Benedetto Bettino Craxi was an Italian politician, leader of the Italian Socialist Party from 1976 to 1993 and Prime Minister of Italy from 1983 to 1987. He was the first member of the PSI to hold the office and he led the third-longest government in the Italian Republic, and he is considered one of the most powerful and prominent politicians of the so-called First Republic. Craxi was involved in investigations conducted by Mani Pulite judges in Milan, eventually being convicted for corruption, Craxis govermment and party were supported by future Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, a media magnate and personal friend of Craxi. Bettino Craxi maintained strong links with many leaders of the European left, including Felipe González, Bettino Craxi was born in Milan on 24 February 1934. His father, Vittorio Craxi, was a Sicilian lawyer and anti-fascist who was persecuted by the regime of Benito Mussolini, his mother, Maria Ferrari, was a housewife from SantAngelo Lodigiano. After the war Vittorio Craxi assumed the role of vice-prefect in Milan and the prefect in Como, a few months Bettino returned to the college, first in Como and in Cantù, arriving in a step by start the seminary.
Vittorio Craxi stood in the 1948 general election for the Popular Democratic Front, Bettino campaigned for his father and joined the Italian Socialist Party at the age of 17. Craxi was precocious and ascended to many levels of office at an early age. In November 1956 he was elected councilor in SantAngelo Lodigiano from. In 1961 he was excluded from the Central Committee of the Socialist Party by the new Secretary Francesco De Martino, in 1963 he was appointed leader of the Milan Provincial Secretariat of the PSI and in 1965 Craxi became a member of the National Leadership. Meanwhile in November 1964, he was re-elected city councilor in Milan, continuing his public commitment as assessor for Charity, in 1968 general election Craxi was elected for the first time at the Chamber of Deputies with 23,788 votes, in the constituency of Milan–Pavia. Nel 1970 after the end of the PSU alliance, Craxi became Vice Secretary of the PSI, in 1976 the Secretary Francesco De Martino wrote an article in the Socialist newspaper Avanti.
Instead for the PSI those elections were a crushing defeat, the votes went down under the threshold of 10%, De Martino, pointing to a new alliance with the Communists, was forced to resign and opened a serious crisis within the party. Bettino Craxi was appointed to the vacant position of National Secretary of the party, the old guard saw him as short-lived leader, allowing each faction time to regroup. However, he was able to power and implement his policies. He outlined for a line of alternation between the DC and the left-wing, represented by his party, due to the relations between the PCI and the Soviet Union. Firing automatic weapons, the terrorists killed Moros bodyguards and kidnapped him, in 1978 Craxi decided to change the party logo of the party. He chose a red carnation to represent the new course of the party, the party shrank the size of the old hammer and sickle in the lower part of the symbol
Critica Sociale is a left-wing Italian newspaper. It is linked to the New Italian Socialist Party, arcangelo Ghisleri founded a republican political journal called Cuore e Critica in the late 19th century. A former employee, Filippo Turati, succeeded Ghisleri on 15 January 1891, on 1 January 1893 it moved its political stance, towards socialism. It backed the founding of the PSI at the partys Genoa Conference and changed its masthead to read, Weekly review of social, from 1 May 1898 to 1 July 1899, it was seized by the government and its editor was briefly imprisoned. In 1901 the journal restarted, as Turati, its editors, in this phase the review became the expression of the reformist tendency inside of the PSI. When Italy entered the First World War in May 1915, Critica Sociale did not lose its neutrality nor did it lose its reformist ideals when faced with the Bolshevik Revolution in October 1917. While not denying the legitimacy of Vladimir Lenins revolutionary method, Critica Sociale editors argued it was inapplicable to the Italian situation, but from 1917, the positions of the two wings the PSI became intractable.
