Ian James Thorpe, is a retired Australian swimmer who specialised in freestyle, but competed in backstroke and the individual medley. He has won the most won by any Australian. With three gold and two silver medals, Thorpe was the most successful athlete at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. At the age of 14, Thorpe became the youngest male to represent Australia, his victory in the 400 metre freestyle at the 1998 Perth World Championships made him the youngest-ever individual male World Champion. After that victory, Thorpe dominated the 400 m freestyle, winning the event at every Olympic, World and Pan Pacific Swimming Championships until his break after the 2004 Olympics in Athens. At the 2001 World Aquatics Championships, he became the first person to win six gold medals in one World Championship. Aside from 13 individual long-course world records, Thorpe anchored the Australian relay teams, numbering the victories in the 4 × 100 m and the 4 × 200 m freestyle relays in Sydney among his five relay world records.
His wins in the 200 m and 400 m and his bronze in the 100 m freestyle at the 2004 Summer Olympics made him the only male to have won medals in the 100–200–400 combination. He picked up the nickname "Thorpedo" because of his speed in swimming. Thorpe announced his retirement from competitive swimming in November 2006, citing waning motivation. In total, Thorpe has won eleven World Championship gold medals. Thorpe was the first person to have been named Swimming World Swimmer of the Year four times, was the Australian Swimmer of the Year from 1999 to 2003, his athletic achievements made him one of Australia's most popular athletes, he was recognised as the Young Australian of the Year in 2000. Born in Sydney, Thorpe hailed from a sporting family, his father Ken was a promising cricketer at junior level, representing Bankstown District Cricket Club in Sydney's district competition. A talented batsman, he once topped the season's batting averages ahead of former Australian captain Bob Simpson. However, paternal pressure detracted from Ken's enjoyment of cricket, he retired at the age of 26.
Thorpe's mother Margaret played A-grade netball. His elder sister Christina was advised to take up swimming to strengthen a broken wrist, so by chance, the five-year-old Thorpe followed her into the pool. Due to his unhappy experiences, Ken Thorpe regarded enjoyment as the most critical aspect of his children's participation in sport. A large baby, Thorpe measured 59 cm in length at birth; as a young child, Thorpe was sidelined by an allergy to chlorine. As a result, he did not swim in his first race until a school carnival at the age of seven; the allergy forced Thorpe to swim with his head out of the water. Thorpe overcame the ailment and progressed to the captaincy of New South Wales for the Australian Primary Schools Championships in 1994, he subsequently won nine individual gold medals at the New South Wales Short Course Age Championships in September of the same year. In 1995, Thorpe started his secondary education at East Hills Boys Technology High School and switched coaches to swim alongside his sister under the tutelage of Doug Frost.
It was a busy year for the family. Now six feet tall, Ian competed at his first Australian Age Championships, winning bronze medals in the 200 m and 400 m freestyle, he won all ten events at the New South Wales Age Championships. Thorpe competed at the 1996 Australian Age Championships in Brisbane, winning five gold, two silver and two bronze medals, his times in the 400 m freestyle and 200 m backstroke qualified him for the Australian Championships, which doubled as selection trials for the 1996 Atlanta Olympics. Frost knew that Thorpe had no realistic chance of making the top two in any event, which would have meant Olympic selection at only 13 years and six months, he sent Thorpe to Sydney to gain competition experience at senior national level. As expected, Thorpe missed selection. At the end of the year, Thorpe qualified for the Australian Short Course Championships, it was another chance to gain national selection, as the event served as the selection trials for the 1997 FINA World Swimming Championships.
