Wilhelm Mohnke was one of the original members of the SS-Staff Guard "Berlin" formed in March 1933. From those ranks, Mohnke rose to become one of Adolf Hitler's last remaining generals, he joined the Nazi Party in September 1931. With the SS Division Leibstandarte, Mohnke participated in the fighting in France and the Balkans, he was appointed to command a regiment in the SS Division Hitlerjugend in 1943. He led the unit in the Battle for Caen, receiving the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 11 July 1944. Mohnke was given command of his original division, the Leibstandarte, during the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. During the Battle of Berlin, Mohnke commanded the Kampfgruppe Mohnke and was charged with defending the Berlin government district, including the Reich Chancellery and the Reichstag, he was investigated after the war for war crimes, including allegations that he was responsible for the murder of prisoners in France in 1940, Normandy in June 1944 and Belgium in December 1944.
He was never charged and died in 2001, aged 90. Mohnke was born in Lübeck on 15 March 1911, his father, who shared his name with his son, was a cabinetmaker. After his father's death, he went to work for a glass and porcelain manufacturer reaching a management position, he held a degree in economics. Mohnke joined the Nazi Party with number 649,684 on 1 September 1931. Shortly thereafter, he joined the SS with number 15,541. Mohnke began with the rank of SS-Mann. After Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, SS Headquarters in Berlin requested that all SS regiments submit three names of their best soldiers for transfer to a personal guard unit for Hitler. Mohnke was selected for the unit in March 1933, he was assigned to SS-Stabswache Berlin, which established its first guard at the original Reich Chancellery. By August, Mohnke was one of two company commanders. In September, the unit became known as the SS-Sonderkommando Berlin after the training units SS-Sonderkommando Zossen and SS-Sonderkommando Jüterbog merged with it under Dietrich's command.
With the merger, Mohnke was transferred to given command of the 3rd Company. Mohnke took part in the Polish Campaign in September, 1939, he was recovered in the hospital in Prague. For this, Mohnke received the Wound Badge in Black, he was awarded the Iron Cross, Second Class on 29 September 1939 and the Iron Cross, First Class on 8 November 1939. Mohnke led the 5th company of the 2nd Battalion of the Infanterie-Regiment Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, at the outset of the Battle of France in 1940, he took command of the 2nd Battalion on 28 May. It was around this time that Mohnke was involved in the murder of 80 British and French prisoners of war near Wormhoudt. Mohnke was never brought to trial over these allegations, when the case was reopened in 1988, a German prosecutor came to the conclusion there was insufficient evidence to bring charges; the case resurfaced once again in late 1993 when it became evident that the British government had not revealed some pertinent files from its archives during the earlier investigation.
However, nothing substantial came from this either. He commanded the 2nd Battalion during the Balkans campaign, where he suffered a severe leg wound in a Yugoslavian air attack on 6 April 1941, the first day of the campaign, it was the decision of the medics that his leg would need to be amputated. His wound was so serious. On 26 December 1941, while still recuperating, Mohnke was awarded the German Cross in Gold. Mohnke returned to active service in 1942. On 1 September 1943, 16,000 new recruits of the Hitlerjugend born in 1926 took part in the formation of the SS Division Hitlerjugend, while the senior NCOs and officers were veterans of the Eastern Front. SS-Obersturmbannführer Mohnke was given command of the 26th SS Panzergrenadier Regiment, the second regiment formed in the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend. Mohnke was implicated in the killing of 35 Canadian prisoners at Fontenay-le-Pesnel, though he never faced a trial, owing to lack of conclusive proof of his involvement. Mohnke told historian Fischer that, at times, he had to take strong painkillers, such as morphine, due to the severe pain in his shortened right leg but whether these things affected his decision making process is not known.
