In Norse mythology, Ginnungagap is the primordial void, mentioned in the Gylfaginning, the Eddaic text recording Norse cosmogony. Ginnunga- is interpreted as deriving from a verb meaning "gape" or "yawn", but no such word occurs in Old Norse except in verse 3 of the Eddic poem "Vǫluspá", "gap var ginnunga", which may be a play on the term. In her edition of the poem, Ursula Dronke suggested it was borrowed from Old High German ginunga, as the term Múspell is believed to have been borrowed from Old High German. An alternative etymology links the ginn- prefix with that found in terms with a sacral meaning, such as ginn-heilagr, ginn-regin and ginn-runa, thus interpreting Ginnungagap as signifying a "magical power-filled space". Ginnungagap appears as the primordial void in the Norse creation account; the Gylfaginning states: Ginnungagap, the Yawning Void... which faced toward the northern quarter, became filled with heaviness, masses of ice and rime, from within, drizzling rain and gusts. The cosmogonic process began.

Scandinavian cartographers from the early 15th century attempted to localise or identify Ginnungagap as a real geographic location from which the creation myth derived. A fragment from a 15th-century Old Norse encyclopedic text entitled Gripla places Ginnungagap between Greenland and Vinland: Now is to be told what lies opposite Greenland, out from the bay, before named: Furdustrandir hight a land. A scholion in a 15th-century manuscript of Adam of Bremen's Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum refers to Ghimmendegop as the Norse word for the abyss in the far north; the 17th-century Icelandic bishop Guðbrandur Thorlaksson used the name Ginnungegap to refer to a narrow body of water the Davis Strait, separating the southern tip of Greenland from Estotelandia, pars America extrema Baffin Island. Ginnungagap is featured in the Marvel Universe, as a void that existed before the formation of the world. In this place were formed entities such as the Elder Gods, Ennead, Frost Giants, Fire Demons and Amatsu-Mikaboshi.

Abyss Chaos Plane Void Dillmann, F. X.. "Ginnungagap" in: Beck, H. Steuer, H. & Timpe, D. Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Volume 12. Berlin: de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016227-X. de Vries, Jan. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Leiden: Brill. Simek, Rudolf. Lexicon der germanischen Mythology. Stuttgart: Alfred Kröner. ISBN 3-520-36802-1. Guðbrandur Thorlaksson's 1606 map of the North Atlantic

Durham Johnston Comprehensive School

Durham Johnston Comprehensive School is a secondary school in Durham, England. Durham Johnston is a 1500-place 11–18 school serving Durham City and communities beyond to the south and west, it is situated on Crossgate Moor, on the A167. Durham Johnston traces its history to the foundation of a county grammar school for girls and boys in Durham City funded by the will of Susan, widow of James Finlay Weir Johnston, in 1901 in South Street. Johnston is a Language College and a lead school for Gifted and Talented education, with full International Status, it is oversubscribed and runs on strict admissions criteria based on students' addresses, managed by the County Council. The local Labour MP, Roberta Blackman-Woods is a governor of the school and was Chair of Governors. Durham Johnston was founded in 1901 with money left to the County Council by Susan, widow of JFW Johnston who died in 1855, he was a pioneering educator, influential in the development of Durham University and the colleges which became Newcastle University.

He worked to bring education to a wide range of people – rich and poor and female – and believed that it should be secular and scientific as well as historical and literary. The first Johnston was, unusually, a mixed grammar technical school until 1918, when a girls’ grammar school was built, now the Durham Gilesgate Sixth Form Centre; the Johnston School opened in 1901 with 13 pupils. They came from a range of backgrounds. James Jefferson and William Potts were the sons of schoolmasters, John Wetherell's father was the manager of the City Swimming Baths. Elizabeth Herbert's father was Lydia Pearson's a signalman. Frances Guthrie was described as ‘orphan’; the first building was in South Street, extended into some former housing and Mr Dean's Stocking Factory. Though the school had a beautiful view it was cold and unsuitable for education. Rebuilding was held up by the second world war but ‘The Johnstonian’ of spring 1948 reported: The old familiar ring with which the words ‘new school’ were uttered by past Johnstonians is changing to a new and incredulous note of hope.

So many annual speech days have been the occasion for references to the inadequacy of the present building, that this year’s announcement that building ought to commence in 1950 was met with qualified applause. It seems too good to be true!' May we respectfully offer two hints to the authorities concerned? First that the consensus of old and present Johnstonians is that the present title of the school should be retained in that it relates to the name of its founder, Professor Johnston. Secondly, that although it is true that hope springs eternal in the human breast it is true that hope deferred maketh the heart sick!’"So the third headmaster of the school, Christopher Storey ended his first prize day speech with the words What the future holds no one can say. The long awaited new building has been promised, but whether it comes about or not the work must and will go on; when the school was begun in 1950 it was described as built on a 22 acre green field site at Crossgate Moor alongside the Great North Road … retaining a view of Durham Cathedral from many of the classrooms.

…. There would be good facilities for physical training ‘so long yearned for by the masters and boys in the present school’ and up to date accommodation for school meals. On the school’s 50th anniversary one of the teachers wrote in the Johnstonian Lest we seem ungrateful to our founder, let us here salute his memory, pay grateful tribute to all those who helped establish the traditions of the school within the walls of the 50 year old building which we have now outgrown; the safe transplanting of those in new ground will be our privilege and duty when we occupy the new school. There were 34 boys in the sixth form. Headmaster Storey’s hope was fulfilled: Now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer! Long years of hopes deferred and overcrowding have made of the proposed new school an elusive will o’the wisp, subject for cynical jest, yet the gleam was pursued and at last shines before us, beacon of the promised land! Moreover, the name of our founder will be retained in the title of ‘The Johnston Grammar Technical School’.

Durham Johnston school now is different. The Johnston community as it is now was put together after 1979 when grammar schools in County Durham were abolished; the Modern Schools in Brandon and Whinney Hill closed, followed by Lansdowne School in Bowburn. Durham Johnston Comprehensive School worked as a split-site school for 30 years with years 7 and 8 at Whinney Hill and years 9 to upper sixth in the Grammar School buildings. In 1982, Durham County Council proposed to close the sixth form of the school, those of Framwellgate Moor and Gilesgate, create a sixth form college on the site Wearside site of Gilesgate school. Sir Keith Joseph rejected the proposal on the grounds that it would have been too disruptive and costly. Successive years and governments brought planning blight and hopes deferred once again until the school


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