Lawrence County, Tennessee
Lawrence County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,869, its county seat and largest city is Lawrenceburg. Lawrence County comprises the Lawrenceburg, TN Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Nashville-Davidson-Murfreesboro, TN Combined Statistical Area. Created by an act of the Tennessee General Assembly on October 21, 1817, Lawrence County was formed from lands part of Hickman and Giles counties, it was named in honor of Captain James Lawrence, who while commanding the USS Chesapeake in an 1813 battle with the Royal Navy frigate HMS Shannon, issued his famous command: "Don't give up the ship! Blow her up." His men did anyway and Lawrence died of wounds. Lawrenceburg was chosen as the county seat in 1819 as it was near the center of the county and because Jackson's Military Road ran just east of the town. In April 1821, the road was redirected through the center of the Lawrenceburg; the military road, the main route from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Nashville, played a significant role in the county's development.
An early resident was David Crockett, who served as one of the county's first commissioners and justices of the peace. Crockett lived in the county for several years and ran a water-powered grist mill, powder mill and distillery on Shoal Creek, where David Crockett State Park is now located. In the early 1870s, many German Catholics moved including skilled tradesmen. After the arrival of the railroad in 1883, the county became a major source of iron ore. Between 1908 and 1915, there was an influx of settlers from Alabama. Most worked in the timber industry. Logging soon declined. In 1944, Amish people established a community in the north of the county; the Old Order Amish community has now become a tourist attraction. The county has been struck by two killer tornadoes. On May 18, 1995 a F4 tornado struck the county. On April 16, 1998, an F5 tornado hit part of the 1998 Nashville tornado outbreak. In June 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs gave official recognition to six Native American groups, including the Central Band of Cherokee known as the Cherokee of Lawrence County.
The recognition of these tribes at a state level has stirred much controversy among federally recognized Indian tribes, who claim the recognition by a state is unconstitutional and threatens the status of existing tribes. In July 2017, the Hope Botanical Garden was formed in the Leoma community. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 618 square miles, of which 617 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. U. S. Route 43 U. S. Route 64 Tennessee State Route 6 Tennessee State Route 15 Natchez Trace Parkway Tennessee Southern Railroad Lewis County Maury County Giles County Lauderdale County, Alabama Wayne County Natchez Trace Parkway David Crockett State Park Laurel Hill Wildlife Management Area As of the census of 2000, there were 39,926 people, 15,480 households, 11,362 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 16,821 housing units but as of 2010 that had jumped to over 19,000 at an average density of 27 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.83% White, 1.47% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. 1.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,480 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 10.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.60% were non-families. 23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 28.10% from 25 to 44, 23.00% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,498, the median income for a family was $35,326.
Males had a median income of $27,742 versus $20,928 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,848. About 10.70% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.20% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. Lawrence County's chief executive officer is the County Executive. Along with the County Executive, the county has a total of 18 county commissioners which control the County's finances; every fiscal year the Board must adopt a budget which appropriates funds to the many departments and agencies of the Lawrence County Government. The Board of County Commissioners serves as the legislative and policy setting body of Lawrence County; as such, the Board enacts all legislation and authorizes programs and expenditures within Lawrence County. For the term starting in 2014, the officials for Lawrence County are: County Executive T. R. Williams District 1 Wayne Yocom District 2 Chris D. Jackson District 3 Denny Gillespie District 4 Brandon Brown District 5 Phil Hood District 6 Bobby Clifton District 7 Aaron Story District 8 Mark Niedergeses D
Lauderdale County, Alabama
Lauderdale County is a county located in the northwestern corner of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 92,709, its county seat is Florence. Its name is in honor of Tennessee. Lauderdale is part of the Florence-Muscle Shoals, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area known as "The Shoals". Lauderdale County was named in honor of Col. James Lauderdale, born in Virginia about 1780. In the early 19th century, who moved to West Tennessee, became a major in General John Coffee's cavalry of volunteers. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, he commanded a brigade of mounted riflemen, serving under Andrew Jackson in many battles against the Indians. According to reliable historians, Col. Lauderdale did not die in the Battle of New Orleans, but was wounded in the Battle of Talladega and died on December 23, 1814, seventeen days before Jackson's crushing defeat of the British at New Orleans. Several towns and counties in the southern states were named in his honor, though it is said that he never set foot in Lauderdale County.
