Descent from Genghis Khan
Descent from Genghis Khan called Genghisids, is traceable in Mongolia, China, Southeast Asia and the Middle East. His four sons and other immediate descendants are famous by deeds. Asian potentates attempted to claim descent from the Borjigin on flimsy grounds, such as was considered Mongol matrilineal descent. In the 14th century, valid sources all but dried up. With the recent popularity of genealogical DNA testing, a larger and broader circle of people started to claim descent from Genghis Khan. Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son, had many more recorded progeny than his brothers Ögedei and Tolui—but there is some doubt over his paternity. According to The Secret History of the Mongols, the boy was sent to Genghis by Chilger, who had kidnapped his first wife Börte, keeping her in captivity for about a year. In one passage, Chagatai refers to Jochi as "bastard". To this, Genghis Khan responds: "How dare you talk about Jochi like this? Is not he the eldest of my heirs? That I never heard such wicked words again!".
All in all, Genghis Khan pronounces. Modern historians speculate that Jochi's disputed paternity was the reason for his eventual estrangement from his father and for the fact that his descendants never succeeded to the imperial throne. On the other hand, Genghis always treated Jochi as his first son, while the failure of the Jochid succession may be explained by Jochi's premature death. Another important consideration is. For instance, the Jochids took wives from the Ilkhan dynasty of Persia, whose progenitor was Hulagu Khan; as a consequence, it is that many Jochids had other sons of Genghis Khan among their maternal ancestors. Asian dynasties descended from Genghis Khan included the Kublaids of China, the Hulaguids of Persia, the Jochids of the Golden Horde, the Shaybanids of Siberia, the Astrakhanids of Central Asia; as a rule, the Genghisid descent played a crucial role in Tatar politics. For instance, Mamai had to exercise his authority through a succession of puppet khans but could not assume the title of khan himself because he lacked Genghisid lineage.
Timur Lenk, the founder of the Timurid Dynasty, claimed descent from Genghis Khan. He never assumed the title "Khan" for himself, but employed two members of the Chagatai clan as formal heads of state; the Mughal imperial family of the Indian subcontinent descended from Timur through Babur and from Genghis Khan. The ruling Wang Clan of the Korean Goryeo Dynasty became descendants of the Genghisids through the marriage between King Chungnyeol and a daughter of Kublai Khan. All subsequent rulers of Korea for the next 80 years, through King Gongmin married Borjigid princesses. At a period, Tatar potentates of Genghisid stock included the khans of Qazan and Qasim and the Giray dynasty, which ruled the Khanate of Crimea until 1783. Other countries ruled by dynasties with descent from Genghis Khan are Moghulistan, the Northern Yuan dynasty, Kara Del, Khanate of Kazan, Qasim Khanate, the Kazakh Khanate, the Great Horde, the Khanate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Khiva, the Yarkent Khanate, the Arghun dynasty, the Kumul Khanate and the Khanate of Kokand.
The khans of the Khoshut Khanate were indirect descendants. They were descendants from a younger brother of Qasar; as the Russian Empire annexed Turkic polities, their Genghizid rulers entered the Russian service. For instance, Kuchum's descendants became Russified as the Tsarevichs of Siberia. Descendants of Ablai Khan assumed in Russia the name of Princes Valikhanov. All these families asserted their Genghisid lineage; the only extant family of this group is the House of Giray, whose members left Soviet Russia for the United States and United Kingdom. More a Russian tsar Simeon Bekbulatovich as a grandson of Ahmed Khan bin Küchük was a descendant of Genghis Khan; the Qing of China exterminated one branch of the Borjigids after an anti-Qing revolt in 1675 by Ejei Khan's brother Abunai and Abunai's son Borni against the Qing. The Qing Emperors placed the Chahar Mongols under their direct rule; the Emperors of the Qing dynasty and the Emperor of Manchukuo were indirect descendants by Qasar, a younger brother of Genghis Khan.