What is known is that his physical health affected his deployment. Mohnke was commander of the Leibstandarte's replacement battalion from March 1942 till May 1943. Being "free enough from pain", SS-Obersturmbannführer Kurt Meyer talked him into taking a command with the 12th SS Panzer Division; this led to commanding the 26th SS Pz-Gren Rgt on 15 September 1943. The structure of the 26th SS Panzergrenadier Regiment was somewhat unconventional. Although as a whole the regiment was labeled as Panzergrenadiers, the III Battalion was the only battalion in the regiment, armored, it did, have an additional company, designated the 15th Reconnaissance Company, outfitted with armored cars. This company helped make the 26th SS Panzergrenadier Regiment a unique fighting force. While the 12th SS Panzer Division was fighting to keep the Falaise pocket open, in which the division suffered an estimated 40%-50% casualties, Mohnke withdrew his Kampfgruppe east of the river Dives; as the situation in Normandy deteriorated for Germany and the front was pushed back to the Seine, Mohnke was one of the few to lead organized resistance on the western b
The Wormhoudt massacre was the mass murder of 80 British and French POWs by Waffen-SS soldiers from the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler during the Battle of France in May 1940. As part of the British Expeditionary Force's retreat to Dunkirk, the 144th Infantry Brigade of the 48th Infantry Division was holding the road that runs southward from Bergues through Wormhoudt and Hazebrouck to delay the German advance. British troops at Wormhoudt were overrun by advancing German forces. Having exhausted their ammunition supplies, the troops at this point surrendered assuming that they would be taken prisoner according to the Geneva Convention. After their surrender, a large group of soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment, 4th Battalion Cheshire Regiment, gunners of the 210 Battery, 53rd Anti-Tank Regiment, Royal Artillery as well as French soldiers in charge of a military depot were taken to a barn in La Plaine au Bois near Wormhout and Esquelbecq on 28 May 1940.
The Allied troops had become alarmed at the brutal conduct of the SS soldiers en route to the barn, which included the shooting of a number of wounded stragglers. On arrival at the barn the most senior British officer in the group, Captain James Lynn-Allen, protested but was rebuked by an SS soldier; when there were nearly 100 men inside the small barn, soldiers from the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, threw stick-grenades into the building, killing many POWs, including Charles Orton, a captain in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment. The grenades failed to kill everyone due to the bravery of two British NCOs, Sergeant Stanley Moore and CSM Augustus Jennings, who hurled themselves on top of the grenades using their bodies to suppress the force of the explosion and shield their comrades from the blast. Upon realising this, the SS called for two groups of five to come out; the men were shot. Despite being shot, Gunner Brian Fahey unknown to the SS men at the time. Concluding that these methods were too slow, the SS troopers fired into the barn with their weapons.
Several British prisoners were able to escape. Captain Lynn-Allen died although he enabled Private Bert Evans to escape. A total of 80 men were killed. While 15 more were wounded, their wounds were so severe that within 48 hours all but six of them had died. After a couple of days and several others were found by regular German Army medics and taken to hospital, their wounds were treated. The Waffen-SS division, Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler was under the overall command of Oberstgruppenführer Sepp Dietrich, it was alleged from post-war testimony that it was soldiers of the 2nd Battalion under the command of Hauptsturmführer Wilhelm Mohnke that carried out the atrocity. However, Mohnke never had to face a trial for any alleged part in the war crimes based on these hors de combat killings. Mohnke denied the accusations against him, telling historian Thomas Fischer, "I issued no orders not to take English prisoners or to execute prisoners." Mohnke died in August 2001. In 1947, a number of survivors of the massacre returned to the scene accompanied by officials from the War Crimes Interrogation Unit, following investigations undertaken by the office of the Judge Advocate General.
It proved impossible to construct a sufficiently strong case to bring prosecutions. A number of alleged key witnesses were reported to have died on the Eastern Front, while others invoked the "SS Oath" and refused to talk. In 1988, after a campaign by British MP Jeff Rooker, the case was reopened but a German prosecutor came to the conclusion that there was insufficient evidence to bring charges; the incident was re-enacted in the 2004 BBC television docudrama Dunkirk. The 2004 German film Downfall was criticized by author Giles MacDonogh upon release for its sympathetic portrayal of Wilhelm Mohnke, who many feel was responsible, directly or indirectly for the massacre. List of massacres in France Le Paradis massacre List of war crimes Cunliffe, Marcus. History of the Royal Warwickshire Regiment 1919-1955. London: William Clowes & Sons. Fischer, Thomas. Soldiers of the Leibstandarte. J. J. Fedorowicz Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-0921991915. Weale, Adrian; the SS: A New History. London: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408703045.
Wormhoudt Massacre Written Q&A in Hansard 13 February 1989 Wormhoudt Massacre Written Q&A in Hansard 13 December 1990 Wormhoudt, May 1940 Wormhoudt Massacre Site Wormhoudt survivor Massacre on The Road to Dunkirk. By Leslie Aitkin. ISBN 0-583-12938-2 "the forgotten massacre- Esquelbecq/Wormhout/Ledringhem - 28 mai 1940" by Guy ROMMELAERE-2002 Warwick Printing Company Ltd IWM Interview with survivor Alfred Tombs IWM Interview with survivor George West
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News; the Financial Times has over 740,000 digital subscribers. On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal; the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the named Financial News: at the time it was cheaper to print on unbleached paper, but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent; the Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage, it established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed in Frankfurt. Since with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Africa, it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the FT launched a U. S. edition, printed in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and Washington, D.