Lauderdale County was established in 1818, a year. Florence, the county seat of Lauderdale County, was established in 1818. At this time a group of investors, under the name of Cypress Land Company purchased from the government 5,515 acres of land consisting of the original town site. Other towns in Lauderdale County competing for early settlers because of their proximity to the river were Savage's Spring, nine miles below Florence and Waterloo, some 20 miles downriver. Among the older settlements in the county is Center Star, located between Killen and Rogersville; this area was once claimed by both the Chickasaws and Cherokees, necessitating a cession of territory from each tribe before the settlement could be established. At one time, the remains of an old Indian village could be seen southwest of Center Star. Other old settlements included Middleton and Elgin, the latter known first as Ingram's Elgin Cross Roads. Rogersville, lying some 23 miles to the east of Florence, was named for John Rogers, an Indian trader, whose sons were fast friends of the great Sam Houston.
The late Will Rogers is said to have been a descendant of this same family. An early ferry that operated for many years was Lamb's Ferry near Rogersville. Lexington and Anderson lie to the north of the Lee Highway, the town of Lexington being a part of the territory once claimed by the Cherokee. Many of the settlers of that area came from Tennessee and the Carolinas; the first post office of record at Lexington was on the Loretto Road, north of town, in 1880. Mail at that time was brought in from Tennessee, by horseback and carts; the town of St. Florian was established in 1872 on the Jackson Highway and named by its German Catholic founders for their patron saint. Four Alabama governors were from the county - Hugh McVay, Robert M. Patton, Edward A. O'Neal and Emmett O'Neal. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 721 square miles, of which 668 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Key Cave National Wildlife Refuge Natchez Trace Parkway Tennessee River Elk River Wayne County, Tennessee - north Lawrence County, Tennessee - north Giles County, Tennessee - northeast Limestone County - east Lawrence County - southeast Colbert County - south Tishomingo County, Mississippi - west Hardin County, Tennessee - northwest According to the 2010 United States Census: 86.4% White 10.0% Black 0.4% Native American 0.7% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.4% Two or more races 2.2% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2000, there were 87,966 people, 36,088 households, 25,153 families residing in the county.
The population density was 131 people per square mile. There were 40,424 housing units at an average density of 60 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.38% White or European American, 13.85% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.35% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. 1.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2005 87.8% of the county population was non-Hispanic whites. African Americans Latinos 1.2 % of the population. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Lauderdale County were English 41.9%, African 13.85%, Scots-Irish 9.66%, Scottish 4.11%, Irish 3.19% and Welsh 2.5% In 2000 there were 36,088 households out of which 30.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,354, the median income for a family was $41,438. Males had a median income of $33,943 versus $20,804 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,626. About 10.50% of families and 14.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 11.30% of those age 65 or over. U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 72 State Route 17 State Route 20 State Route 64 State Route 101 State Route 133 State Route 157 State
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Tennessee's 7th congressional district
The 7th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district located in parts of Middle and West Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Mark E. Green since January 2019; the district is located in both Middle Tennessee. It stretches as far north as the Kentucky border, as far south as Mississippi/Alabama border, as far east as Franklin, as far west as Bolivar, it is composed of the following counties: Chester, Giles, Hardin, Hickman, Humphreys, Lewis, McNairy, Perry, Stewart and Williamson. It includes significant portions of Benton and Maury; the Seventh District has significant rural areas. Although most of the area is rural, more than half of the district lives in either Montgomery County or Williamson County. By most measures, Williamson County is the wealthiest county in the state and is ranked near the top nationally; the district has a strong military presence, as it includes Tennessee's share of Fort Campbell. Politically speaking, it has been one of the most Republican areas in Tennessee, having not been represented by a Democrat since the early 1970s.
The only area where Democrats compete on anything resembling an basis is in Clarksville, which has elected Democrats to the state legislature. According to the 2010 census the five largest cities within the district are: Clarksville, Brentwood and Pulaski; the district's basic current configuration dates from 1973, when Tennessee lost a congressional district. Although it was numbered "6th" in the 1970s, it was at this time that a district was formed by combining Clarksville and Williamson County with the eastern suburbs of Memphis and the rural areas in between. Republican Robin Beard represented this area from 1973 to 1983. Tennessee gained a congressional district following the 1980 census. At this time, the district was re-numbered as "7th" and lost its eastern counties to the 4th and new 6th. Following this re-districting, Beard made an unsuccessful U. S. Senate bid, was replaced by former Shelby County Republican Party chair Don Sundquist. Sundquist served through the rest of the 1980s through the 1990 re-districting, which saw the district lose some of its rural counties in favor of Maury County.