After the Mongol invasion of Rus', the Rurik dynasty rulers of Russian principalities were eager to obtain political advantages for themselves and their countries by marrying into the House of Genghis. Alexander Nevsky was adopted by Batu Khan as his son. Alexander's grandson Yury of Moscow married a sister of Öz Beg Khan. On the other hand, petty Mongol princelings of Genghisid stock rarely settled in Russia. For instance, Berke's nephew adopted the Christia
The Grand Vizier was the "prime minister" of any sovereign state in the pre-modern Greater Middle East. The office of Grand Vizier was first held by officials in the Abbasid Dynasty the Ottoman Empire in the Mughal Empire; the Grand Vizier is authorized with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself. The Grand Vizier held the imperial seal and could convene all other viziers to attend to affairs of the state, his offices were located at the Sublime Porte. The term "vizier" was a denomination used by the Abbasid Dynasty in the 8th century AD; this position came to the Ottomans in the early 14th century by way of the Seljuks of Anatolia. During the nascent phases of the Ottoman state, "vizier" was the only title used; the first of these Ottoman viziers, titled "Grand Vizier" was Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder. The purpose in instituting the title "Grand Vizier" was to distinguish the holder of the Sultan's seal from other viziers; the more used title of vezir-i âzam was replaced by sadrazam, both meaning "grand vizier" in practice.
Throughout Ottoman history, the grand viziers have been termed sadr-ı âlî, vekil-i mutlak, sâhib-i devlet, serdar-ı ekrem, serdar-ı azam and zât-ı âsafî. Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder reformed the role of the vizier in several ways. Several before him differently named office, he was the first advisor with a military background – his forerunners had come from a more scholarly class of men. It is significant that he was the first of a political family that, at the time, rivaled the Ottoman dynasty itself. Several of Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Elder’s kin went on to hold the office of Grand Vizier in the decades following his death. Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger, the grandson of Pasha the Elder, was highly influential in shaping the role of the Grand Vizier. During the reign of Mehmed II, the Younger opposed the siege of Constantinople and the ongoing hostilities with Christians. Two days after the siege was won by Mehmed II, the Younger was executed for his opposition. After his death, the position of Grand Vizier was chosen nearly from the kul system.
This was a political move, designed to appease powerful European factions to Ottoman supremacy. Grand Viziers gained immense political supremacy in the days of the Ottoman Empire. Power was centralized in the position of the Grand Vizier during the Köprülü era. Köprülü Mehmed Pasha was a powerful political figure during the reign of Mehmed IV, was appointed to the office of Grand Vizier in 1656, he consolidated power within the position and sent the Sultan away from the city on hunting trips, thus stopping Mehmed’s direct management over the state. Next, he forcibly removed, he conducted campaigns against Venice and the Hapsburgs, as well as quelling rebellions in Anatolia. On his deathbed five years he convinced Mehmed to appoint his son as the next Grand Vizier, thus securing his dynasty a position of supreme power in the Empire, it was during the Köprülü era that the Ottoman Empire reached its largest geographic expansion across Europe, Asia Minor, Africa. In Ottoman legal theory, the Sultan was supposed to conduct affairs of state via the Grand Vizier, but in reality this arrangement was circumvented.
As the Ottomanist Colin Imber writes, the Sultan "had closer contact with the pages of the Privy Chamber, the Kapi Agha, the Kizlar Agha or with other courtiers than he did with the Grand Vizier, these too could petition the Sultan on their own or somebody else’s behalf. He might, too, be more inclined to take the advice of his mother, a concubine or the head gardener at the helm of the royal barge than of the Grand Vizier". After the Tanzimat period of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, the grand viziers came to assume a role more like that of the prime ministers of contemporary Western monarchies. Thirty grand viziers of Albanian ethnicity served the empire during the Ottoman period and most of them were southern Albanians. Bairam Khan was the Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire, who led the forces of Akbar to victory during the Second Battle of Panipat. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Akbar. Sadullah Khan, Grand Vizier of the Mughal Empire during the reign of Shah Jahan.
