Rittenhouse Square is one of the five original open-space parks planned by William Penn and his surveyor Thomas Holme during the late 17th century in central Philadelphia. The park is considered one of the finest urban public spaces in the United States. The square cuts off 19th Street at Walnut Street and at a block above Manning Street. Its boundaries are 18th Street to the East, Walnut St. to the north, Rittenhouse Square West, originally called Southwest Square, Rittenhouse Square was renamed in 1825 after David Rittenhouse, a descendant of the first paper-maker in Philadelphia, the German immigrant William Rittenhouse. William Rittenhouses original paper-mill site is known as Rittenhousetown, located in the setting of Fairmount Park along Paper Mill Run. David Rittenhouse was a clockmaker and friend of the American Revolution, as well as a noted astronomer, in the early nineteenth century, as the city grew steadily from the Delaware River to the Schuylkill River, it became obvious that Rittenhouse Square would become a highly desirable address.
Having thus set the patrician residential tone that would define the Square, he divided the rest of the land into generously proportioned building lots. Sold after the death, the Harper house became the home of the exclusive Rittenhouse Club. Today, the park is surrounded by high rise residences, luxury apartments, an office tower, a few popular restaurants, a Barnes & Noble bookstore, a Barneys. The park is a dog walking destination for area residents. The Square was discussed in a light by Jane Jacobs in her seminal work, The Death. The beauty of the Park is due largely to the efforts of Friends of Rittenhouse Square, lighting, restoration of fountains and fencing—even the installation and stocking of doggie-bag dispensers—are all projects of the Friends of Rittenhouse Square. During 2013, the 100th anniversary of architect Paul Crets redesign of the Square, New security cameras have cut down on vandalism, park rangers have helped calm behavior in the Square, and damaged balustrades and stonework are undergoing extensive restoration.
Delancey Place is a quiet, historical street lined with Civil War-era mansions, the Square is home to many works of public art. Among them is a bas-relief bust of J. William White done by R. Tait McKenzie, Rittenhouse Square hosts dozens of events throughout the year, including some of the city’s most popular happenings. In the fall, hundreds of artists from around the country “Circle the Square” during the traditional Rittenhouse Square Fine Art Show. During the holidays, hundreds pack the park for the start of the season during the Rittenhouse Square Christmas Tree Lighting featuring more than 5,000 brilliant holiday lights. Residents are in the Albert M. Greenfield School catchment area for grades Kindergarten through eight, previously South Philadelphia High School was the neighborhoods zoned high school
Reginald E. Beauchamp
Reginald E. Beauchamp was an American sculptor whose works include Penny Franklin, Whispering Bells of Freedom, and a bust of Connie Mack that sits in the Baseball Hall of Fame. Born in London, Beauchamp immigrated to the United States at age 2 with his family and he worked as the director of special events and the head of public relations and personnel at the Philadelphia Bulletin newspaper from 1945 to 1975. Beauchamp created 25 works of art, most of which were installed in Philadelphia. They include, The Living Flame Memorial, erected in 1976 in Franklin Square as the monument to honor city police. The Hero Mosaic in Philadelphia City Hall, the Vietnam Bronze War Memorial at Edison High School. The North Philly school lost 66 former students in the Vietnam War, tony Burgee, class of 1961, led the effort to create the memorial. The Signing of the Declaration of Independence paining at the Mellon Independence Center mall, a bronze of Dave Zinkoff, a veteran announcer of Philadelphia sporting events, at the Philadelphia Spectrum arena.
A plastic glass spire at Mercy Philadelphia Hospital, Whispering Bells of Freedom, outside the African American Museum in downtown Philadelphia. In 1986, two Beauchamp bronze bas-reliefs of the face of Civil War hero George C. Platt were installed at the approaches to the George C. Platt Bridge over the Schuylkill River, both were stolen, the first in 1987, and the second some time later. A $500 reward offered by the Philadelphia Daily News in 2002 was unsuccessful in securing their return, Beauchamp once hung colored ribbons from the statue of William Penn atop Philadelphia City Hall to nearby buildings, creating the look of a maypole more than 500 feet tall. In 1967, he proposed a $5 million, 14-story bust of Benjamin Franklin to be mounted on Belmont Plateau in the citys Fairmount Park. It was to be made of vertical tubes, six inches in diameter and one inch apart. Another is Philadelphia Then & Now, a 53-by-68-inch painting commissioned by the Philadelphia Bulletin in 1947 to commemorate the newspapers 100th anniversary and it depicts the city as it appeared in 1847, with the contemporary skyline floating in the clouds above.
