Senate of the Republic (Italy)
The Senate of the Republic or Senate is a house of the bicameral Italian Parliament. The two houses together form a perfect bicameral system, meaning they perform identical functions, but do so separately. Pursuant to Articles 57, 58, 59 of the Italian Constitution, the Senate has a variable number of members, of which 309 are elected from Italian constituencies, 6 from Italian citizens living abroad, a small number are senators for life, either appointed or ex officio, it was established in its current form on 8 May 1948, but existed during the Kingdom of Italy as Senato del Regno, itself a continuation of the Senato Subalpino of Sardinia established on 8 May 1848. Members of the Senate are styled Senator or The Honourable Senator and they meet at Palazzo Madama, Rome; the Senate consists of 315 elected members, as of 2018 six senators for life. The elected senators must be over 40 years of age and are elected by Italian citizens aged 25 or older; the Senate is elected on a regional basis. The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population.
However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley and Molise. The senators for life are composed of former Presidents of the Italian Republic who hold office ex officio, up to five citizens who are appointed by the President "for outstanding merits in the social, artistic or literary field"; the current life senators are: The current term of the Senate is five years, except for senators for life that hold their office for their lifetime. Until a Constitutional change on February 9, 1963, the Senate was elected for six-year terms; the Senate may be dissolved before the expiration of its normal term by the President of the Republic. In 2016, Italian Parliament passed a constitutional law that "effectively abolishes the Senate as an elected chamber and restricts its ability to veto legislation"; the law was rejected on December 2016 by a referendum, leaving the Senate unchanged. According to article 58 of the Italian constitution, people aged more than 25 years are enabled to vote for the Senate.
The electoral system is a parallel voting system, with 37% of seats allocated using first-past-the-post voting and 63% using proportional representation, allocated with the largest remainder method, with one round of voting. The 315 elected senators are elected in: 116 by plurality. A small, variable number of senators for life are members of the Senate. For Italian residents, each house members are elected by single ballots, including the constituency candidate and his/her supporting party lists. In each single-member constituency the deputy/senator is elected on a plurality basis, while the seats in multi-member constituencies will be allocated nationally. In order to be calculated in single-member constituency results, parties need to obtain at least 1% of the national vote. In order to receive seats in multi-member constituencies, parties need to obtain at least 3% of the national vote. Elects from multi-member constituencies will come from closed lists; the single voting paper, containing both first-past-the-post candidates and the party lists, shows the names of the candidates to single-member constituencies and, in close conjunction with them, the symbols of the linked lists for the proportional part, each one with a list of the relative candidates.
The voter can cast their vote in three different ways: Drawing a sign on the symbol of a list: in this case the vote extends to the candidate in the single-member constituency, supported by that list. Drawing a sign on the name of the candidate of the single-member constituency and another one on the symbol of one list that supports them: the result is the same as that described above. Drawing a sign only on the name of the candidate for the FPTP constituency, without indicating any list: in this case, the vote is valid for the candidate in the single-member constituency and automatically extended to the list that supports them; the current membership of the Senate of the Republic, following the latest political elections of 4 March 2018: Under the current Constitution, the Senate must hold its first sitting no than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the President of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority of all senators is needed.
If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner. In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber and regulating debates, deciding whether motions a
Province of Lecce
The Province of Lecce is a province in the Apulia region of Italy whose capital is the city of Lecce. The province is called the "Heel of Italy". Located on the Salento peninsula, it is the second most-populous province in Apulia and the 21st most-populous province in Italy; the province occupies an area of 2,799.07 square kilometres and has a total population of 802,807. There are 97 comunes in the province, it is surrounded by the provinces Taranto and Brindsi in the northwest, the Ionian Sea in the west, the Adriatic Sea in the east. This location has established it as a popular tourist destination, it has been ruled by the Romans, Byzantine Greeks, Lombards and Normans. The important towns are Lecce, Nardò, Otranto, its important agricultural products are corn. The province of Lecce has its origins in the ancient Giustizierato, known as the Province of Terra d'Otranto. Since the eleventh century the Terra d'Otranto included the territories of the provinces of Lecce and Brindisi, with the exception of Fasano and Cisternino.
During this time Lecce was affected by poverty despite the production of olive oil. People from Lecce migrated to the Province of Bari. Up to 1663, the Province of Terra d'Otranto included the territory of Matera, its first capital was Otranto but in the Norman period, Lecce city was made the capital. After the unification of Italy, the name Terra d'Otranto was changed to Province of Lecce and its territory was divided into the four districts, its break-up began in 1923 when the district of Taranto was transformed into the new province of the Ionian. After the first world war economic conditions worsened and unemployment peaked; these factors, coupled with the negligence of the weak government, prompted farm workers to revolt against their employers. Farm owners were paraded in public places. During the medieval era, Muslim slaves were transported from the province's ports and the practice of keeping slaves was common. Lecce stone extracted from the province has been used to decorate several historical monuments and is used for interior decoration.