During the reign of Aurangzeb, Ali Quli Khan was bestowed this title. General Zulfiqar Khan Nusrat Jung became Grand Vizier, his fame as one of the most greatest military leaders in the Mughal Empire would lead to his downfall when rogue generals executed him in a power struggle after the death of Aurangzeb. In 1718, Balaji Vishwanath leader of the antagonistic Maratha Confederacy secured the right to collect Chauth and Sardeshmukhi from the Subahs of the Mughal Empire by the rogue Vizier Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, whose grip over the Deccan had weakened. Asaf Jah I, however refused to grant Chauth to the Maratha Confederacy during its onset in 1718 and in 1721 after the nobility of the Mughal Empire had the two Sayyid Brothers assassi
The Ottoman dynasty was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman known as the Ottomans. According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia in the district of Bilecik Söğüt; the Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire from c. 1299 to 1922. During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, head of government, though much of the power shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First and Second Constitutional Eras of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Vizier taking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly; the imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 during the Turkish War of Independence. The Republic of Turkey was declared the following year; the living members of the dynasty were sent into exile as personae non gratae, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey.
In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family. The Ottoman dynasty operated under several basic premises: that the Sultan governed the empire’s entire territory, that every male member of the dynastic family was hypothetically eligible to become Sultan, that only one person at a time could be the Sultan; such rules were standard for monarchic empires of the time. The certain processes through which men rose to the Sultanate, were specific to the Ottoman Empire. To go into greater detail about these processes, the history of succession between Sultans can be divided into two eras: the period between the reign of Orhan, the first person to inherit the Ottoman sultanate, the reign of Ahmed I; the succession process during the first period was dominated by violence and intra-familial conflict, in which the various sons of the deceased Sultan fought until only one remained alive and, inherited the throne. This tradition was known as fratricide in the Ottoman Empire, but may have evolved from tanistry, a similar succession procedure that existed in many Turco-Mongolian dynasties predating the Ottomans.
Sons of the Sultan were given provincial territories to govern until the Sultan’s death, at which point they would each vie for the throne. Each son had to, according to historian H. Erdem Cipa, “demonstrate that his fortune was superior to the fortunes of his rivals,” a demonstration that took the form of military accomplishment and ruthlessness; this violence was not considered unexpected or unusual. As Cipa has noted, the Ottoman words for “successor” and “conflict” share the same Arabic root, indeed, all but one of the successions in this 200-year period involved a resolution by combat. Over time, the combat became prevalent and recognized after a Jannissary uprising negated Murad II’s attempt to abdicate the throne peacefully to his son, Mehmed II, in 1444. During the eventual reign of Mehmed II, fratricide was legalized as an official practice. During the second period, the tradition of fratricide was replaced by a simpler and less violent procedure. Starting with the succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617, the Ottoman throne was inherited by the eldest male family member — not son — of the Sultan, regardless of how many eligible family members were alive.
The change in succession procedure was instigated by numerous factors, including fratricide’s decline in popularity among Ottoman elites and Ahmed I’s decision not to kill Mustafa when inheriting the throne from Mehmed III in 1603. With the door opened for a change in policy, a political debate arose between those who supported unrestricted Sultan privilege and those who supported a stronger, centralized law system that would supersede the Sultan’s power to an extent, historian Baki Tezcan has argued that the latter faction — with the help of influential grand mufti "Sa’deddinzade Es’ad" — was able to prevail in this instance; the blood-free succession from Ahmed I to Mustafa I in 1617 “provided a reference for the eventual stabilization of the rule of Ottoman succession, the regulation of which by an outside force was in effect a constitutional check on the dynastic prerogative,” Tezcan has written. The precedent set in 1617 stuck, as the eldest living family member inherited the throne in each of the following 21 successions, with few instances of a son inheriting the throne.