The painting was exhibited at Newman Gallery, hung for 25 years at the Poor Richard Club, shifted into private hands in the mid-1970s, and was offered at auction in 2009. Beauchamps favorite of his works was Penny Franklin, a bust of Ben Franklin that was covered with 80,000 pennies collected from local schoolchildren. Using clay, Beauchamp modeled an adult-sized bust of a long-haired, gentle-eyed fellow — the Franklin of the books, wise. Then he reached into his supply and covered the entire thing with coins. Beauchamp completed it with a coating of fiberglass
Love Park, officially known as John F. Kennedy Plaza, is a plaza located in Center City, Pennsylvania. The park is nicknamed Love Park for its reproduction of Robert Indianas Love sculpture which overlooks the plaza, Love Park is the brainchild of former Philadelphia City Planner Edmund Bacon and architect Vincent G. Kling. The park is across from City Hall and was designed as a terminus for the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, the park was built in 1965 and covers an underground parking garage. The main features of the plaza are curved granite steps and a single spout fountain added in 1969, what was once the city visitor center was closed down for five years, but opened up in May 2006 as The Fairmount Park Welcome Center. The park was dedicated in 1967 as John F. Kennedy Plaza after President John F. Kennedy, a Love sculpture, designed by Robert Indiana, was first placed in the plaza in 1976 as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration. It was removed in 1978, but the sculpture was missed, Love Park is undergoing renovation and is closed to the public.
The LOVE sculpture has moved to nearby Dilworth Park temporarily. Built at the base of the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in 1960 by the Philadelphia Chamber of Commerce and it is currently closed while being renovated with the rest of the plaza. The Christmas Village in Philadelphia was formerly held at Dilworth Plaza, during the construction on that site of Dilworth Park, the Christmas Village was temporarily relocated to LOVE Park. It is modeled after 16th-century German Christmas Markets, the most famous one being in Nuremberg, running from Thanksgiving to New Years Eve, the village attracts thousands in Center City and is one of the most popular holiday events in Philadelphia. Currently, while Love Park is being renovated, the village has moved back to Dilworth Park for the holidays. The Ellen Phillips Samuel Memorial Fountain is often dyed colors throughout the year to commemorate or celebrate events
The same material can be utilised as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, and has many other uses. Chemically, it is the polymer of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is an alternative to polycarbonate when extreme strength is not necessary. Additionally, PMMA does not contain the potentially harmful bisphenol-A subunits found in polycarbonate and it is often preferred because of its moderate properties, easy handling and processing, and low cost. The first acrylic acid was created in 1843, methacrylic acid, derived from acrylic acid, was formulated in 1865. The reaction between acid and methanol results in the ester methyl methacrylate. In 1877 the German chemist Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig discovered the process that turns methyl methacrylate into polymethyl methacrylate. In 1933, the brand name Plexiglas was patented and registered by another German chemist, in 1936 Imperial Chemical Industries began the first commercially viable production of acrylic safety glass. During World War II both Allied and Axis forces used acrylic glass for submarine periscopes and aircraft windshields, common orthographic stylings include polymethyl methacrylate and polymethylmethacrylate.
The full chemical name is poly, although often called simply acrylic, acrylic can refer to other polymers or copolymers containing polyacrylonitrile. The other notable names include, Acrylite, a trademark of Evonik Cyro since 1976 Lucite, a trademark of DuPont, first registered in 1937 R-Cast. Founded in 1987 after spinning off from Reynolds & Taylor and they specialize in large scale and thick monolithic acrylic. Plexiglas, a trademark of ELF Atochem, now a subsidiary of Arkema in the US, radical initiation is used, but anionic polymerization of PMMA can be performed. To produce 1 kg of PMMA, about 2 kg of petroleum is needed, PMMA produced by radical polymerization is atactic and completely amorphous. The glass transition temperature of atactic PMMA is 105 °C, PMMA is thus an organic glass at room temperature, i. e. it is below its Tg. The forming temperature starts at the transition temperature and goes up from there. All common molding processes may be used, including molding, compression molding.