The San Cataldo Nature Reserve is located in the province. It is a 28 hectares protected area, set up in 1977 along the Adriatic coast near Leccce; the Reserve is home to a large number of animals such as foxes, badgers, weasels and birds. A variety of Mediterranean plants species is found here. Lakes Alimini Grande and Alimini Piccolo are located in the province. Lake Alimini Grande is surrounded by a rocky area covered with pine woods and Mediterranean vegetation. Lake Alimini Piccolo consists of freshwater. Alimini Piccolo's depth does not exceed half a meter. Lecce has several linguistic minority groups. A Griko community of around 40,000 lives in the Grecia Salentina region in the central area of the province, there is an Arbëreshe community in Soleto. Cassar, J.. G.. R.. R. G. Walton. C. Entwisle. N. Bromhead. W. N. Smith. Stone in Historic Buildings: Characterization and Performance. Geological Society of London. ISBN 978-1-86239-376-9. Cinel, Dino; the National Integration of Italian Return Migration, 1870-1929.
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52118-5. Domenico, Roy Palmer; the Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30733-1. Gentilcore, David. From Bishop to Witch: The System of the Sacred in Early Modern Terra D'Otranto. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-3640-8. Macgregor, John. Commercial Statistics: A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs... of All Nations, Including All British Commercial Treaties with Foreign States... Nott. Mikropoulos, Tassos A. Elevating and Safeguarding Culture Using Tools of the Information Society: Dusty traces of the Muslim culture. Earthlab. ISBN 978-960-233-187-3. Snowden, Frank M.. Violence and the Great Estates in the South of Italy: Apulia, 1900-1922. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52710-1. Official website
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Democrats of the Left
The Democrats of the Left was a social-democratic political party in Italy. The DS, successor of the Democratic Party of the Left and the Italian Communist Party, was formed in 1998 upon the merger of the PDS with several minor parties. A member of The Olive Tree coalition, in October 2007 the DS merged with Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy and a number of minor centre-left parties to form the Democratic Party; the DS was successively led by Walter Veltroni and Piero Fassino. At its 20th congress in 1991, the Italian Communist Party was transformed into the Democratic Party of the Left, responding to the Revolutions of 1989 in eastern Europe by re-orienting the party towards the European democratic-socialist tradition. Under the leadership of Massimo D'Alema, the PDS merged with some minor centre-left movements on 13 February 1998; the DS' symbol lacked the hammer and sickle, present in the PDS' one and was instead replaced by the red rose of European social democracy as used by the Party of European Socialists.
Massimo D'Alema became Prime Minister of Italy in October 1998, the first former Communist to hold the post. D'Alema was replaced as the leader of DS by Walter Veltroni. During the party's first national congress in January 2000, Veltroni received the support of the 79.9% of delegates, while the left-wing of the party, at the time led by three women, had the support of 20.1% of delegates. During the party's second national congress in November 2001, Piero Fassino, a mainstream social democrat, was elected secretary with 61.8% of party members' votes. In the event, Giovanni Berlinguer, endorsed by left-wingers, democratic socialists and the Italian General Confederation of Labour trade union, gained 34.1%, while Enrico Morando, from the liberal right-wing, got 4.1%. Contextually, D'Alema was elected president. During the third national congress in February 2005, Fassino was re-elected with 79.0% of the vote. No-one stood against Fassino, but left-wing candidates ran for congressional delegates: the DS Left-wing – Returning to win motion/list won 14.6% of the vote, DS Left-wing for Socialism 4.0% and the Ecologist Left 2.4%.
In the 2006 general election, the DS endorsed Romano Prodi for Prime Minister and were part of the Olive Tree electoral list, along with Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy and the European Republicans Movement, for the Chamber of Deputies, while fielding its own list for the Senate. The DS–DL–MRE joint list obtained 31.2% of the vote and 220 deputies, while the DS list 17.2% and 62 senators. The party's dismal result and the razor-thin win of The Union coalition over the centre-right House of Freedoms coalition prompted a discussion on the party's future. By the end of 2006 the party leadership was committed to a merger with DL. Nine Ministers of the Prodi II Cabinet were affiliated to the DS, notably including D'Alema who served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs. Giorgio Napolitano, another DS member, was elected President of Italy in May 2006; the party's fourth national congress was held in 19–21 April 2007: During local congresses and his motion named For the Democratic Party, backed by most leading members, received the support of 75.6% by party members.
