Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Philosophy
Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Philosophy: Fear and Trembling in Sunnydale is an academic publication relating to the fictional Buffyverse established by two TV series, Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel. Despite creator Joss Whedon's professed atheism, Buffy dealt with religious and philosophical symbolism; the book is made up of a collection of essays that link classical philosophy to the Buffy show's ability to explore the underlying evil in everyday life through supernatural metaphor
The Byronic hero is a variant of the Romantic hero as a type of character, named after the English Romantic poet Lord Byron. Both Byron's own persona as well as characters from his writings are considered to provide defining features to the character type; the Byronic hero first reached a wide public in Byron's semi-autobiographical epic narrative poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. Historian and critic Lord Macaulay described the character as "a man proud, cynical, with defiance on his brow, misery in his heart, a scorner of his kind, implacable in revenge, yet capable of deep and strong affection". Byron's poems with Oriental settings show more "swashbuckling" and decisive versions of the type. Works show Byron progressively distancing himself from the figure by providing alternative hero types, like Sardanapalus, Juan or Torquil, or, when the figure is present, by presenting him as less sympathetic or criticizing him through the narrator or other characters. Byron would attempt such a turn in his own life when he joined the Greek War of Independence, with fatal results, though recent studies show him acting with greater political acumen and less idealism than thought.
The actual circumstances of his death from disease in Greece were unglamourous in the extreme, but back in Europe these details were ignored in the many works promoting his myth. The Byronic hero had a significant influence on literature, in English and other languages; the initial version of the type in Byron's work, Childe Harold, draws on a variety of earlier literary characters including Hamlet, Goethe's Werther, William Godwin's Mr. Faulkland in Caleb Williams. Ann Radcliffe's "unrepentant" Gothic villains foreshadow a moody, egotistical Byronic "villain" nascent in Byron's own juvenilia, some of which looks back to Byron's Gordon relations, Highland aristocrats or Jacobites now lost between two worlds. For example, in Byron's early poem "When I Roved a Young Highlander", we see a reflection of Byron's youthful Scottish connection, but find these lines: These lines echo William Wordsworth's treatment of James Macpherson's Ossian in "Glen-Almain": Thus Byron's poem seems to show that a brooding, melancholy influence not only from Wordsworth but from Macpherson was much on his mind at an early date.
After Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, the Byronic hero made an appearance in many of Byron's other works, including his series of poems on Oriental themes: The Giaour, The Corsair and Lara. For example, Byron described Conrad, the pirate hero of his The Corsair, as follows: and Admiration of Byron continued to be fervent in the years following his death. Notable fans included Alfred Lord Tennyson. Fourteen at the time of Byron's death, so grieved at the poet's passing he carved the words "Byron is dead" on a rock near his home in Somerby, declaring the "world had darkened for him". However, the admiration of Byron as a character led some fans to emulate characteristics of the Byronic hero. Foremost was Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, his marriage to Byron's granddaughter, taking a "Byron pilgrimage" around the Continent and his anti-imperialist stance that saw him become an outcast just like his hero cemented his commitment to emulating the Byronic character. Byron's influence is manifest in many authors and artists of the Romantic movement and writers of Gothic fiction during the 19th century.
Lord Byron was the model for the title character of Glenarvon by Byron's erstwhile lover Lady Caroline Lamb. Claude Frollo from Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Edmond Dantes from Alexandre Dumas' The Count of Monte Cristo, Heathcliff from Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights, Rochester from Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre are other 19th-century examples of Byronic heroes. In Victorian literature, the Byronic character only seemed to survive as a solitary figure, resigned to suffering. However, Charles Dickens' representation of the character is more complex than that. Steerforth in David Copperfield manifests the concept of the "fallen angel" aspect of the Byronic hero, but it does not. He still retains a fascination, as David admits in the aftermath of discovering what Steerforth has done to Emily, he may have done wrong. Steerforth's occasional outbreaks of remorse reveal a tortured character, echoing a Byronic remorse. Harvey concludes that Steerforth is a remarkable blend of both villain and hero, exploration of both sides of the Byronic character.