From the fourteenth through the late sixteenth centuries, the Ottomans practiced open succession – something historian Donald Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son." During their father's lifetime, all adult sons of the reigning sultan obtained provincial governorships. Accompanied and mentored by their mothers, they would gather supporters while ostensibly following a Ghazi ethos. Upon the death of the reigning sultan, his sons would fight amongst themselves until one emerged triumphant. A prince's proximity to Constantinople improved his chances of succession because he would hear of his father's death and declare himself Sultan first. A sultan could thus hint at his preferred successor by giving a favourite son a closer governorship. Bayezid II, for ins
Qasim Khanate or Kingdom of Qasim or Khanate of Qasım was a Tatar khanate, a vassal of Russia, which existed from 1452 until 1681 in the territory of modern Ryazan Oblast in Russia with its capital Kasimov, in the middle course of the Oka River. It was established in the lands which Grand Prince Vasily II of Moscow presented in 1452 to the Kazan prince Qasim khan, son of the first Kazan khan Olug Moxammat; the original populations were Muroma, Mordvins. The land was under Volga Bulgaria's influence. Local tribes were tributaries of Russian dukes; the area was incorporated into Vladimir-Suzdal. In 1152, Duke of Vladimir Yuri Dolgoruky founded Gorodets-Meshchyorskiy. After the Mongol conquest, the territory was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde. Turkic settlers appeared in those areas, most of them accepted Islam under influence from the Volga Bulgars; the semi-independent principality Mishar Yurt was founded by Hordian Mohammad Shirin beg. From 1393, the area became a part of Russia.
After the battle of Suzdal in 1445, Olug Moxammad claimed to return those lands to the Tatars. According to some historians, such as Khudyakov, Vassily executed the claim and Moxammat's son Qasim was crowned as a ruler of Meshchyora lands; the area and capital were renamed after him. Another version is that Qasim came into Russian service and was granted those lands to create a buffer state between Grand Duchy of Moscow and the Khanate of Kazan. However, the Khanate was a vassal of Russia. From the beginning, Khans governed the Khanate's territory, but the outer politics were controlled by Russia; the land was settled by Tatars and Mordvins. The Meshchyora and Muroma tribes had been assimilated into the Mishar Tatars; some Kazan Tatars resettled to Qasim lands, were called Qasim Tatars. The most of Qasim Tatars served in the khan's military; this group had been assimilated into the Mishar Tatars, but nearby 1,000 Qasim Tatars are still living in the city of Kasimov. The noble families were the Manghyt, Jalair, Qipchaq.
Moscow's administrators elected the khans from ruling families of the Tatar khanates: Khanate of Kazan, the Crimean Khanate, the Siberia Khanate. Qasim khans with their guard participated in all of Russia's raids into Kazan. Qasim khan Şahğäli was three times crowned as Kazan khan with the aid of Russia. After the conquest of Kazan, the self-government of the khans was abolished and the khanate came to be governed by Russian voyevodas. However, khans still reigned. One of the khans, Simeon Bekbulatovich, was baptised and proclaimed Grand Duke of Moscow in 1574, he never reigned and was used for a short period by Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible as a puppet head of state. At the reign of Sayed Borhan khan Russia started a policy of Christianization. Begs, who had a status equal to Boyars, were switched to Serving Tatars, equal to Dvoryans; this policy provoked a Tatar revolt in 1656. After the death of khanbika Fatima Soltan in 1681, the Khanate was abolished. List of Qasim Khans List of Turkic dynasties and countries List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz.
The Crimean Khanate and Poland-Lithuania: International Diplomacy on the European Periphery. A Study of Peace Treaties Followed by Annotated Documents. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004191907. "Qasím Xanlığı/Касыйм ханлыгы". Tatar Encyclopaedia. Kazan: The Republic of Tatarstan Academy of Sciences. Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia. 2002. List of Qasim rulers
Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that became Constantinople, Istanbul. Byzantium was colonized by the Greeks from Megara in 657 BC; the etymology of Byzantion is unknown. It has been suggested, it may be derived from the Illyrian personal name Byzas. Ancient Greek legend refers to King Byzas, the leader of the Megarian colonists and founder of the city; the form Byzantium is a latinisation of the original name. Much the name Byzantium became common in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire, its capital Constantinople stood on the site of ancient Byzantium. The name "Byzantine Empire" was introduced by the historian Hieronymus Wolf only in 1555, a century after the empire had ceased to exist. While the empire existed, the term Byzantium referred to only the city, rather than the empire; the name Lygos for the city, which corresponds to an earlier Thracian settlement, is mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural History. The origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend.
