Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Jonathan Edwards College
Jonathan Edwards College is a residential college at Yale University. It is named for a 1720 graduate of Yale College. Opened to undergraduates in 1933, JE is one of the original eight residential colleges donated by Edward Harkness, it is among the smallest of Yale's residential colleges, by both footprint and undergraduate membership. JE's residential quadrangle was the first to be completed in Yale's residential college system; because its design employed buildings finished before the Residential College Plan was adopted, it is stylistically eclectic, but in the Collegiate Gothic style. In 1930, Yale President James Rowland Angell announced a "Quadrangle Plan" for Yale College, establishing small collegiate communities in the style of Oxford and Cambridge in order to foster more social intimacy among students and faculty, relieve dormitory overcrowding, reduce the influence of on-campus fraternities and societies. Professor Robert Dudley French was one of the earliest advocates of this plan and visited Oxford and Cambridge to study aspects of their college systems.
In 1930, Angell appointed him Master of Jonathan Edwards College, the first such appointment at Yale. French subsequently selected eight members of the faculty to be the first fellows of the college; these men were chosen because they combined distinction in both teaching and scholarship, because of their individuality and diversity of interests. James Gamble Rogers, Yale's campus planner and architect of eight of the residential colleges, selected the site for JE to incorporate two dormitories he had designed for Yale College. Construction on these buildings was completed in 1932, they were made to harmonize with the Rogers' nearby Memorial Quadrangle. In September 1933, JE opened to its first class of students. JE's early years saw a flourishing of political activity among students. In 1934 the Yale Political Union was founded in the college. During this time college attracted students who would become noted public figures, including Winthrop Rockefeller, Stanley Rogers Resor, McGeorge Bundy, John Lindsay, many of whom served as officers of the Political Union.
During World War II, JE was one of three residential colleges which remained open to civilian students. During this time, it became a significant site of intelligence community activity. Master French, who remained at the college through 1953, his successor, William Dunham, were conduits for undergraduate recruitment into intelligence positions. Fellow and future dean Joseph Curtiss was extensively involved in CIA reconnaissance projects, including one known as the "Yale Library Project."Until the university abolished the practice 1962 and placed students in the colleges by lottery, the college admitted students by application after completion of their freshman year. During the 1960s, Master Beekman Cannon deepened a tradition of performing arts in the college, hosting operas, plays and musical satire; the college enforced a coat and tie dress code for evening meals in the dining hall, curfews and parietal rules in the dormitories. These rules were relaxed after the advent of co-education in Yale College in 1969.
Jonathan Edwards matriculated at Yale College in 1716 near his 13th birthday. Four years he graduated as valedictorian of his class of about twenty; this was at a time when entrance into either Harvard or Yale required ability in Latin and Hebrew. Edwards received his Masters of Arts from Yale in 1722. In 1724, he returned to the college as a tutor respected for his theological orthodoxy, anti-Arminianism, devotion to Yale. During his Yale teaching he began to write and recite a litany of self-improving resolutions, which became a lifelong practice. After leaving Yale in 1726, he went on to serve a number of pulpits, publish read sermons and essays, lead the Great Awakening. Late in his life he presided as its third president. In 1938, in part due to the naming of the college, descendants of Edwards donated his papers to Yale. Today, The Jonathan Edwards Center contains many of these original writings; the dominant architectural style of JE is Gothic Revival, the campus consists of two- to four-story buildings surrounding an open courtyard.
It is the only one of James Gamble Rogers' eight colleges to blend pre-existing buildings. Less ornate than the adjacent Memorial Quadrangle, JE became the template for Yale's gothic residential projects. JE's immediate forerunner is in the York-Library dormitory, a short, L-shaped building completed in 1924 to complement the Memorial Quadrangle and complete the Gothic corridor along Library Street; when the college plan was approved several years Rogers reconfigured and expanded the dormitory, renaming its wings as Dickinson Hall and Wheelock Hall after early alumni who were the founding presidents of Princeton and Dartmouth. The construction of the dormitories required the demolition of Kent Chemical Laboratory, replaced with Kent Hall, the addition of a dining hall and Head's house that enclosed the quadrangle. JE's final building, Weir Hall, was incorporated into the college several decades into the college's tenure, its construction began in 1911 when George Douglas Miller decided to build a dormitory for Skull and Bones.