At the Livorno Conference of January 1921, the nascent Marxist-Leninist wing led by Amadeo Bordiga left the PSI to become the Italian Communist Party, Critica Sociale continued to support the reformist Unitary Socialist Party. Benito Mussolinis rise to power was a blow to Critica Sociale. Press censorship and seizures by the government led to irregular publication and its last political article was published the day after the murder of Giacomo Matteotti on 10 June 1924, an act which Mussolini used to take absolute power in Italy. Thereafter the editors sheltered behind inoffensive cultural and doctrinale essays, the next year the Fascist government pronounced a blanket ban on opposition press, the last issue was dated 16 September -15 October 1926. It is currently the official publication of the New Italian Socialist Party, in recent years it has paid particular attention to the reinvention of British centre-left politics under New Labour, and has published articles by both Tony Blair and Gordon Brown.
List of magazines in Italy Turati, Trent’anni di Critica Sociale The Antonio Labriola Archive, etter to Critica Socialel Enrico Ferri 1902 debating with G. Cassola in Critica Sociale Ian Steedman, Socialist Debate on the Theory of Value and Distribution, La Critica Sociale 1891-1901. In Socialism & Marginalism in Economics 1870 -1930, Ian Steedman, ed. Routledge Studies in the History of Economics. ISBN 0-203-20899-4 Official site Partito Socialista Nuovo PSI
Naval Air Station Sigonella
Naval Air Station Sigonella, is a U. S. Navy installation at NATO Base Sigonella and an Italian Air Force base in Sicily, Italy. Although a tenant of the Italian Air Force, NAS Sigonella acts as landlord to more than 40 other U. S. commands and it is located 15 km west and 11 km south of the city of Catania, and some 40 km south of Mount Etna. Because of its location near the center of the Mediterranean Sea, NASSIG is well placed to support operations by the U. S. 6th Fleet, other U. S. military units and it serves as an Italian base for the 41º Stormo Antisom. It is one of the most frequently used stops for U. S. airlift aircraft bound from the continental United States to Southwest Asia, NAS Sigonella has the best claim to be hub of U. S. naval air operations in the Mediterranean. The base command is landlord to more than 40 other U. S. units, among the largest are a rotating P-3C patrol squadron, a Naval Computer and Telecommunications Station, and a U. S. Naval Hospital. The hospital was built in 1992, there was only a clinic and the closest U. S.
Naval Hospital was at Naples. Sigonella is home to more than 4,000 troops, civilian personnel, NAS Sigonella is the Navys second largest security command, second only to that located at Naval Support Activity Bahrain. NAS Sigonella has a support of security personnel from NR NSF Sigonella. The base comprises two sections, NAS I was the site of the original U. S. base but is now a support facility, NAS I is host to other facilities, mainly for entertainment. NAS II is now used as a service base. The United States Naval Air Facility, was established 15 June 1959, the facility was conceived in the early 1950s, when plans to base U. S. Navy P2V Neptunes at Hal Far, Malta began to outgrow the facility. When there was no room for expansion at Malta, the U. S. Navy obtained NATO backing to be hosted by Sicilians, Italy made land available under a temporary agreement signed 25 June 1957. Six days later, Landing Ship Tank began to deliver equipment from the Malta base, Ground was broken in September, and construction on the administrative area at NAF I was started in 1958.
It was built on top of an airfield where damaged fighters and bombers of the German Air Force had once landed during the Second World War. By the end of August 1959, the NAF II airfield was available for flights under visual flight rules,24 flights were logged by 31 August. One of Sigonellas first buildings was what is now the American Forces Network building, in 1958, that building was Sigonellas vector control center, where rat poison was stored. The Army Corps of Engineers next used the building for their offices, sharing it with Special Services, or what is now called Morale and Recreation. Around 1966, AFN came to Sigonella and joined Special Services, Sigonellas first flood occurred mid-September 1959
Alessandro Sandro Pertini, OMCA was an Italian journalist and socialist politician, who served as the seventh President of the Italian Republic, from 1978 to 1985. Born in Stella as the son of a landowner, Alberto, he studied at a Salesian college in Varazze. His philosophy teacher was Adelchi Baratono, a reformist socialist who contributed to his approach to socialism, Pertini obtained a Law degree from the University of Genoa. Aged 19 when Italy entered World War I on the side of the Entente, Pertini opposed the war, but nonetheless enlisted in the army where he served as a lieutenant and was decorated for bravery. After the armistice in 1918, he joined the Unitary Socialist Party, PSU, while in the city, Pertini came into contact with people such as Gaetano Salvemini, the brothers Carlo and Nello Rosselli, and Ernesto Rossi. Pertini was physically beaten by Fascist squads on several occasions, after the assassination of PSU leader Giacomo Matteotti by Fascists, Pertini became even more committed to the struggle against the totalitarian regime.