The left-wing of Fabio Mussi, Cesare Salvi, Fulvia Bandoli and Valdo Spini scored 15.0%. A third motion, signed by Gavino Angius, Mauro Zani and Giuseppe Caldarola, took 9.3% of the vote: its members supported the creation of a new party only within the PES, opposed by DL. As a result, the DS approved the formation of a "Democratic Party", along with minor parties. Most supporters of the two motions which had opposed the merger left the DS right after the congress and launched the Democratic Left on 5 May 2007, which aimed to unite the heterogeneous Italian left-wing; the Democratic Party was formed in October 2007 and its first secretary was Walter Veltroni, a former DS leader, elected leader of the new party through a leadership election, which saw the participation of over 3.5 million Italian voters in which Veltroni won 75.8% of the vote. Inside the DS, there was a somewhat simplistic distinction between reformists and radicals, indicating the party's mainstream and its left-wing; the party included several organised factions.
The social-democratic majority was loosely organised, while including several organised movements: the Labourites – Liberal Socialists, Reformist Europe and the Sicilian "Reformist Movement", all three splinter groups of the Italian Socialist Party. A dissident group left the Labourites in order to launch Socialists and Europeans as a vehicle to oppose the party's merger with DL. On the party's right, the Liberal DS had a moderate Third Way or radical-centrist political agenda and joined the party's majority in latter years. Before the party's last congress in 2007, the left-wing opposition was led by the DS Left-wing – Returning to win, a democratic-socialist grouping, with other smaller groups including DS Left – wing for Socialism and the Ecologist Left. Before that, some DS leading members, including Pietr
Years of Lead (Italy)
The Years of Lead is a term used for a period of social and political turmoil in Italy that lasted from the late 1960s until the late 1980s, marked by a wave of both left-wing and right-wing incidents of political terrorism. The Years of Lead are considered to have begun with the Hot Autumn strikes starting in 1969; the term's origin came as a reference to the number of shootings during the period, or a popular 1981 German film Marianne and Juliane, released in Italy as Anni di piombo, which centered on the lives of two members of the West German militant far-left group Red Army Faction which had gained notoriety during the same period. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups. An attempt to endorse the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. Widespread labor unrest and the collaboration of countercultural student activist groups with working class factory workers and pro-labor radical leftist organizations such as Potere Operaio and Lotta Continua culminated in the so-called "Hot Autumn" of 1969, a massive series of strikes in factories and industrial centers in Northern Italy.
Student strikes and labor strikes led by workers, left-sympathizing laborers, or Marxist activists, became common deteriorating into clashes between the police and demonstrators composed of workers, students and left-wing militants. The Christian Democrats were instrumental in the Italian Socialist Party gaining power in the 1960s and they created a coalition; the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades led by Mario Moretti. Between 1968 and 1988, 428 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings and street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy during 1969, with the autonomist student movement being active, leading to the occupation of the Fiat automobile factory in Milan. On 19 November 1969, Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators.
He was the first civil servant to die in the wave of violence. The Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome and the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Milan were bombed in December. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects from left-wing groups, including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist blamed for the bombing, Pietro Valpreda, their guilt was denied by left-wing members by members of the student movement prominent in Milan's universities, as they believed that the bombing was carried out by fascists. Following the death of Giuseppe Pinelli, who mysteriously died on 15 December while in police custody, the radical left-wing newspaper Lotta Continua started a campaign accusing police officer Luigi Calabresi of Pinelli's murder. In 1975, Calabresi and other police officials were acquitted by judge Gerardo D'Ambrosio who decided that Pinelli's fall from a window had been caused by his being taken ill and losing his balance. Meanwhile, the anarchist Valpreda and five others were jailed for the bombing.
They were released after three years of preventive detention. Two neo-fascists, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested accused of being the organizers of the massacre. In the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair cannot be put on trial again because of double jeopardy, as they were acquitted of the crime in 1987; the Red Brigades, the most prominent far-left terrorist organization, conducted a secret internal investigation that paralleled the official inquiry. They ordered that the inquiry remain secret, because of the unfavorable light that it could shed on other terrorist organizations; the inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October 1974. The cover-up was exposed in 2000 by Giovanni Pellegrino, at the time President of the Commissione Stragi; the Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and married, Alberto Franceschini.
While the Trento group around Curcio had its main roots in the Sociology Department of the Catholic University, the Reggio Emilia group included former members of the FGCI expelled from the parent party for their extremist views. Another group of militants came from the Sit-Siemens factories in Milan; the first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni on 17 September 1970, in the context of the labour unrest within the factory. In December, a neo-fascist coup, dubbed the Golpe Borghese, was planned by young far-right fanatics, elderly veterans of Italian Social Republic
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website