In 1994, Sundquist ran for Governor of Tennessee, defeating future governor Phil Bredesen. Sundquist was replaced by Ed Bryant. Bryant served from 1995 until 2002, when the district was gerrymandered by the Democrat-led Tennessee General Assembly to pack the consistently-Republican suburbs of Nashville and Memphis into one district; the result was a district, 200 miles long, but only two miles wide at some points in the Middle Tennessee portion. Following that re-districting, the area chose Brentwood-based state senator Marsha Blackburn, she served from 2003 to 2019. Redistricting after the 2010 census made the district somewhat more compact, restoring a configuration similar to the 1983-2003 lines. In 2018, Blackburn ran for US Senate, defeating former governor Phil Bredesen. In the concurrent election, the district selected former state senator Mark E. Green. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress.
New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
James McCallum (politician)
James McCallum was a Confederate politician who served in the Confederate States Congress during the American Civil War. McCallum was born in Robeson County, North Carolina, moved to Pulaski and practiced law, he served in the Tennessee state legislature from 1861 to 1863 and represented the state in the Second Confederate Congress from 1864 to 1865. The Political Graveyard
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Pulaski is a city and county seat of Giles County, located on the southern border of Tennessee, United States. The population was 7,870 at the 2010 census, it was named to honor the Polish-born American Revolutionary War hero Casimir Pulaski. During early years of Reconstruction, in late 1865, it was the site of Confederate veterans organizing the first chapter of what became known as the Ku Klux Klan, a secret, white supremacist group. In 1870 Martin Methodist College was founded in Pulaski for white students in the area. Pulaski was founded in 1809. During the American Civil War, the vicinity of Pulaski was the site of a number of skirmishes during the Franklin–Nashville Campaign. Union troops occupied the state from 1862. In 1863, Confederate courier Sam Davis was hanged in Pulaski by the Union Army on suspicion of espionage. In late 1865, during the early days of the Reconstruction Era, the city was the site of founding the first Ku Klux Klan by six Tennessee veterans of the Confederate Army.
John C. Lester, John B. Kennedy, James R. Crowe, Frank O. McCord, Richard R. Reed, J. Calvin Jones established the KKK in Pulaski on December 25, 1865, creating rules for a secret white society; the white insurgents were determined to maintain white supremacy and to fight secretly against the political advancement of freedmen and of sympathetic whites. Chapter of the KKK were organized in other parts of the state and the South. KKK members attacked their victims at night, to increase the intimidation of threats and assaults. Other incidents of racial violence against blacks took place; the Pulaski riot was a race riot initiated by whites against blacks that occurred in Pulaski in the summer of 1867. Martin Methodist College was founded in Pulaski in 1870. Pulaski is located in central Giles County at 35°11′45″N 87°2′4″W; the downtown area is on the north side of Richland Creek, a south-flowing tributary of the Elk River. U. S. Route 31 passes through the center of Pulaski as First Street, leading north 30 miles to Columbia and southeast 19 miles to Ardmore at the Alabama border.
U. S. Route 31 Alternate leaves U. S. 31 in the north part of Pulaski and heads northeast 23 miles to Lewisburg. U. S. Route 64 passes south of Pulaski on a bypass route. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,871 people, 3,455 households, 2,038 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,200.8 people per square mile. There were 3,888 housing units at an average density of 593.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.40% White, 27.06% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 3,455 households out of which 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.7% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families. 37.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.82. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,459, the median income for a family was $37,219. Males had a median income of $30,400 versus $21,714 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,751. About 12.7% of families and 18.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.1% of those under age 18 and 17.1% of those age 65 or over. Abernathy Field is a public-use airport owned by the City of Giles County, it is located three nautical miles southwest of the central business district of Pulaski. The local newspaper is the Pulaski Citizen. Pulaski is home to Giles County High School and Richland High School.
Pulaski is home to Tennessee College of Applied Technology-Pulaski and to Martin Methodist College. Pulaski is home of the semi-annual Diana Singing, sponsored by the Churches of Christ; the event attracts over 3,000 people to the town in September. Walter Beech, pioneer aviator, founder of Beech Aircraft and Travel Air Manufacturing Bobby Gordon, football player John Crowe Ransom, winner of National Book Award for poetry Tyler Smith, basketball player, University of Tennessee.