In 1926, he was sentenced to internment, but managed to go into hiding, together with Carlo Rosselli and Ferruccio Parri, he organized and accompanied the escape to France of Filippo Turati, who was the most prominent figure of the PSU. Pertini remained in the country until 1926 working as a mason, on his return to Italy, he was arrested in Pisa and sentenced to ten years imprisonment. In 1935 he was interned on Santo Stefano Island, Pontine Islands, an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, there he saved the famous diaries of Antonio Gramsci. Although he had begun suffering from illness, Pertini never demanded pardon. He was released a month after Benito Mussolinis arrest, and joined the Italian resistance movement against the Nazi German occupiers, arrested by the Germans, he was sentenced to death but freed by a partisan raid. Pertini travelled north to organize partisan war as a member of PSU. In the postwar era he was a prominent member of the board of the Italian Socialist Party. In spite of his intransigent attitude toward the Italian Communist Party and he criticized all forms of colonialism, as well as corruption in the Italian state and within the socialist party, where he kept an independent political position.
He was elected president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1968, and in 1978, the 82-year-old Pertini was elected President of the Italian Republic, during the Brigate Rosse terrorism period of the Anni di piombo, Pertini openly denounced the violence. He opposed organized crime in Italy, South African apartheid, Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet and other dictatorial regimes, in 1985, he stepped down from the presidency, becoming automatically senator for life. Pertini died in February 1990 at the age of 93 and was mourned across the nation, Pertini attended the 1982 World Cup Final in Madrid for a match between Italy and West Germany just two days after the fourth anniversary of his inauguration. After Italy scored their goal, he wagged his finger to either the German delegation or King Juan Carlos I
Italian Socialist Party
The Italian Socialist Party was a socialist and, social-democratic political party in Italy. Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II, the PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the 19th century and had to endure persecution by the Italian government during its early years. At the start of the 20th century, the PSI chose not to oppose the governments led by five-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti. This conciliation with the governments and its improving electoral fortunes helped to establish the PSI as a mainstream Italian political party by the 1910s. Despite the partys improving electoral results, the PSI remained divided into two branches, the Reformists and the Maximalists. The Reformists, led by Filippo Turati, were mostly in the unions. The Maximalists, led by Costantino Lazzari, were affiliated with the London Bureau of socialist groups, in 1912 the Maximalists led by Benito Mussolini prevailed at the party convention and this led to the split of the Italian Reformist Socialist Party.
In the 1919 general election the PSI reached its highest result ever,32. 0% and 156 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, during this time period, Mussolini belonged to the Bolshevik wing of the Italian Socialist Party who purged moderate or reformist socialists. The national syndicalists intended to support Italian republicans in overthrowing the monarchy if such reforms were not made, the dominant internationalist and pacifist wing of the party remained committed to avoiding what it called a bourgeois war. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the PSI quickly aligned itself in support of the communist Bolshevik movement in Russia, from 1919 to the 1920s the Socialists and the Fascists emerged as prominent rival movements in Italys urban centres, often resorting to political violence in their clashes. In 1919, the Socialist Party of Turin formed the Red Army of Turin, the left-wing of the party broke away in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Italy, a division from which the PSI never been recovered and which had enormous consequences on Italian politics.
