Giovanni Battista Bugatti was the official executioner for the Papal States from 1796 to 1865. He was the executioner in the States and was nicknamed Mastro Titta. At the age of 85, he was retired by Pope Pius IX with a pension of 30 scudi. He referred to his executions as justices and the condemned as patients and his first execution was on March 22,1796. Up until 1810, the method of execution was beheading by axe, the French introduced the use of the guillotine which was continued after the Papal States regained their sovereignty until the last executions. He carried out a total of 516 executions, Bugatti is described as being short and portly, and always well dressed. He frequented the church Santa Maria in Traspontina and he was married but had no children. When not carrying out his duties, Bugatti and his wife sold painted umbrellas. He could not leave the Trastevere neighborhood unless on official business, officially this was for his own protection, in case relatives of those he had executed decided to take revenge against him. Unofficially it was due to superstition regarding his part-time job. On his crossing the bridge, the residents of Rome were alerted that an execution was about to take place, one of his executions, carried out on 8 March 1845, was described by Charles Dickens in his work Pictures from Italy. His blood-stained clothes, axes and guillotines are on display at the Museum of Criminology at Via del Gonfalone, the guillotine is of a very peculiar build, with straight blade and V-shaped neckpiece. List of people executed by the Holy See He executed justice, retrieved 11 April 2005 Mastro Titta. Passage from Pictures From Italy at the Wayback Machine, when Mastro Titta Crossed the Bridge
Mastro Titta offering snuff to a condemned prisoner before carrying out an execution. From a 19th-century woodcut.
Mastro Titta holding the head of an executed woman