Traditional legend says Byzas from Megara founded Byzantium in 667 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. The tradition tells that Byzas, son of King Nisos, planned to found a colony of the Dorian Greek city of Megara. Byzas consulted the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, which instructed Byzas to settle opposite the "Land of the Blind". Leading a group of Megarian colonists, Byzas found a location where the Golden Horn, a great natural harbor, meets the Bosporus and flows into the Sea of Marmara, opposite Chalcedon, he adjudged the Chalcedonians blind not to have recognized the advantages the land on the European side of the Bosporus had over the Asiatic side. In 667 BC he founded Byzantium at their location, it was a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantium conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side; the city was taken by the Persian Empire at the time of the Scythian campaign of King Darius I, was added to the administrative province of Skudra.
Though Achaemenid control of the city was never as stable as compared to other cities in Thrace, it was considered, alongside Sestos, to be one of the foremost Achaemenid ports on the European coast of the Bosporus and the Hellespont. Byzantium was besieged by Greek forces during the Peloponnesian War; as part of Sparta's strategy for cutting off grain supplies to Athens, Sparta took the city in 411 BC. The Athenian military took the city in 408 BC. After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD. Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, regained its previous prosperity, it was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself. After his death the city was called Constantinople; this combination of imperialism and location would affect Constantinople's role as the nexus between the continents of Europe and Asia.
It was a commercial and diplomatic centre. With its strategic position, Constantinople controlled the major trade routes between Asia and Europe, as well as the passage from the Mediterranean Sea to the Black Sea. On May 29, 1453, the city fell to the Ottoman Turks, again became the capital of a powerful state, the Ottoman Empire; the Turks called the city "Istanbul". To this day it remains the largest and most populous city in Turkey, although Ankara is now the national capital. By the late Hellenistic or early Roman period, the star and crescent motif was associated to some degree with Byzantium; some Byzantine coins of the 1st century BC and show the head of Artemis with bow and quiver, feature a crescent with what appears to be an eight-rayed star on the reverse. According to accounts which vary in some of the details, in 340 BC the Byzantines and their allies the Athenians were under siege by the troops of Philip of Macedon. On a dark and wet night Philip attempted a surprise attack but was thwarted by the appearance of a bright light in the sky.
This light is described by subsequent interpreters as a meteor, sometimes as the moon, some accounts mention the barking of dogs. However, the original accounts mention only a bright light in the sky, without specifying the moon. To commemorate the event the Byzantines erected a statue of Hecate lampadephoros; this story survived in the works of Hesychius of Miletus, who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian I. His works survive only in fragments preserved in the tenth century lexicographer Suidas; the tale is related by Stephanus of Byzantium, Eustathius. Devotion to Hecate was favored by the Byzantines for her aid in having protected them from the incursions of Philip of Macedon, her symbols were the crescent and star, the walls of her city were her provenance. It is unclear how the symbol Hecate/Artemis, one of many goddesses would have been transferred to the city itself, but it seems to have been an effect of being credited with the intervention against Philip and the subse
The Zaporozhian Sich was a semi-autonomous polity and proto-state of Cossacks in the 16th to 18th centuries, centred in the region around today's Kakhovka Reservoir and spanning the lower Dnieper river in Ukraine. In different periods the area came under the sovereignty of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Ottoman Empire, the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire. In 1775, shortly after Russia annexed the territories ceded to it by the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, Catherine the Great disbanded the Sich, she incorporated its territory into the Russian province of Novorossiya. The term "Zaporozhian Sich" can refer metonymically and informally to the whole military-administrative organisation of the Zaporozhian Cossack Host; the name "Zaporizhia" refers to the military and political organization of the Cossacks and to the location of their autonomous territory'beyond the Rapids' of the Dnieper River. The Dnieper Rapids were a major portage on the north-south Dnieper trade route.