C. although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg, its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years, it closed on 7 December 2012. The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual"Financial Times" and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 19 % of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal. Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform. In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, digital and events. In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.
This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in sev
History of Germany
The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul, which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conquered the other West Germanic tribes; when the Frankish Empire was divided among Charles the Great's heirs in 843, the eastern part became East Francia. In 962, Otto I became the first Holy Roman Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the medieval German state. In the Late Middle Ages, the regional dukes and bishops gained power at the expense of the emperors. Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation against the Catholic Church after 1517, as the northern states became Protestant, while the southern states remained Catholic.
The two parts of the Holy Roman Empire clashed in the Thirty Years' War, ruinous to the twenty million civilians living in both parts. The Thirty Years' War brought tremendous destruction to Germany. 1648 marked the effective end of the Holy Roman Empire and the beginning of the modern nation-state system, with Germany divided into numerous independent states, such as Prussia, Saxony and other states, which controlled land outside of the area considered as "Germany". After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from 1803–1815, feudalism fell away and liberalism and nationalism clashed with reaction; the German revolutions of 1848–49 failed. The Industrial Revolution modernized the German economy, led to the rapid growth of cities and to the emergence of the socialist movement in Germany. Prussia, with its capital Berlin, grew in power. German universities became world-class centers for science and humanities, while music and art flourished; the unification of Germany was achieved under the leadership of the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with the formation of the German Empire in 1871 which solved the Kleindeutsche Lösung, the small Germany solution, or Großdeutsche Lösung, the greater Germany solution, the former prevailing.
The new Reichstag, an elected parliament, had only a limited role in the imperial government. Germany joined the other powers in colonial expansion in the Pacific. By 1900, Germany was the dominant power on the European continent and its expanding industry had surpassed Britain's, while provoking it in a naval arms race. Germany led the Central Powers in World War I against France, Great Britain and the United States. Defeated and occupied, Germany was forced to pay war reparations by the Treaty of Versailles and was stripped of its colonies as well as of home territory to be ceded to Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland; the German Revolution of 1918–19 put an end to the federal constitutional monarchy, which resulted in the establishment of the Weimar Republic, an unstable parliamentary democracy. In the early 1930s, the worldwide Great Depression hit Germany hard, as unemployment soared and people lost confidence in the government. In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany.
The Nazi Party began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hitler established a totalitarian regime. Beginning in the late 1930s, Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if they were not met. First came the remilitarization of the Rhineland in 1936, the annexing of Austria in the Anschluss and parts of Czechoslovakia with the Munich Agreement in 1938. On 1 September 1939, Germany initiated World War II in Europe with the invasion of Poland. After forming a pact with the Soviet Union in 1939, Hitler and Stalin divided Eastern Europe. After a "Phoney War" in spring 1940, the Germans swept Denmark and Norway, the Low Countries and France, giving Germany control of nearly all of Western Europe. Hitler invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the Nazi regime. In Germany, but predominantly in the German-occupied areas, the systematic genocide program known as The Holocaust killed 11 million including Jews, German dissidents, disabled people, Romanies and others.
In 1942, the German invasion of the Soviet Union faltered, after the United States had entered the war, Britain became the base for massive Anglo-American bombings of German cities. Germany fought the war on multiple fronts through 1942–1944, however following the Allied invasion of Normandy, the German Army was pushed back on all fronts until the final collapse in May 1945. Under occupation by the Allies, German territories were split up, Austria was again made a separate country, denazification took place, the Cold War resulted in the division of the country into democratic West Germany and communist East Germany. Millions of ethnic Germans were deported or fled from Communist areas into West Germany, which experienced rapid economic expansion, became the dominant economy in Western Europe. West Germany was rearmed in the 1950s under the auspices of NATO, but without access to nuclear weapons; the Franco-German friendship became the basis for the political integration of Western Europe in the European Union.
In 1989, the Berlin Wall was destroye
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Downfall (2004 film)
Downfall is a 2004 historical war drama film directed by Oliver Hirschbiegel from a screenplay by its producer, Bernd Eichinger. The film stars Bruno Ganz, Alexandra Maria Lara, Corinna Harfouch, Ulrich Matthes, Juliane Köhler, Heino Ferch, Christian Berkel, Matthias Habich, Thomas Kretschmann, it is set during the Battle of Berlin in World War II, when Germany is on the verge of defeat, depicts the final days of Adolf Hitler. It is based on the books Inside Hitler's Bunker by historian Joachim Fest and Until the Final Hour by Hitler's former private secretary Traudl Junge, among other accounts of the period. Principal photography took place from September to November 2003, on location in Berlin, in Saint Petersburg, Russia; as the film is set in and around the Führerbunker, Hirschbiegel used eyewitness accounts, survivors' memoirs, other historical sources during production to reconstruct the look and atmosphere of 1940s Berlin. The film premiered at the Toronto Film Festival on 14 September 2004.