Though Miller salvaged the castellated towers of Alumni Hall, a campus building constructed in 1851, the new dormitory was never completed and was purchased by the university in 1912. It served as home to Yale's Department of Architecture from 1924 until 1965, when it was converted to a residential and library building for JE. Though the basic architectural program of the college has remained unchanged sinc
Cardiff High School
Cardiff High School is a comprehensive school in the Cyncoed area of Cardiff, Wales. Stephen Jones has been Headteacher since 2011, it has been rated as Excellent for current performance and Excellent for prospects for improvement by Estyn the school achieved its highest results in 2016 with 92% of students achieving Level 2+ and a 100% achieving at least 5 GCSEs. Although the school was established in its current form in 1970, its origins go back much further to the foundations of the three schools that merged to form the present school. City of Cardiff High School for Girls was opened in January 1895 in the Parade, with Mary Collin as its first headmistress, City of Cardiff High School for Boys was opened in September 1898 in Newport Road, Cardiff. Both were created under the terms of the Welsh Intermediate Education Act 1889 and therefore were called Cardiff Intermediate School for Girls and Cardiff Intermediate School for Boys respectively. From 1905, secondary school education in Cardiff was provided through a system of Municipal Secondary Schools that were organised under the Education Act 1902.
Although the Intermediate Schools were both rebranded as high schools in 1911 they suffered in comparison with the municipal secondary schools because of their entrance examinations and their fees after the municipal secondary schools abolished fees in 1924. The working-class intake of the schools was limited because parents were deterred by the fees, only made up by scholarships and bursaries, by the regime and curriculum of the grammar school; when the United Kingdom Government passed the Education Act 1944, the Tripartite System was established, dividing secondary schools into three categories, the grammar school, the secondary technical school and the secondary modern school. The grammar school was deemed the place of education for the academically gifted, the high schools were selected to become the grammar schools; the boys' school had from an early stage suffered with a constricted site on Newport Road. Within three years of its foundation, a new site acquired in 1901 on the corner of Corbett Road and Park Place, but the school stayed on its original site, with a new school opened in 1910 and further extensions in 1931–32.
The school was unified on a single site in 1973. The Newport Road site of the former High School was sold to fund an extension to Willows High School in Tremorfa, Cardiff; the accommodation in 1973 consisted of the old Ty Celyn School Llandennis Road, with a new building attached, designed for six form entry. A considerable amount of internal alteration has been carried out on the original building. An extension was completed in December 2013. In 2014, the Sixth Form Centre to Ty Celyn and was renovated to provide a designated centre for sixth form students. TY Celyn houses the Sixth Form Achievement Team, including Head of School, Achievement Leaders, UCAS co-ordinator and Sixth Form administrator as well as providing study facilities and relaxation space for sixth form students. Cardiff High School became a seven form entry school in September 1998, when a third feeder primary school, Roath Park, was added to the two existing feeder schools and Rhydypenau. In 2011, Marlborough Primary was added as a fourth feeder school as the school increased to an eight form intake.
As of 2016, it has a total pupil roll of 1635. The school enjoys an high level of parental interest and support; the establishment of a new Cardiff High Partnership with parents in 1998 both built on the strong, existing Parents' Association links, launched new initiatives, including a covenant scheme. It expanded the range of educational and fundraising activities. According to the latest inspection report by Estyn, the school is rated as Excellent and,'the standards achieved by pupils are very high and well above expectations.' Cardiff High School is a Green Category school and in Standards Group 1. It was ranked Number 1 in the most recent Real Schools Guide. In 2016, GCSE and A level results were record breaking for the school and placed Cardiff High School as the top achieving school in both the city and across all of Wales for the third year running based on the number of pupils achieving 5 A*-C grades including Mathematics and English; the school is equipped to cater for eight form entry.
Now, all departments are suited into adjacent rooms. The school has the following: 11 Science labs 5 Design & Technology rooms 5 IT rooms A Home Economics suite including Catering kitchen and Textile rooms A Sports Hall, Dance Studio, Conditioning Suite, 3G pitch and all-weather pitch A Learning Resources Centre A creative area incorporating recording studio, IT room, music rooms Theatre study facilities A hall for performance Learning Hub equipped with iPads with tiered seating Outdoor Classroom Nurture Room Ty Celyn 6th Form Centre A dining hall and canteen Facilities for disabled pupils Self Contained Conference Suite The school has been criticised for its use of a traditional education program. Despite a growing change among other Cardiff-based schools for a more modern/progressive education system, Cardiff high has stuck with a class
Cornell University Press
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage. It was first established in 1869 but inactive from 1884 to 1930, making it the first university publishing enterprise in the United States; the press was established in the College of the Mechanic Arts because engineers knew more about running steam-powered printing presses than literature professors. Since its inception, the press has offered work-study financial aid: students with previous training in the printing trades were paid for typesetting and running the presses that printed textbooks, pamphlets, a weekly student journal, official university publications. Today, the press is one of the country's largest university presses, it produces 150 nonfiction titles each year in various disciplines, including anthropology, Asian studies, biological sciences, history, industrial relations, literary criticism and theory, natural history, philosophy and international relations, veterinary science, women's studies.