In 1922, another split occurred when the reformist wing of the party, in 1924 Giacomo Matteotti, a member of the PSU, was assassinated by Fascists and shortly afterwards a Fascist dictatorship was established in Italy. In 1925 the PSI and all political parties except the Fascist Party were banned. The partys leadership remained in exile during the Fascist years and in 1930 the PSU was re-integrated into the PSI, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1930 and 1940. In the 1946 general election, the first after World War II, for the 1948 general election the Socialists led by Pietro Nenni chose to take part in the Popular Democratic Front along with the PCI. This caused the split of the faction within the party led by Giuseppe Saragat. The PSI was weakened by the split and was far less organized than the PCI, as a result, the Socialist parliamentary delegation was cut by a half
Francesco De Martino
Francesco de Martino was an Italian jurist, lifetime senator and former Vice President of the Council of Ministers. He was considered by many to be the conscience of Italian Socialist Party and he graduated from the law school Federico II in Naples, under the guidance of Enrico De Nicola, embarked on the study of law and economics and became a distinguished scholar of Roman law. He first joined the Action Party in 1943, and joined the reconstituted Socialist party in 1945, at the first elections of the new Italian Republic in 1948, he was elected to Parliament with the Popular Front alliance of communists and socialists. He soon won the confidence of party leader Pietro Nenni, to whom he became vice secretary. When, in 1963, Nenni became Vice President of the Council of Ministers, or Deputy Prime Minister in the first centre-left government of Aldo Moro, De Martino was, in two times, the PSIs candidate to the presidential elections, in 1971 and 1978. This time, the popular socialist, the former Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies.
De Martino candidacy was tarnished when the family paid a 1bn lire ransom for his release his son Guido who was kidnapped by the Camorra, the kidnappers were eventually captured, but those behind them were never discovered. In 1976, he was ousted as party secretary by Bettino Craxi when the PSI lost in the elections falling below 10% for the first time, De Martino became the scapegoat, and Craxi became Italys first socialist Prime Minister in 1983. He was dismayed by the demise of the historical socialist party after the corruption under Craxi and he resumed his academic career at the law school Federico II, where his secular funeral was celebrated in the presence of the President of Italy, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi. He is survived by his children, Guido, Elisa, media related to Francesco De Martino at Wikimedia Commons
Filippo Turati was an Italian sociologist, criminologist and Socialist politician. His Inno dei Lavoratori, adapted to music, became the most popular song of the nascent labor movement, Turati became interested in politics, being attracted to the democratic movement before joining the more specific Socialist groups. His most important sociological work of period is Il Delitto e la Questione Sociale. He met Anna Kulischov while working on a survey of conditions in Naples. Kulischov and Costa had split by the time she met Turati, the two immediately fell in love, and lived together until her death in 1925. Turati and Anna Kulischov were the most instrumental intellectuals in the founding of the Italian Socialist Party in 1892 and it was the most influential Marxist review in Italy before World War I. Shut down by Benito Mussolinis Fascist regime, it was reestablished after World War II, in the years following the partys foundation, the Italian government attempted to suppress it. Turati advocated alliances with other Italian democratic forces, meant to defeat the governments reactionary policies, in 1898 Turati was arrested and charged with being the inspirator of the popular riot that broke out in the whole country against the rise of the bread price.
He was freed the following year, in 1901, Giuseppe Zanardelli, a Liberal, became Prime Minister – accompanied by Giovanni Giolitti as the Minister of the Interior – Giolitti who would dominate Italian politics until 1915. When the party Directorate refused to sanction the vote, he convinced the deputies to do so anyway, between 1901 and 1906, power in the party seesawed between the Turati-led reformists and the revolutionaries under various leaders. After 1906, splits surfaced among the reformists themselves, in 1912, as a result of Socialist reaction against the Italo-Turkish War, revolutionaries took over the party. Benito Mussolini, one of their leaders, became editor of the party newspaper Avanti, Turati opposed Mussolini, but proved unable to dislodge him. He had opposed the conflict, and would oppose Italys entrance into World War I – while Mussolini moved to an irredentist position, despite the fact that he was a pacifist in June 1918 he strongly supported the Italian Army that was fighting the Battle of Solstizio.