Scholars have drawn parallels between the Byronic hero and the solipsist heroes of Russian literature. In particular, Alexander Pushkin's famed character Eugene Onegin echoes many of the attributes seen in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage Onegin's solitary brooding and disrespect for traditional privilege; the first stages of Pushkin's poetic novel Eugene Onegin appeared twelve years after Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Byron was of obvious influence (Vladimir Nabokov argued in his Commentary to Eugene Onegin that Pushkin had read Byron during his years in exile just prior to c
A tragic hero is the protagonist of a tragedy in dramas. In his Poetics, Aristotle records the descriptions of the tragic hero to the playwright and defines the place that the tragic hero must play and the kind of man he must be. Aristotle based his observations on previous dramas. Many of the most famous instances of tragic heroes appear in Greek literature, most notably the works of Sophocles and Euripides. In Poetics, Aristotle suggests that the hero of a tragedy must evoke a sense of pity or fear within the audience, stating that “the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity." In essence, the focus of the hero should not be the loss of his goodness. He establishes the concept that pity is an emotion that must be elicited when, through his actions, the character receives undeserved misfortune, while the emotion of fear must be felt by the audience when they contemplate that such misfortune could befall themselves in similar situations.
Aristotle explains such change of fortune "should be not from bad to good, reversely, from good to bad.” Such misfortune is visited upon the tragic hero "not through vice or depravity but by some error of judgment." This error, or hamartia, refers to a flaw in the character of the hero, or a mistake made by the character. An example of a mistake made by a tragic hero can be found in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex. In the story, the character of Oedipus is given a prophecy that he will murder his own father and marry his own mother. Although he goes to great lengths to avoid fulfilling the prophecy, Oedipus learns that the life of a man he took, was that of his own father, that the woman to which he is married, Jocasta, is his own mother. Creon of Sophocles' Antigone is another notable example of a tragic hero. Polyneices and his brother, were kings, the former wanted more power, so he left and assembled an army from a neighboring city, they attacked and the two brothers killed each other. Through Creon's law forbidding the burial of Polyneices, Creon dooms his own family.
Other examples provided by Aristotle include Thyestes. Therefore, the Aristotelian hero is characterized as virtuous but not "eminently good," which suggests a noble or important personage, upstanding and morally inclined while nonetheless subject to human error. Aristotle's tragic heroes are flawed individuals who commit, without evil intent, great wrongs or injuries that lead to their misfortune followed by tragic realization of the true nature of events that led to this destiny; this means. The usual irony in Greek tragedy is that the hero is both extraordinarily capable and moral, it is these exact, highly-admirable qualities that lead the hero into tragic circumstances; the tragic hero is snared by his or her own greatness: extraordinary competence, a righteous passion for duty, the arrogance associated with greatness. The influence of the Aristotelian hero extends past classical Greek literary criticism. Greek theater had a direct and profound influence on Roman theater and formed the basis of Western theater that continues into the modern era influencing a wide variety of arts throughout the world, in diverse mediums such as literature, film and video games.
Many iconic characters featured in these genres follow the archetype of the tragic hero. Examples of such characters include Anakin Skywalker from George Lucas' Star Wars films, Okonkwo from Nigerian author Chinua Achebe's novel Things Fall Apart, Arthas Menethil from the video game franchise Warcraft, Stannis Baratheon from George R. R. Martin's novel series A Song of Ice and Fire and the HBO television series adaptation Game of Thrones. One example of a tragic hero in modern film is the D. A. Harvey Dent in The Dark Knight; some film historians regard Michael Corleone of The Godfather a tragic hero, although using traditional literary conventions, the character would more fit the role of villain, not tragic hero
Frank Hart Rich Jr. is an American essayist and liberal progressive op-ed columnist, who held various positions within The New York Times from 1980 to 2011. He has produced television series and documentaries for HBO. Rich is writer-at-large for New York magazine, where he writes essays on politics and culture and engages in regular dialogues on news of the week for the "Daily Intelligencer", he served as executive producer of the long-running HBO comedy series Veep, having joined the show at its outset in 2011, of the HBO drama series Succession. Rich grew up in Washington, D. C, his mother, Helene Fisher, a schoolteacher and artist, was from a Russian Jewish family that settled in Brooklyn, New York, but moved to Washington after the stock market crash of 1929. His father, Frank Hart Rich, a businessman, was from a German Jewish family long-settled in Washington, he attended public schools and graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in 1967. Rich attended Harvard College in Massachusetts. At Harvard, he became the editorial chairman of The Harvard Crimson, the university's daily student newspaper.