The highest quality PMMA sheets are produced by casting, but in this case
Dilworth Park is a public space in Center City Philadelphia, along the west side of City Hall. Dilworth Park opened in September 2014 and it is named in honor of Richardson Dilworth, the 118th mayor of Philadelphia. The current park, designed by KieranTimberlake, Urban Engineers and OLIN replaces Dilworth Plaza, Dilworth Park contains Rosa Blanca Cafe, an outpost of Chef Jose Garces restaurant Rosa Blanca. An ice skating rink is open in the winter, Dilworth Park was built on the original Dilworth Plaza section of Philadelphia City Hall, which was built on the area designated by William Penn as Centre Square. It was a square from the citys founding in 1682 until the construction of City Hall began upon the site in 1871. It was one of the five original squares laid out on the city grid by Penn and it lay at the geographic heart of the city from 1682 until the Act of Consolidation,1854. Despite the two riverfronts [Delaware and Schuylkill, Penns city had a design, focusing on this central plaza.
However, the Delaware riverfront would remain the de facto economic, hardly anyone lived west of Fourth Street before 1703. Consequently Penns design of a square as the hub of his community had to be abandoned. The large Friends meeting house which was built in 1685 at the midpoint between the rivers was dismantled in 1702, efforts to develop the Schuylkill waterfront likewise collapsed. Of the merchants and craftsmen who can be identified as living in Philadelphia around 1690,123 lived on the Delaware side of town and only 6 on the Schuylkill side. One of the latter, a tailor named William Boulding, complained that he had invested most of his capital in his Schuylkill lot, so that he cannot, as others have done, Remove from the same. Nor was Centre Square restored as the heart of Philadelphia until the construction of City Hall began in 1871, Penn Center Richardson Dilworth List of parks in Philadelphia Center City District page about Dilworth Park
Washington Square (Philadelphia)
It is part of both the Washington Square West and Society Hill neighborhoods. In 2005, the National Park Service took over ownership and management of Washington Square and it is now part of Independence National Historical Park. During the Revolutionary War, the square was used as a ground for citizens. After the Revolution, victims of the yellow fever epidemics were interred here. Improvement efforts began in 1815, as the neighborhoods around the square were developed, in 1825, the park was named Washington Square in tribute to George Washington and a monument to Washington was proposed. This monument was never built but served as the seed for the tribute to soldiers of the Revolutionary War. Washington Square included an area called Lawyers Row at 6th and Walnut, the square was home to the citys publishing industry, including the Curtis Publishing Company, J. B. Saunders, Lea & Febiger, the Farm Journal, and George T. Bisel Co. law publishers, now the sole remaining publishing house on the Square and it has been located there since 1876 and still owned by the Bisel family.
Washington Square was the site of the first human flight in the Americas in 1793 when Jean Pierre Blanchard ascended in his balloon from the Walnut Street Prison. Initially, the square contained monuments to those who had fought in the American Civil War, one such monument was the Washington Grays Monument. In 1954, the decision was made to remove the civil war commemorations, the Tomb includes remains which were disinterred, after archeological examination, from within the park from when it was a cemetery. The remains are that of a soldier, but it is if he was Colonial or British. An unknown number of bodies remain buried beneath the square and the area, some are still occasionally found during construction. A sycamore moon tree in the square, planted in 1975, was grown from seeds that had carried to the moon by astronaut Stuart Roosa on the Apollo 14 mission. The pop-punk group, The Wonder Years, wrote about Washington Square in their song Washington Square Park, from their album, The Upsides
Fitler Square, Philadelphia
Fitler Square is a 0.5 acre public park in Philadelphia, bounded on the east by 23rd Street, on the west by 24th Street, on the north by Panama Street, and on the south by Pine Street. It is in the part of Philadelphias Center City on land owned by City of Philadelphia via the Department of Parks. Fitler Square was named for late 19th century Philadelphia mayor Edwin Henry Fitler shortly after his death in 1896, the Square is cared for through a public private partnership between the Department of Parks and Recreation and the Fitler Square Improvement Association. The portion of Center City surrounding Fitler Square and nearby Rittenhouse Square is sometimes referred to as Rit-Fit after the two parks, a second nickname, Fittenhouse Square, was coined by local comedian Niraj Shanbhag during the 1990s. Before the 1950s the neighborhood was a example of the urban blight that had overcome much of the city. The park itself was described as a mudhole inhabited by drunks, in the mid-1950s, The Center City Residents Association successfully petitioned Mayor Clark to do something about the decline of the neighborhood.