Following World War I, Mussolini created the paramilitary Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, Filippo Turati and Anna Kulischov, who knew Mussolini well, were major opponents of Fascism, and lived under constant surveillance and threats. This policy was rejected and the PSI split in 1921, with the formation of the Italian Communist Party, in 1922, when Turatis group was expelled and established a new group, the Unitary Socialist Party. In 1924, Turatis disciple and Secretary of the PSU, Giacomo Matteotti, was assassinated by Mussolinis Ceka, this seminal event prompted Mussolini to formalize his dictatorship between 1925 and 1926. In 1926, Turati fled Italy in an escape to France – aided by Carlo Rosselli, Ferruccio Parri, Sandro Pertini and Adriano Olivetti. He died in the French capital in March 1932, after World War II, Turatis remains were transferred after to Milans Cimitero Monumentale, where he is buried next to Anna Kulischov
Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions
The Confederazione Italiana Sindacati Lavoratori is an Italian trade union association representing various Roman Catholic-inspired groups linked with Christian Democracy. It was founded on 30 April 1950, when Catholics in the Italian General Confederation of Labour left after they clashed with the communists on the issue of a general strike provoked by the latter. As the French Force Ouvrière union, it received support from Irving Brown, leader of the international relations of the US AFL-CIO. The CISL is formed on two levels, a one, grouping workers according to employment, and the confederation itself. The base of the latter is formed by districts, grouped in regions, on the national level, CISL ensures cooperation of various branch organisms within the territorial hierarchy. The confederation holds regular Congresses that elect members to leadership positions, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the confederation coordinated strike actions of the metalworkers and workers in electromechanics, as well as the labor dispute in Milan.
Its great success came in 1963, when it negotiated with electromechanics employers new bonuses, means of promotion, trade union activities on factory grounds remained exceptionally difficult, and workers attempting them risked being sacked. When the Italian economy sunk in the mid-1960s, CISL suffered a crisis as numerous of its branches believed the political function of the union to be incompatible with its labor goals. The 6th Congress it held in 1969 sanctioned the view, CISL doubled its specific activism with an advocacy of democracy, siding with the civil society. In July 1972, it co-founded the Federazione unitaria, meant as a transitional group, CISL signed an agreement with other national federations in 1975, calling for a readjustment of the salary-pension balance, as well as for a new minimum wage. Federazione unitaria proposed a new tactic at its Congress in 1978, in 1983 CISL founded ISCOS, Trade Union Institute for Development Cooperation. The gradual decrease of inflation in the 1980s and 1990s, the CISL was part in two protocols with the Italian executive, in 1992 and 1993, both of which agreed to allow tight control of the inflation rate and government debt
Enrico Ferri was an Italian criminologist and student of Cesare Lombroso, the founder of the Italian school of criminology. While Lombroso researched the purported physiological factors that motivated criminals, Ferri investigated social and he served as editor of the socialist daily Avanti. And, in 1884, saw his book Criminal Sociology published, his work served as the basis for Argentina’s penal code of 1921. Although at first he rejected the Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, Ferri became one of Mussolini, Ferri was born in Lombardy in 1856, and worked first as a lecturer and as a professor of Criminal law, having spent time as a student of Cesare Lombroso. While Lombroso researched anthropological criminology, Ferri focused more on social and economic influences on the criminal, ferris research led to him postulating theories calling for crime prevention methods to be the mainstay of law enforcement, as opposed to punishment of criminals after their crimes had taken place. He became a founder of the positivist school, and he researched psychological and social positivism as opposed to the biological positivism of Lombroso, Ferri, at the time a radical, was elected to Italian Parliament in 1886.
In 1893, he joined the Italian Socialist Party and edited their daily newspaper, in 1900 and 1904 he spoke out in congress against the roles of socialist ministers in bourgeoisie governments. Ferri favoured Italian neutrality during World War I, and he was re-elected as a socialist party deputy in 1921, in post-war Italy, he became a supporter of Mussolinis fascist regime. Ferri argued that other sentiments, such as hate, Ferri often drew comparisons between socialism and Darwinism, and disputed particular works by Ernst Haeckel that highlighted contradictions between the two schools of thought. Ferri instead argued that Darwinism provided socialism its key scientific principles, Ferri viewed religion and science as inversely proportional, thus as one rose in strength, the other declined. Ferri observed that as Darwinism dealt a blow to religion. Thus, Ferri argued that socialism was an extension of Darwinism, at the end of his life, he became one of the main supporters of Benito Mussolini.
He started to consider fascism as an expression of socialist ideals, Enrico Ferri Archive at marxists. org Works by Enrico Ferri at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Enrico Ferri at Internet Archive
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world