Rich was an honorary Harvard College scholar and a member of Phi Beta Kappa, received a Henry Russell Shaw Traveling Fellowship. He graduated in 1971 with an A. B. magna cum laude in American literature. Before joining The New York Times in 1980, Rich was a film and television critic for Time and a film critic for The New York Post, film critic and senior editor of New Times Magazine. In the early 1970s, he was a founding editor of the Richmond Mercury. Rich served as chief theater critic of The New York Times from 1980 to 1993, earning the nickname "Butcher of Broadway" for his power over the prospects of Broadway shows, he first won attention from theater-goers with an essay for The Harvard Crimson about the Broadway musical Follies, by Stephen Sondheim, during its pre-Broadway tryout run in Boston. In his study of the work, Rich was "the first person to predict the legendary status the show would achieve"; the article "fascinated" Harold Prince, the musical's co-director, "absolutely intrigued" Sondheim, who invited the undergraduate to lunch to further discuss his feelings about the production.
In a retrospective article for The New York Times Magazine, "Exit the Critic," published in 1994, Rich reflected on the controversies during his tenure as drama critic as well as on the playwrights he championed and on the tragedies that decimated the New York theater during the height of the AIDS crisis. A collection of Rich's theater reviews was published in a book, Hot Seat: Theater Criticism for The New York Times, 1980–1993, he wrote The Theatre Art of Boris Aronson, with Lisa Aronson, in 1987. From 1994 to 2011, Rich was an op-ed columnist for The New York Times, his columns, now appearing in New York Magazine, make regular references to a broad range of popular culture—including television, movies and literature. In addition to his long-time work for the Times and New York, Rich has written for many other publications, including The New York Review of Books; the commentator Bill O'Reilly, host of the Fox News Channel talk show The O'Reilly Factor, criticized Rich following Rich's criticism of Fox in 2004 as having a politically conservative bias.
Rich attracted controversy by dismissing the historical-drama film The Passion of the Christ, directed by Mel Gibson, as "nothing so much as a porn movie, replete with slo-mo climaxes and pounding music for the money shots."In a January 2006 appearance on The Oprah Winfrey Show, commenting on the James Frey memoir scandal, Rich expanded on his usage in his column of the term truthiness to summarize a variety of ills in culture and politics. His book, The Greatest Story Ever Sold: The Decline and Fall of Truth from 9/11 to Katrina, criticized the American media for what he perceived as its support of George W. Bush's administration's propaganda following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and during the run-up to the Iraq war. A July 2009 column focused on what Rich believes is the bigoted nature of President Barack Obama's detractors. On the Tea Party movement, which emerged in 2009, Rich opined that at one of their rallies they were "kowtowing to secessionists." He wrote that death threats and a brick thrown through a congressman's window were a "small-scale mimicry of "Kristallnacht".
In his essays at New York, Rich has continued to examine the American right, including its latest revival during the candidacy and presidency of Donald Trump. Since 2008, Rich has been a creative consultant for HBO, where he helps initiate and develop new programming and is an Executive Producer of Veep, the long-running comedy series created by Armando Iannucci and starring Julia Louis-Dreyfus, he is an Executive Producer of Succession, the HBO drama series created by Jesse Armstrong that debuted in June of 2018 to critical praise. Rich was an Executive Producer for the HBO documentaries Six by Sondheim, directed by James Lapine, Becoming Mike Nichols, directed by Douglas McGrath. Rich's journalistic honors include the George Polk Award for commentary in 2005 and, in 2011, the Goldsmith Career Award for Excellence in Journalism from Harvard University. In 2016, he received the Mirror Award for Best Commentary from the Newhouse School at Syracuse University, he was inducted into the Theater Hall of Fame in 2015.
Rich was twice a Pulitzer Prize finalist, in 1987 and 2005. Rich received Emmy Awards in 2015, 2016, 2017 for Veep, named Outstanding Comedy Series, he has won two Peabody Awards, fo
The supersoldier is a concept soldier fictional, capable of operating beyond normal human limits or abilities. Supersoldiers are common in science fiction literature and video games. In 2012, DARPA was reported to be developing an externally powered XOS exoskeleton design for increased strength and endurance. Fictional supersoldiers are heavily augmented, either through eugenics, genetic engineering, cybernetic implants, brainwashing, traumatic events, an extreme training regimen or other scientific and pseudoscientific means; some instances use paranormal methods, such as black magic or technology and science of extraterrestrial origin. In entertainment, the creators of such programs are viewed as mad scientists or stern military personnel depending on the emphasis, as their programs would go past ethical boundaries in the pursuit of science or military might; some fictional supersoldiers can be categorized as cyborgs or cybernetic organisms because of augmentations that are intended to enhance human capabilities or to exceed physical human restrictions.
