring, she was allowed to return to Valinor. Unfinished Tales gathers many other accounts of Celeborn. One of these highlights a second version of, she lived with her mother's kindred in the Telerin port of Alqualondë and there met Celeborn, who would become her husband and co-ruler. Celeborn, by this account, was Olwë's grandson. Galadriel and Celeborn sailed from the West and came to Beleriand separately from the two main hosts of the Noldor. Galadriel was thus not directly involved in the revolt of the Noldorin princes in this version, indeed fought against them at Alqualondë during the kinslaying.
In Beleriand she and Celeborn were lived in Doriath. When the Noldor arrived in Beleriand, Galadriel re-established contact with her brothers. In this version of the story, she is offered a pardon by the Valar, but refused it out of pride and therefore remained under the Ban. In later accounts from Unfinished Tales, written not long before Tolkien died, Galadriel was not subject to the Ban, remained in Middle-earth of her own volition. In both versions Celeborn and Galadriel play no important role in the Battles of Beleriand, as they judge the War of the Jewels to be hopeless against Morgoth's strength. Little is told of their subsequent activities in the First Age, they leave Beleriand before the War of Wrath, they travelled first to Lindon, where they ruled over a group of Elves as a fiefdom under Gil-galad, the last High King of the Noldor. According to Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, they removed to the shores of Lake Nenuial, were accounted the Lord and Lady of all the Elves of Eriador.
Around SA 700, they moved eastward and established the realm of Eregion or Hollin. At this time they made contact with a Nandorin settlement in the valley of the Anduin, which became Lothlórien. At some point Celeborn and Galadriel settled in Lothlórien. According to some accounts, they became rulers of Lothlórien for a time during the Second Age. Early in the Second Age, the Númenórean King Tar-Aldarion presented some Mallorn seeds to Gil-galad, High-King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, ruler of the Kingdom of Lindon, the westernmost realm in Middle-earth. "Under her power" the mellyrn had sprouted in the land of Lothlórien, but "they did not reach the height or girth of the groves of Númenor."Celeborn and Galadriel had a daughter, Celebrían, who married Elrond Half-elven of Rivendell, thus making Galadriel and her husband Celeborn the grandparents of the twins Elladan and Elrohir and their younger sister Arwen Undómiel, future Queen of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor. During the Second Age, when the Rings