It was, in part, controversial with audiences for showing the human side of Hitler and its portrayal of members of the Third Reich. It received a wide theatrical release in Germany under its production company Constantin Film; the film grossed over $92 million, received favourable reviews from critics, was nominated for Best Foreign Language Film at the 77th Academy Awards. Scenes from the film, such as the scene where Hitler displays rage after Felix Steiner fails to obey his orders, spawned a series of Internet memes. In November 1942, at the Wolf's Lair in East Prussia, Chancellor of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler selects Traudl Junge as his personal secretary. Three years the Red Army has pushed back Germany's advance and surrounded Berlin. On Hitler's 56th birthday, the Red Army begins shelling Berlin's city centre. Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler tries to persuade Hitler to leave Berlin. Himmler leaves to negotiate terms with the Western Allies in secret. Himmler's adjutant Hermann Fegelein attempts to persuade Hitler to flee, but Hitler insists that he will win or die in Berlin.
Dr. Ernst-Günther Schenck is ordered to leave Berlin per Operation Clausewitz, though he persuades an SS general to let him stay in Berlin to treat the injured. In the streets, Hitler Youth child soldier Peter Kranz's father approaches Peter's unit and tries persuading him to leave. Peter, who destroyed two enemy tanks and will soon be awarded a medal by Hitler, calls his father a coward and runs away. At a meeting in the Führerbunker, Hitler forbids the outnumbered 9th Army to retreat, ordering SS commander Felix Steiner's units to mount a counter-attack; the generals find the orders irrational. Above ground, Hitler awards Peter his medal. In his office, Hitler talks to Minister of Armaments Albert Speer about his scorched earth policy. Speer is concerned of the destruction of German infrastructure, but Hitler believes the German people left behind are weak and deserve death. Meanwhile, Hitler's companion Eva Braun holds a party in the Reich Chancellery. Fegelein tries persuading Eva, his sister-in-law, to leave Berlin with Hitler, but she dismisses him.
Artillery fire breaks up the party. On the battlefield, General Helmuth Weidling is informed he will be executed for ordering a retreat. Weidling comes to the Führerbunker to clear himself, his action impresses Hitler. At another meeting, Hitler learns Steiner did not attack. Hitler becomes enraged at what he saw as betrayal, stating that everyone has failed him and denounces his generals as cowards and traitors, before acknowledging that the war is lost, but that he would rather commit suicide than leave Berlin. Schenck witnesses mass civilian executions as supposed traitors. Hitler receives a message from Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring requesting state leadership. Hitler declares ordering his arrest. Speer admits to Hitler that he has defied his orders. Hitler, does not punish Speer who decides to leave Berlin. Peter's unit is defeated and he runs back to his parents. Hitler imagines more ways for Germany to turn the tide. At dinner, Hitler learns of Himmler's secret negotiations and orders his execution and finds out that Fegelein has deserted Berlin, having him executed despite Eva's pleas.
SS physician Ernst-Robert Grawitz asks Hitler's permission to evacuate for fear of Allied reprisal. Hitler refuses, leading Grawitz to kill his family; the Soviets continue their advance, Berlin's supplies run low, German morale plummets. Hitler hopes. After midnight, Hitler dictates his last will and testament before marrying Eva; the following morning, Hitler learns that the 12th Army can not relieve Berlin. Refusing surrender, Hitler plans his death, he administers poison to his dog Blondi, bids farewell to the bunker staff, commits suicide with Eva. The two are cremated in the Chancellery garden. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels assumes Chancellorship. General Hans Krebs fails to negotiate a conditional surrender with Soviet General Vasily Chuikov. Goebbels declares. Goebbels' wife Magda poisons her six children before committing suicide with Goebbels. Many government and military officials commit suicide after learning of Germany's defeat. Peter discovers. Junge tries to flee the city.
J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing
J. J. Fedorowicz Publishing is a Canadian publishing house that specialises in literature on the German armed forces of the World War II era, its authors are both popular history writers such as Paul Carell and Franz Kurowski, along with the war-time veterans, including Kurt Meyer of the SS Division Hitlerjugend and Otto Weidinger of the SS Division Das Reich. The press has received praise from North American and German writers for professionally produced text and picture books. J. J. Fedorowicz has been profiled by the American historians Ronald Smelser and Edward J. Davies in their 2006 work The Myth of the Eastern Front, where they describe Fedorowicz as a leading press of war-romancing literature and criticise it for providing a platform for authors who present an uncritical and ahistorical portrayal of the German war effort during the Soviet-German war of 1941–1945. Fedorowicz Publishing was the first North American press to translate works by the German author Franz Kurowski, providing laudatory and fictionalised wartime chronicles of German units and their highly-decorated personnel.