In the book The Men Who Stare at Goats, Welsh journalist Jon Ronson documented how the U. S. military tried and failed to train soldiers in the use of parascientific combat techniques during the Cold War, experimenting with New Age tactics and psychic phenomena such as remote viewing, astral projections, "death touch" and mind reading against various Soviet targets. The book inspired a war comedy of the same name directed by Grant Heslov, starring George Clooney. Adeptus Astartes Bloodshot Captain America Clone Trooper Deathstroke Doomguy First Earth Battalion Future Soldier 2030 Initiative Human enhancement List of drugs used by militaries Master Chief Project MKUltra Space marine Superhero Superhuman Übermensch
A superhero is a type of heroic stock character possessing supernatural or superhuman powers, dedicated to fighting the evil of their universe, protecting the public, battling supervillains. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine, although the word superhero is commonly used for females. Superhero fiction is the genre of fiction, centered on such characters in American comic book and films since the 1930s. By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers or phenomena to be deemed superheroes. While the Dictionary.com definition of "superhero" is "a figure in a comic strip or cartoon, endowed with superhuman powers and portrayed as fighting evil or crime", the longstanding Merriam-Webster dictionary gives the definition as "a fictional hero having extraordinary or superhuman powers. Terms such as masked crime fighters, costumed adventurers or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to characters such as the Spirit, who may not be explicitly referred to as superheroes but share similar traits.
Some superheroes use their powers to counter daily crime while combating threats against humanity from supervillains, who are their criminal counterparts. At least one of these supervillains will be the superhero's archenemy; some long-running superheroes and superheroines such as Superman, Spider-Man, Wonder Woman, the Hulk, Green Lantern, the Flash, Captain America, Wolverine, Iron Man and the X-Men have a rogues gallery of many villains. There are movies and TV shows featuring various super heroes; the word'superhero' dates to at least 1917. Antecedents of the archetype include such folkloric heroes as Robin Hood, who adventured in distinctive clothing; the 1903 play The Scarlet Pimpernel and its spinoffs popularized the idea of a masked avenger and the superhero trope of a secret identity. Shortly afterward and costumed pulp fiction characters such as Jimmie Dale/the Gray Seal, The Shadow and comic strip heroes, such as the Phantom began appearing, as did non-costumed characters with super strength, including Patoruzú, the comic-strip character Popeye and novelist Philip Wylie's character Hugo Danner.
In the 1930s, both trends came together in some of the earliest superpowered costumed heroes such as Japan's Ōgon Bat, Mandrake the Magician, Superman in 1938 and Captain Marvel at the beginning of the Golden Age of Comic Books. The precise era of the Golden Age of Comic Books is disputed, though most agree that it was started with the launch of Superman in 1938. Superman remains one of the most recognizable Superheroes to this day; the success of Superman spawned a whole new genre of characters with secret identities and superhuman powers – the Superhero genre. During the 1940s there were many superheroes: The Flash, Green Lantern and Blue Beetle debuted in this era; this era saw the debut of first known female superhero, writer-artist Fletcher Hanks's character Fantomah, an ageless ancient Egyptian woman in the modern day who could transform into a skull-faced creature with superpowers to fight evil. The Invisible Scarlet O'Neil, a non-costumed character who fought crime and wartime saboteurs using the superpower of invisibility created by Russell Stamm, would debut in the eponymous syndicated newspaper comic strip a few months on June 3, 1940.
One superpowered character was portrayed as an antiheroine, a rarity for its time: the Black Widow, a costumed emissary of Satan who killed evildoers in order to send them to Hell—debuted in Mystic Comics #4, from Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. Most of the other female costumed crime-fighters during this era lacked superpowers. Notable characters include The Woman in Red, introduced in Standard Comics' Thrilling Comics #2; the most iconic comic book superheroine, who debuted during the Golden Age, is Wonder Woman. Modeled from the myth of the Amazons of Greek mythology, she was created by psychologist William Moulton Marston, with help and inspiration from his wife Elizabeth and their mutual lover Olive Byrne. Wonder Woman's first appearance was in All Star Comics #8, published by All-American Publications, one of two companies that would merge to form DC Comics in 1944. Pérák was an urban legend originating from the city of Prague during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in the midst of World War II.
In the decades following the war, Pérák has been portrayed as the only Czech superhero in film and comics. In 1952, Osamu Tezuka's manga Tetsuwan Atom, more popularly known in the West as Astro Boy, was published; the series focused upon a robot boy built by a scientist to replace his deceased son. Being built from an incomplete robot intended for military purposes Astro Boy possessed amazing powers such as flight through thrusters in his feet and the incredible mechanical strength o