Thorpe qualified in second place in the heats of the 400 m individual medley and reached his first national final. However, he swam more in the final and missed selection. At the New South Wales Championships in January 1997, Thorpe's time of 3 min 59.43 s in the 400 m was eight seconds faster than his previous personal best. Ranked fourth for the event countrywide, Thorpe went into the Australian Championships in Adelaide as a serious contender for selection in the national team for the 1997 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships in Fukuoka, Japan. With a top-three finish and a specific qualifying time required for selection, Thorpe focused on the 400 m freestyle after injuries to world record holder Kieren Perkins and Daniel Kowalski. Thorpe went on to win bronze behind 16-year-old Queenslander Grant Hackett, setting a new personal best of 3 min 53.44 s. The time was a world record for his age group and the race was the first of many battles with Hackett. Aged 14 ye
Michael George Klim, OAM is a Polish-born Australian swimmer, Olympic gold medallist, world champion, former world record-holder. He was born in Poland, he was educated at the University High School and Wesley College, Melbourne where he is employed as the college's elite head coach of swimming. Klim was first selected to represent Australia in the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Victoria, British Columbia, while still a student at Wesley College, Melbourne. For his achievements he was named the Male Swimmer of the Year by Swimming World Magazine in 1997. In 1999, he set a world record in the 100 m butterfly twice, in a FINA-sanctioned time trial, it was broken at the 2003 World Championships in Barcelona by the Ukrainian Andriy Serdinov in the first semifinal of the 100 m butterfly, broken another time in the next semifinal by Michael Phelps. Phelps's record was bested by Ian Crocker in the final the following day. Klim was Australian Institute of Sport Athlete of the Year in 1998 and 1999 and was inducted into the AIS' Best of the Best' in 2001.
Klim was the only Australian to win a Gold medal at both the Sydney 2000 Olympics and the 2006 Melbourne Commonwealth Games. In 1996, he arrived at the Atlanta Olympics ranked first in the world for the 200 m freestyle, but was eliminated in the heats, he rebounded to qualify for a finals in the 100m butterfly, swam the freestyle leg in the 4×100 m medley relay, in which Australia claimed a bronze medal. Atlanta Olympics: Men's 4×100m Medley Relay.1998 was Michael Klim's year in the sun. In January, the World Aquatics Championships were held in Perth, Western Australia, in front of a boisterous home crowd, he was the leading swimmer of the meet, he triumphed in the 200 m freestyle and the 100 m butterfly, added silver in the 100 m freestyle, bronze in the 50 m freestyle. He was a member of each of Australia's three relay teams, winning gold in the 4×200 m freestyle relay and 4×100 m medley relay, a silver in the 4×100 m freestyle relay. FINA World Championships 1998 in Perth, Australia: 200m Freestyle.
100m Freestyle. 50m Freestyle. 100m Butterfly. 4×100m Freestyle Relay. 4×200m Freestyle Relay. 4×100m Medley Relay. At the 2000 Summer Olympics, Klim set a world record leading off the 4×100 m freestyle relay, which paved the way for a world record. Three days he was part of the 4×200 m freestyle relay, which set another world record, which left the opposition over 5 seconds in arrears on its way to victory, his 100m freestyle world record bested by Pieter van den Hoogenband in the semi's, in the final he finished with a bitter 4th place, he turned first at the wall but he claimed his legs gave away in the second half. In the 100 m butterfly, he was the world record holder, again turning first at the wall under world record pace, but was cut down in the closing stages by Sweden's Lars Frölander, finishing second. On the final night he claimed silver as part of the 4×100 m medley relay team. 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia: 100m Butterfly. 4×100m Freestyle Relay. 4×200m Freestyle Relay. 4×100m Medley Relay.
In 2001, hampered by an ankle injury Klim was restricted to relay duties, contributed to another world record, winning gold in the 4×200 m relay. He collected a gold medal in the 4×100 m freestyle relay. FINA World Championships 2001 in Fukuoka, Japan: 4×100m Freestyle Relay. 4×200m Freestyle Relay. In 2002 and 2003, due to chronic back and shoulder problems, Michael Klim was inactive throughout these years. Klim failed to qualify for the 2004 Athens Olympics, but was selected as part of the relay team, which came second behind USA in the 4×200m, race; the relay team failed to qualify for the medley relay final. 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece: 4×200m Freestyle Relay. In 2005, Klim swam at the World Aquatics in Montreal, returning to individual action, but failed to progress to the finals in the 50m & 100m Freestyle, he won bronze as part of the 4×100 m freestyle relay. FINA World Championships 2005 in Montreal, Canada: 4×100m Freestyle Relay. In 2007, he swam as part of the B team in the Men's 4 × 100 metre medley relay, in the final the Australian team won the gold medal.