Although the press has been subsidized by the university for most of its history, it is now dependent on book sales to finance its operations. In 2010, the Mellon Foundation, whose President Don Michael Randel is a former Cornell Provost, awarded to the press a $50,000 grant to explore new business models for publishing scholarly works in low-demand humanities subject areas. With this grant, a book series was published titled "Signale: Modern German Letters and Thoughts." Only 500 hard copies of each book in the series will be printed, with extra copies manufactured on demand once the original supply is depleted. Category:Cornell University Press books Cornell University Press Online
Northeastern University is a private research university in Boston, established in 1898. It is categorized as an R1 institution by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education; the university offers undergraduate and graduate programs on its main campus in the Fenway-Kenmore, South End, Back Bay neighborhoods of Boston. The university has satellite campuses in Charlotte, North Carolina. Northeastern purchased the New College of the Humanities in London and plans to open an additional campus in Vancouver, Canada; the university's enrollment is 18,000 undergraduate students and 8,000 graduate students. Northeastern features a cooperative education program, more known as "co-op", that integrates classroom study with professional experience and contains over 3,100 partners across all seven continents; the program has been a key part of Northeastern's curriculum of experiential learning for more than a hundred years and is one of the largest co-op/internship programs in the world.
While it is not required for students of all academic disciplines to participate in the co-op program, participation is nearly universal among undergraduate students as it helps distinguish their university experience from that of other universities. Northeastern is ranked 1st on the "Best Schools for Internships" list by the Princeton Review and has ranked in the top five for over a decade. Northeastern has a comprehensive study abroad program that spans more than 170 universities and colleges. Northeastern is a large residential university. Most students choose to live on campus but upperclassmen have the option to live off campus. More than 75% of Northeastern students receive some form of financial aid. In the 2017–18 school year, the university offered $266.58 million in grant and scholarship assistance. The university's sports teams, the Northeastern Huskies, compete in NCAA Division I as members of the Colonial Athletic Association in 18 varsity sports; the men's and women's hockey teams compete in Hockey East, while the men's and women's rowing teams compete in the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges and Eastern Association of Women's Rowing Colleges, respectively.
Men's Track and Field has won the CAA back to back years in 2015 and 2016. In 2013, men's basketball won its first CAA regular season championship, men's soccer won the CAA title for the first time, women's ice hockey won a record 16th Beanpot championship; the Northeastern men's hockey team won the 2018 and 2019 Beanpot beating out Boston University, Boston College, Harvard. The Evening Institute for Younger Men, located at the Huntington Avenue YMCA, held its first class on October 3, 1898, starting what would transform into Northeastern University over the course of four decades; the School of Law was formally established that year with the assistance of an Advisory Committee, consisting of Dean James Barr Ames of the Harvard University School of Law, Dean Samuel Bennett of the Boston University School of Law, Judge James R. Dunbar. In 1903, the first Automobile Engineering School in the country was established followed by the School of Commerce and Finance in 1907. Day classes began in 1909.
In 1916, a bill was introduced into the Massachusetts Legislature to incorporate the institute as Northeastern College. After considerable debate and investigation, it was passed in March 1916. On March 30, 1917, Frank Palmer Speare was inaugurated as the new College's first President. Five years the school changed its name to Northeastern University to better reflect the increasing depth of its instruction. In March 1923, the University secured general degree-granting power from the Legislature, with the exception of the A. B. the S. B. and the medical degrees. The College of Liberal Arts was added in 1935. Two years the Northeastern University Corporation was established, with a board of trustees composed of 31 University members and 8 from the YMCA. In 1948 Northeastern separated itself from the YMCA. Following World War II Northeastern began admitting women. During the postwar educational boom, the University created the College of Education, University College, the Colleges of Pharmacy and Nursing.
The College of Criminal Justice followed the College of Computer Science. By the early 1980s the one-time night commuter school had grown to nearly 50,000 enrollees including all full- and part-time programs at both the undergraduate and graduate level. By 1989–1990 University enrollment had reduced to about 40,000 full, part-time, evening students, in 1990 the first class with more live-on-campus than commuter students was graduated. Following the retirement of President Kenneth Ryder 1989, the University adopted a slow and more thoughtful approach to change, it had been accepting between 7,500 and 10,000 students per year based on applications of about 15,000 to 20,000 with acceptance rates between 50% and 75% depending on the program. Attrition rates were huge, with a 25% freshmen dropout rate and graduation rate below 50%, with only 40% of 5,672 undergraduate full-time day students enrolled in the Fall of 1984 graduating by 1989; when President John Curry left office in 1996 the university population had been systematically reduced to about 25,000.