The term "sich" is a noun related to the Eastern Slavic verb sech′ – "to chop" or "cut". Zaporizhia was located in the region around Kakhovka Reservoir in today's south-eastern Ukraine; the area was known under the historical term, Wild Fields. A possible precursor of the Zaporozhian Sich was a fortification built on the Tomakivka island in the middle of the Dnieper River in the present-day Zaporizhia region of Ukraine; however there is no direct evidence about the exact time of the existence of Tomakivska Sich, whereas indirect data suggest that at the time of Tomakivska Sich there was no Zaporozhian Sich yet. The history of Zaporozhian Sich spans six time-periods: the emergence of the Sich as part of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown by inclusion in the Kiev Voivodeship the struggle against the Rzeczpospolita, the Ottoman Empire, the Crimea Khanate for the independence of the Ukrainian part of the Rzeczpospolita the struggle with Crimea, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire for the unique identity of Cossacks the standoff with the Russian government during its attempts to cancel the self-governing of the Sich, its fall the formation of the Danubian Sich outside the Russian Empire and finding ways to return home The Zaporozhian Sich emerged as a method of defence by Slavic colonists against the frequent and devastating raids of Crimean Tatars, who captured and enslaved hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians and Poles in operations called "the harvesting of the steppe".
The Ukrainians created a self-defence force, the Cossacks, fierce enough to stop the Tatar hordes, built fortified camps that were united to form a central fortress, the Zaporozhian Sich. Prince Dmytro Vyshnevetsky established the first Zaporizhian Sich on the island of Small Khortytsia in 1552, building a fortress at Niz Dnieprovsky and placing a Cossack garrison there; the Tomakivka Sich was built on a now-inundated island to the south, near the modern city of Marhanets. A third sich soon followed, on Bazavluk island, which survived until 1638, when it was destroyed by a Polish expeditionary force suppressing a Cossack uprising; these settlements, founded during the 16th century, were complex enough to constitute an early proto-state. The Zaporozhian Cossacks became included in the Kiev Voivodeship from 1583 to 1657, part of the Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown, they resented Polish rule, one of the reasons being religious differences, as the cossacks were Orthodox Christians whereas the Poles were Catholics.
They thus engaged in a long struggle for independence from surrounding powers, the Rzeczpospolita, the Ottoman Empire, the Crimean Khanate, the Tsardom of Russia and Russian Empire. The Sich became the centre of Cossack life, governed by the Sich Rada alongside its Kosh Ataman. In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky captured a sich near the present-day city of Nikopol. From there he began an uprising against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth that led to the establishment of the Cossack Hetmanate. After the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654, the Zaporozhian Host was split into the Hetmanate, with its capital at Chyhyryn, the more autonomous region of Zaporozhia, which continued to be centred on the Sich. During this period the Sich changed location several times; the Chortomlyk Sich was built at the mouth of the Chortomlyk River in 1652. In 1667 the Truce of Andrusovo made the Sich a condominium ruled jointly by Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. During the reign of Peter the Great, Cossacks were used for the construction of canals and fortification lines in northern Russia.
An estimated 20–30 thousands were sent each year. Hard labour led to a high mortality rate among builders, only an estimated 40% of Cossacks returned home. After the Battle of Poltava in 1709, the Chortomlyk Sich was destroyed and Baturyn, the capital of Hetman Ivan Mazepa, was razed. Another sich was built at the mouth of the Kamianets river but was destroyed in 1711 by the Russian government; the Cossacks fled to the Crimean Khanate to avoid persecution and founded the Oleshky Sich in 1711 (today the city of T