2007 World Aquatics Championships in Melbourne, Australia: 4×100m Medley Relay. On the 26 June 2007 Klim retired from competitive swimming, he finished. On the 14 February 2011 Klim announced his return to competitive swimming, hoping to compete in the London 2012 Olympics. Klim failed to qualify for the team. After failing to compete at the London Olympics, Klim retired from competitive swimming and became founder and CEO of a skin care company "Milk and Co". Klim married Lindy Rama, a former model and fashion entrepreneur, in April 2006. Rama (known in Bali as Anak Agung] is a Balinese princess, being the niece of Ida Cokorde Pamecutan XI, the king of Denpasar; the couple have two daughters and Frankie and a son, Rocco. Klim supports the St Kilda Saints in the Australian Football League. Klim and Lindy announced their separation in February 2016. List of Commonwealth Games medallists in swimming List of Olympic medalists in swimming World record progression 50 metres butterfly World record progression 100 metres butterfly World record progression 100 metres freestyle World record progression 4 × 100 metres freestyle relay World record progression 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay Michael Klim on Facebook Michael Klim on Twitter Michael Klim on Instagram
William Ronald Forrester Jr. is an American former competition swimmer, Olympic medalist, former world record-holder. He represented the United States as an 18-year-old at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, where he won a bronze medal in the 200-meter butterfly, finishing behind U. S. teammates Steve Gregg. Forrester won three gold and two bronze medals at the world championships in 1975 and 1978. Forrester graduated from Auburn University in 1980 and worked as a swim coach, founding the Georgia Coastal Aquatic Team in 1994. List of Auburn University people List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of World Aquatics Championships medalists in swimming World record progression 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay
Alberto Tomba is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Italy. He was the dominant technical skier in the late 1990s. At 6 ft tall and 90 kg, his powerful build was a contrast to the lighter, more traditional technical skiers who prioritised agility over muscle. Tomba was able to take advantage of the introduction of spring-loaded ski gates which replaced the older, solid gates in the early 1980s by using his power to maintain a faster, more direct line through courses. Tomba won three Olympic gold medals, two World Championships, nine World Cup season titles: four in slalom, four in giant slalom, one overall title, he was popularly called Tomba la Bomba. Alberto Tomba was born in Bologna and raised in Castel de Britti, a village in the municipality of San Lazzaro di Savena – an area without strong alpine traditions, but not far from the appenninic piste of Monte Cimone and Corno alle Scale, his father Franco, a businessman in the textile industry, had been a keen skier since attending college in Switzerland and passed his love of the sport to his sons, driving Alberto and his older brother Marco from their home to Sestola so they could ski.
Alberto started racing at the age of seven. As a child, he participated in sports like tennis and dirt biking, but he found that his greatest passion was for skiing. In 1984 he took part in the Junior World Championships, where a fourth-place finish won him a position on the national B team; that year, in an exhibition parallel slalom competition in San Siro, Milan, he surprised everyone by beating every member of the A team. After three wins on the Europa Cup circuit, Tomba made his World Cup debut in December 1985 at Madonna di Campiglio, three days before his nineteenth birthday. Two months in Åre, Sweden, he surprised the skiing world by finishing sixth from a bib number of 62, his first podium came the following season in Alta Badia, Italy in December 1986, that winter he won bronze in the giant slalom at the 1987 World Championships in Crans-Montana, Switzerland - the only medal won by the Italian team at that World Championships. On 27 November 1987, Tomba scored his first World Cup victory, in a slalom at Italy.
Two days he won the giant slalom, beating his idol, Ingemar Stenmark. It was now clear, he went on to win nine races that 1988 season, including a slalom win at Madonna di Campiglio where he beat the second-placed finisher by 1.34 seconds, shouting "I am the new messiah of skiing!" as he crossed the finish line. He won that year's World Cup titles in both slalom and giant slalom, but was runner-up in the overall standings to Pirmin Zurbriggen of Switzerland. During this early part of his career, Tomba competed in super G, an event he would continue to contest until 1989, despite never finishing better than fourth. At the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, Tomba won gold medals in giant slalom. In the first run of the GS, he finished an impressive 1.14 seconds ahead of his nearest competitor. "Tomba la Bomba", as he was known earned some notoriety by asking out East German figure skater Katarina Witt, whom he met again on. Tomba was not as successful in the following two seasons. At the 1989 World Championships in Vail, Colorado, he could do no better than sixth place in the super G and seventh in the giant slalom.