In early 1990s, Fedorowicz released Kurowski's two popular works, Panzer Aces and Infantry Aces, in 1992 and 1994, respectively. The first two books were followed up by Panzer Aces II, Panzer Aces III, Luftwaffe Aces and similar works. In addition to Kurowski, the publishing house printed works by authors such as Patrick Agte, former Nazi propagandist Paul Carell and Marc Rikmenspoel, a leading apologist for the Waffen-SS, it brought to the English-speaking audiences multiple works by former Waffen-SS members, such as Hubert Meyer, Rudolf Lehmann, Kurt "Panzer" Meyer, Otto Weidinger, Karl Ullrich, among others. Their publications included memoirs by former Wehrmacht Heer personnel, such as Otto Carius, a famous "panzer ace", Helmuth Spaeter of the Division Grossdeutschland. Many of the Fedorowicz titles were subsequently made available to a wider audience by mass market and specialty publishers such as Ballantine Books and Stackpole Books. Historians Ronald Smelser and Edward J. Davies in their work The Myth of the Eastern Front describe J.
J. Fedorowicz as the leading publisher of war-romancing literature dedicated to the portrayal of the German war effort on the Eastern Front; the books include multiple photographs and are accompanied by cover art that, as with Kurowski's Panzer Aces series, "evokes heroism and might of the German soldier and his weapons". According to The Myth of the Eastern Front, J. J. Fedorowicz has played an important role in publicising the works of German World War II veterans, such as Otto Carius, alongside the authors who the book describes as "gurus". In Smelser and Davies's definition, the gurus are writers who specialise in the Wehrmacht and, in particular, the Waffen-SS and are popular among the readers who "romanticise" the Eastern Front, These authors present an uncritical and ahistorical portrayal of the military and paramilitary formations of Nazi Germany, in stark contrast to the realities of the war of conquest and racial annihilation; the book describes Fedorowicz's web site as "the heart of the romancing ethos", among other similar publishers such as Schiffer Publishing and Merriam Press: In some cases, as their appeal grows, they graduate up the scale of publishing importance from self-publishing to the myriad small presses, to the top to the Fedorowicz publishing house.
To be published through Fedorowicz is to have arrived. In contrast, the press has won praise from its authors for its portrayal of the German military. In a preface to the Fedorowicz translation of his Tigers in the Mud, Carius thanks the publisher for enabling him and other German authors to reach a broader audience in the English-speaking world, he writes: Through these publications, the defamation of the German soldier in film and the press has been countered and the picture of the Wehrmacht has been a more objective one by means of the help offered by many sources. Smelser and Davies conclude that Fedorowicz's position on the former members of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS hues to that of Carius, who condemns the deserters and traitors, along with "lies" and false "claims" about the German soldier. "The Fedorowicz link provides romancers with reaffirmation of their sentiments toward the German soldiers and their field commanders", the book finds. Chris Evans, history editor at Stackpole Books, writes in an introduction to one of the Fedorowicz books reissued by Stackpole: "J.
J. Fedorowicz has a well earned reputation for publishing exceptionally high quality books on German World War II subjects". Author Mark Healy in his work Zitadelle: The German Offensive Against the Kursk Salient 4–17 July 1943 refers to Fedorowicz's publications on the Battle of Kursk as "remarkable text and photo books", highlighting the two volume works by Restayn and Moller, which contain new photographs and present an "unforgettable image of the scale of the battle". Favorably comparing Fedorowicz with Schiffer Publishing, author George Forty notes that the company has a "worldwide reputation for the excellences in its military literature". Sample publications include: Patrick Agte: Michael Wittmann and the Tiger Commanders of the Leibstandarte Paul Carell: Hitler moves East, 1941–1943 Willi Fey: Armor battles of the Waffen-SS, 1943-45 Otto Kumm: Prinz Eugen: The History of the 7. SS-Mountain Division "Prinz Eugen" Franz Kurowski: Panzer Aces Rudolf Lehmann: The Leibstandarte Hubert Meyer: History of the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend Kurt Meyer: Grenadiers Marc Rikmenspoel: Soldiers of the Waffen-SS: Many Nations, One Motto Peter Strassner: European Volunteers: t