Incoming President Richard Freeland decided to focus on recruiting the type of students who were graduating as the school's prime demographic. I
Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network is an American cable and satellite television network, created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a nonprofit public service. It televises many proceedings of the United States federal government, as well as other public affairs programming; the C-SPAN network includes the television channels C-SPAN, C-SPAN2, C-SPAN3, the radio station WCSP-FM, a group of websites which provide streaming media and archives of C-SPAN programs. C-SPAN's television channels are available to 100 million cable and satellite households within the United States, while WCSP-FM is broadcast on FM radio in Washington, D. C. and is available throughout the U. S. on SiriusXM via Internet streaming, globally through apps for iOS, BlackBerry, Android devices. The network televises U. S. political events live and "gavel-to-gavel" coverage of the U. S. Congress, as well as occasional proceedings of the Canadian and British Parliaments and other major events worldwide, its coverage of political and policy events is unmoderated, providing the audience with unfiltered information about politics and government.
Non-political coverage includes historical programming, programs dedicated to non-fiction books, interview programs with noteworthy individuals associated with public policy. C-SPAN is a private, non-profit organization funded by its cable and satellite affiliates, it does not have advertisements on any of its networks, radio stations, or websites, nor does it solicit donations or pledges; the network operates independently, neither the cable industry nor Congress has control of its programming content. Brian Lamb, C-SPAN's chairman and former chief executive officer, first conceived the concept of C-SPAN in 1975 while working as the Washington, D. C. bureau chief of the cable industry trade magazine Cablevision. It was a time of rapid growth in the number of cable television channels available in the United States, Lamb envisioned a cable-industry financed nonprofit network for televising sessions of the U. S. Congress and other public affairs event and policy discussions. Lamb shared his idea with several cable executives.
Among them were Bob Rosencrans, who provided $25,000 of initial funding in 1979, John D. Evans, who provided the wiring and access to the headend needed for the distribution of the C-SPAN signal. C-SPAN was launched on March 19, 1979, in time for the first televised session made available by the House of Representatives, beginning with a speech by then-Tennessee representative Al Gore. Upon its debut, only 3.5 million homes were wired for C-SPAN, the network had just three employees. The second C-SPAN channel, C-SPAN2, followed on June 2, 1986 when the U. S. Senate permitted itself to be televised. C-SPAN3, the most recent expansion channel, began full-time operations on January 22, 2001, shows other public policy and government-related live events on weekdays along with weekend historical programming. C-SPAN3 is the successor of a digital channel called C-SPAN Extra, launched in the Washington D. C. area in 1997, televised live and recorded political events from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time Monday through Friday.
C-SPAN Radio began operations on October 9, 1997, covering similar events as the television networks and simulcasting their programming. The station broadcasts on WCSP in Washington, D. C. is available on XM Satellite Radio channel 120 and is streamed live at c-span.org. It was available on Sirius Satellite Radio from 2002 to 2006. Lamb semi-retired in March 2012, coinciding with the channel's 33rd anniversary, gave executive control of the network to his two lieutenants, Rob Kennedy and Susan Swain. On January 12, 2017, the online feed for C-SPAN1 was interrupted and replaced by a feed from the Russian television network RT America for 10 minutes. C-SPAN announced that they were troubleshooting the incident and were "operating under the assumption that it was an internal routing issue." C-SPAN celebrated its 10th anniversary in 1989 with a three-hour retrospective, featuring Lamb recalling the development of the network. The 15th anniversary was commemorated in an unconventional manner as the network facilitated a series of re-enactments of the seven historic Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858, which were televised from August to October 1994, have been rebroadcast from time to time since.
Five years the series American presidents: Life Portraits, which won a Peabody Award, served as a year-long observation of C-SPAN's 20th anniversary. In 2004, C-SPAN celebrated its 25th anniversary, by which time the flagship network was viewed in 86 million homes, C-SPAN2 was in 70 million homes and C-SPAN3 was in eight million homes. On the anniversary date, C-SPAN repeated the first televised hour of floor debate in the House of Representatives from 1979 and, throughout the month, 25th anniversary features included "then and now" segments with journalists who had appeared on C-SPAN during its early years. Included in the 25th anniversary was an essay contest for viewers to write in about how C-SPAN has influenced their life regarding community service. For example, one essay contest winner wrote about how C-SPAN's non-fiction book programming serves as a resource in his charitable mission to record non-fiction audio books for people who are blind. To commemorate 25 years of taking viewer telephone calls, in 2005, C-SPAN had a 25-hour "call-in marathon", from 8:00 pm.
Eastern Time on Friday, October 7, concluding at 9:00 pm. Eastern Time on Saturday, October 8; the network had a viewer essay contest, the winner of, invited to co-host an hour of the broadcast from C-SPAN's Capitol