From 1989 to the end of his career, Tomba was surrounded by his own technical staff managed by former Olympic champion Gustav Thöni and strength and conditioning coach Giorgio d'Urbano, who worked with him for ten seasons. Tomba was temporarily put out of action in 1990 when he crashed in a World Cup race in Val-d'Isère, breaking his collarbone. However, in the 1991 season, Tomba returned to his winning ways, winning the giant slalom World Cup title for a second time while finishing fourth in the slalom standings, he ended 4th in slalom at the 1991 World Championships at Saalbach-Hinterglemm and crashed in the second giant slalom run after having clocked the fastest time in the first leg, handing the victory to Austria's Rudolf Nierlich, the two-time winner at Vail, two years earlier. In September 1991, he met former Miss Italy, Martina Colombari, whom he dated for several years. Tomba's career reached its second peak during the 1992 season with nine victories and fifteen podiums, he once again captured the season-long discipline titles in both his technical specialties.
His duel with Paul Accola for the overall World Cup crown extended until the end of the season and the Finals at Crans-Montana, but the Swiss skier scoring points in all disciplines including downhill and combined prevailed. At the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, Tomba won what was to be his last gold medal at Val d'Isère, in the giant slalom, picked up a silver in the slalom. In Val d'Isère, he became the first alpine champion to defend an Olympic title when he won the giant slalom ahead of Marc Girardelli; the 1993 World Championships, held in Morioka, again proved to be his nemesis. Tomba was suffering from a fever during the giant slalom and made a critical mistake in the slalom, failing to reach the podium in either race. To make matters worse, he only managed to win a single World Cup race in the entire 1993 season. Tomba was back to his usual ways at the 1994 Winter Olympics in Norway. After the first run of the slalom, he was out of medal contention, 1.84 seconds behind leader Thomas Stangassinger, but in the second run he recovered to secon
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
Tim Shaw (swimmer)
Timothy Andrew Shaw is an American former Olympic medal-winning swimmer and water polo player. He played on the American team at the 1984 Summer Olympics, he is one of a handful of athletes to win Olympic medals in two different sports. Between 1974 and 1984, Shaw won two Olympic silver medals. S. Amateur Athletic Union national titles. S. National Collegiate Athletic Association championships. In 1974 in space of four days Shaw broke Mark Spitz's 200-meter freestyle world record, Rick DeMont's 400-meter freestyle world record and Stephen Holland's 1500-meter freestyle world record. At the 1976 Olympics he only won one silver medal, in the 400-meter freestyle. Although he did not compete in the finals for the 4×200 metres freestyle relay, he did contribute to the swimming team in the preliminaries. After the 1976 Olympics Shaw changed from swimming to water polo, a sport favored by his father, a water polo coach. Shaw missed the 1980 Olympics, he was a member of the 1984 U. S. water polo team, undefeated in Olympic competition, but was awarded the silver medal because the Yugoslav team, with an identical record, scored four more goals overall.
Shaw appeared on the cover of Sports Illustrated magazine on August 4, 1975, after receiving the FINA Prize Eminence Award in 1974, representative of the greatest contribution to world aquatics. He was named World Swimmer of the Year in 1974 and 1975, won the Sullivan Award in 1975 as the most outstanding amateur athlete in the United States after having won three gold medals at the World Aquatics Championships. In 1989 he was inducted into the International Swimming Hall of Fame. Shaw married around 1985; as of 2003 he lived in Newport Beach, with wife Joanne and children Christina and Thomas. List of Olympic medalists in swimming List of World Aquatics Championships medalists in swimming World record progression 200 metres freestyle World record progression 400 metres freestyle World record progression 800 metres freestyle World record progression 1500 metres freestyle World record progression 4 × 200 metres freestyle relay