Working together, they freed up mortgage money for the construction of new homes, threatening the neighborhood was the proposed Crosstown Expressway. The threat of its construction, which would demolish much of the neighborhood, was enough to reduce property values, today the neighborhood is mostly residential, composed of single-family homes, and within a short walk of the commercial areas of Center City. On the television show Philly, Kim Delaneys character Kathleen was portrayed as living in an apartment overlooking the park. Hojun Li, co-editor of the film The Sixth Sense, claims to have inspired by children in Fitler Square. The Fitler Square Improvement Association was founded in 1962 by neighborhood resident Marie Wilson who took on the responsibility for major overhaul of Fitler Square itself. In 2012 The Association celebrated its 50th Anniversary under the leadership of president Judy Romano and this celebration included a large tented in-square event on October 6,2012 that raised a net of about $18,000 for use toward the improvement and maintenance of Fitler Square.
The Fitler Square Improvement Association works in private partnership with the Philadelphia Department of Parks and Recreation to maintain. In addition to these activities, the Fitler Square Improvement Association conducts major capital projects. More capital improvements are planned for the near future, most projects and events are funded by membership contributions from neighbors, for which The Association is deeply grateful. The bench replacement project was funded by 2nd District City Councilman Kenyatta Johnson who has been a steward of Fitler Square. On May 10,2014 Fitler Squares new benches were officially opened to the public by a ceremony at the Fitler Square Improvement Associations spring fair, a young park user held the official honor of cutting the ceremonial ribbon. A sculpture of three turtles adorn the park made by well-known Philadelphia artist Eric Berg, as well as sculptures of a Grizzly Bear, the center of the park is dominated by a Victorian-era fountain which flows most of the year
Horseshoes is an outdoor game played between two people using four horseshoes and two throwing targets set in a lawn or sandbox area. The game is played by the alternating turns tossing horseshoes at stakes in the ground. Modern games use a more stylized U-shaped bar, about twice the size of an actual horseshoe, there are other entities that have their own versions of the game and sanction their own events, but the largest recognized volume of sanctioned tournaments and leagues are those of the NHPA. The game begins with a toss to decide who goes first. The winner of the throws both horseshoes—one at a time—at the opposite stake, and the second player throws both of their horseshoes—again, one at a time—at their end. After scoring, the round is done in reverse order. Play continues until one player has at least 15 points at the end of a round, NHPA sanctioned games are generally played to 40 points, or a shoe limit of 40 or 50 shoes. The horseshoes can be made of plastic or metal. In horseshoes, there are two ways to score, by throwing ringers or by throwing the horseshoe nearest to the stake, a ringer is a thrown horseshoe such that the horseshoe completely encircles the stake.
Disputes are settled by using a straightedge to touch the two points at the ends of the horseshoe, called heel calks, if the straightedge doesnt touch the stake, the horseshoe is a ringer. One player pitches both shoes in succession to one pit, followed by the other player and this is formally called an inning. Normally only one pitcher can score points per inning, however some leagues and tournaments play count all, a live shoe that is not a ringer, but comes to rest six inches or closer to the stake, has a value of one point. If both of one players horseshoes are closer than the opponents, two points are scored, in the case of one ringer and a closer horseshoe, both horseshoes are scored for a total of four points. If a player throws two ringers, that player scores six points, if each player throws a ringer, the ringers cancel and no points are scored. If two ringers are thrown by one player and one ringer by the opponent, the player throwing two ringers scores three points and this is typically called two dead and three or three ringers three for score keeping purposes.
Such occurrences are called dead ringers and are used toward the pitcher/ringer average. Back-yard games can be played to any number of points that is agreed upon, in most sanctioned tournaments the handicapped divisions pitch 50 shoe games, most points win. If there is a tie, the pitch an additional 2 innings until the tie is broken
Franklin Square (Philadelphia)
Franklin Square is one of the five original open-space parks planned by William Penn when he laid out the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1682. It is located in the Center City area, between North 6th and 7th Streets, and between Race Street and the Vine Street Expressway, the park went through a period of deterioration, but was refurbished and revitalized in 2006. It is now managed by Historic Philadelphia, a non-profit organization, Franklin Square was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981. Originally called North East Publick Square, Franklin Square was renamed in 1825 to honor Benjamin Franklin, in its early years, the square was an open common used for grazing animals, storing gunpowder during the American Revolution and drilling soldiers during the War of 1812. From 1741 to 1835, a portion of the Square was used as a cemetery by the German Reformed Church, some of the graves still remain, marked by a plaque. The construction of the Ben Franklin Bridge, from 1922–26, leveled blocks of row homes and other structures, in 1961, writer Jane Jacobs labeled Franklin Square the citys Skid Row park, a description that fit for decades.
The neighborhood’s residential character was further eroded when the Federal government established Independence Mall, the government acquired private land around the Square in the 1950s and 1960s and demolished blocks of homes and other buildings. The construction of the Vine Street Expressway in the late 1980s exacerbated the problem, Franklin Square became the least-used of Penn’s original five squares, and served mainly as an encampment for the homeless. It was reopened and rededicated on July 31,2006, in Franklin’s tercentenary year, the revitalized park contains a number of family-friendly attractions. As a result, pedestrian traffic has increased dramatically, local legend maintains that Franklin Square is where Benjamin Franklin conducted his famous, though misunderstood and key experiment in 1752. However, it would have been unlikely for Franklin to fly a kite near a cemetery, the legend is memorialized in Isamu Noguchi’s Bolt of Lightning. A Memorial to Benjamin Franklin, a 101-foot tall, 60-ton stainless steel sculpture commissioned by the Fairmount Park Art Association and costing $850,000.
It was erected in 1984 in Monument Plaza at the base of the Ben Franklin Bridge, facing the Square across 6th Street, Noguchi had first proposed the sculpture in 1933, but the idea was rejected as being too radical. The sculpture, which depicts a kite, a bolt of lightning, columnist Larry Mendte called it the ugliest piece of art in Philadelphia and a bizarre eyesore. The Franklin Square Fountain was built in 1838, but fell into disrepair by the late 1970s and was turned off and it was refurbished and repaired during the parks restoration. The fence and stone work of the fountain are original, the Parx Liberty Carousel is located just northwest of the Fountain. Many of the carousels animals recall Philadelphias historical heritage, philly Mini Golf, located north of the Fountain, is the only miniature golf course in Center City. The holes are based on some of the citys best-known tourist spots, such as Elfreths Alley, the Ben Franklin Bridge, in 1976, the city dedicated the Living Flame Memorial, which honors the citys fallen police officers and firefighters
Independence National Historical Park
Independence National Historical Park is a United States National Park in Philadelphia that preserves several sites associated with the American Revolution and the nations founding history. Administered by the National Park Service, the 55-acre park comprises much of Philadelphias most-visited historic district, Independence Hall was the principal meetinghouse of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. Across the street from Independence Hall, the Liberty Bell, a symbol of American independence, is displayed in the Liberty Bell Center. Carpenters Hall, the site of the First Continental Congress, is located on Park property as well and it contains City Tavern, a recreated colonial tavern, which was the favorite of the delegates, and John Adams felt was the finest tavern in all America. Most of the historic structures are located in the vicinity of the four landscaped blocks between Chestnut, Walnut, 2nd, and 6th streets. The park contains Franklin Court, the site of a dedicated to Benjamin Franklin.
The park contains historical artifacts, such as the Syng inkstand which was used during the signings of both the Declaration and the Constitution. The park can be reached by taking SEPTAs Market-Frankford Line to the 5th street station, the convention organized a pact among the colonies to boycott British goods starting December 1,1774 and provided for a Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia. On May 10,1775, the Second Continental Congress assembled at the Pennsylvania State House after the Battles of Lexington, Congress adopted the Olive Branch Petition in July 1775, which affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated King George III to prevent further conflict. The petition was rejected—in August 1775, the Kings Proclamation of Rebellion formally declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion. In February 1776, colonists received news that Parliament passed the Prohibitory Act, Congress unanimously adopted its final version of the Declaration on July 4, marking the formation of the United States of America.
Historians believe that the Old State House Bell, now known as the Liberty Bell, was one of the bells rung to mark the reading of the Declaration on July 8. After 1781, the government operated under the Articles of Confederation. This resulted in the Philadelphia Convention, which met from May 14 to September 17,1787 at the Pennsylvania State House, the Convention was dominated by controversies and conflicting interests, but the delegates forged a Constitution that has been called a bundle of compromises. At the convention, delegate James Madison presented the Virginia Plan, large states supported this plan, but smaller states feared losing substantial power under the plan. Roger Sherman combined the two plans with the Connecticut Compromise, and his measure passed on July 16,1787 by seven to six—a margin of one vote, other contentious issues were slavery and the federal regulation of commerce, which resulted in additional compromises. The Residence Act of 1790 empowered President George Washington to locate a permanent capital along the Potomac River, robert Morris, a representative from Pennsylvania, convinced Congress to designate Philadelphia as the temporary capital city of the United States federal government.
From December 6,1790 to May 14,1800, the same block hosted federal, county, Congress Hall, which was originally built to serve as the Philadelphia County Courthouse, served as the seat of the United States Congress