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Girlfriends (2000 TV series)

Girlfriends is an American sitcom television series that premiered on September 11, 2000, on UPN and aired on UPN's successor network, The CW, before being cancelled in 2008. The final episode aired on February 11, 2008; when Girlfriends returned in fall 2007 for its eighth season, it became the longest-running live-action sitcom on network television, on air during that time. It was one of the highest-rated scripted shows on television among African-American adults 18-34, including its spin-off The Game; the series debuted on UPN on Monday September 11, 2000. After airing for several years on the network at 9/8C on Mondays, The CW moved Girlfriends to Sundays at 8/7C; the ratings plummeted. On October 9, 2006, along with The CW's other African-American programs, moved back to Mondays. At this point, Girlfriends returned to its original time slot. While UPN was still airing new episodes of Girlfriends, the network began airing reruns five days per week; when the show moved to The CW network after UPN merged with The WB network, MyNetwork TV picked up the rights to air reruns of Girlfriends, although they discontinued this.

WE tv, a network with women's programming acquired exclusive rights to air the limited-release episodes on Sundays and exercised an option to not allow broadcast television networks re-broadcast rights to these reruns. The final two episodes recorded before the 2007–08 Writers Guild of America strike aired back-to-back on Monday, February 11 at 9/8c. However, this was not a 2-part episode; the timeslot was planned to be moved to Sundays due to the writer's strike and the returning of The CW's reality series. On February 13, 2008, it was announced by a The CW representative that a proper series finale would not be done because it would be too expensive confirming the show's cancellation. A retrospective episode was to be aired on The CW Network to conclude the eight-year series. However, the characters' storylines would receive no resolutions as the retrospective/series finale did not come to pass; the network offered the actors only half of their usual episodic salary to take part, the actors collectively turned them down.

Joan Carol Clayton, Esq. is considered the unofficial "den mother" of the group, as she looks out for her friends at the expense of dealing with her own problems, which are plentiful throughout the series. From Fresno, Joan met Toni when they were children and met Lynn in college, she gave up her law career to pursue her dreams. She and Toni clash several times throughout the series, resulting in ending and reconciling their friendship. Major incidents involved Joan inadvertently revealing Toni's cheating to Greg, Joan's jealousy of Toni's marriage to Todd, but their friendship ends by the end of Season 6 when Joan fails to appear for Toni's custody hearing. For much of Season 7, Joan mourned the loss of her friendship with Toni opting to resent and belittle her in front of the group. At the end of Season 7, she became engaged to Aaron Waters, whom she met while rehabilitating homes in New Orleans damaged by Hurricane Katrina. Maya Denise Wilkes is a former assistant to a housewife/author. Maya is married to her high school sweetheart, Darnell.

They have Jabari. Maya is the sassiest of the group, is at odds with Toni over her ego-driven lifestyle, she is a devoted wife and mother, is depicted with stronger religious convictions than the rest of the group. Maya is the most "working-class" member of the group in earlier seasons. In the first few seasons Maya was more "from the hood", with the associated stereotyped speech and mannerisms. However, as she becomes more successful and interacts more extensively with the legal and publishing industries, she exhibits fewer stereotypes. In early seasons, Maya's marriage to Darnell imploded after she had an emotional affair with an acquaintance. After she launches a career as a self-help author, they reunite. In Season 8, the couple endured a miscarriage and explored the possibility of adopting a baby girl. Lynn Ann Searcy was Joan and Toni's roommate at UCLA and lived with Joan for eight years before the series begins. Lynn holds five post-graduate degrees. Born in Virginia to a black father and a bipolar white mother from a wealthy family, Lynn was adopted by a white family in Seattle.

She did not embrace her black background until college, where she met Toni. When Joan decides it is time for Lynn to move out of her home, Lynn reluctantly becomes more independent by taking on various menial jobs, she lived with Toni, William and Sivad. She produces a documentary on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. While Lynn is depicted as the most sexually adventurous of the group, she dates frequently, she is most attracted to artistic and spiritual men, over the course of the series has relationships with a Jam

1974 railway strike in India

1974 railway strike in India was a major strike by the workers of Indian Railways in 1974. The strike lasted from 8 to 27 May 1974; the 20 day strike by 1.7 million workers is the largest recorded industrial action in the world. The strike was held to demand an eight-hour working day for locomotive staff by All India Railway Mens federation and a raise in pay scale, which had remained stagnant over many years, in spite of the fact that pay scales of other government owned entities had risen over the years. Furthermore, since British times the Railways termed the work of the locomotive staff as "continuous", implying that workers would have to remain at work as long as the train ran on its trip for several days at a stretch; the independence of India did not change this. The eight hour work day had not been implemented in Indian railways by the Railway Board, a quasi government bureaucracy despite having become a free country in 1947, this had led to dissatisfaction among labour locomotive Pilots.

Traditional railway union leaders too were starting to get distant from worker demands and closer instead to politicians, thus leading to further discord. The spread of diesel engines and the consequent intensification of work in the Indian Railways since the 1960s resulted in continuous working hours being extended by days, creating much resentment among the workers; the Railways, although government-owned, remained an organization in which the accepted worldwide standard of an eight-hour working day was violated with impunity. When the crafts unions raised the issue, they demanded a 12-hour working day for loco running staff; this led to railway strikes by rail workers across the country in 1967, 1968, 1970 and 1973 leading to the 1974 strike, participated in by 70% of the permanent work force of railways. This was not the first railways strike in India, the earliest having occurred in British India in 1862 in Howrah, a number of strikes having occurred in the private railway companies that operated in British India, most of them becoming part of the Indian freedom struggle.

As President of the All India Railwaymen's Federation, George Fernandes led the strike. The strike commenced on 8 May 1974; the strike was brutally suppressed by Indira Gandhi government with thousands being sent to jail and losing their jobs. The strike was called off on 27 May 1974

Myhill–Nerode theorem

In the theory of formal languages, the Myhill–Nerode theorem provides a necessary and sufficient condition for a language to be regular. The theorem is named for John Myhill and Anil Nerode, who proved it at the University of Chicago in 1958. Given a language L, a pair of strings x and y, define a distinguishing extension to be a string z such that one of the two strings xz and yz belongs to L. Define a relation RL on strings by the rule that x RL y if there is no distinguishing extension for x and y, it is easy to show that RL is an equivalence relation on strings, thus it divides the set of all strings into equivalence classes. The Myhill–Nerode theorem states that L is regular if and only if RL has a finite number of equivalence classes, moreover that the number of states in the smallest deterministic finite automaton recognizing L is equal to the number of equivalence classes in RL. In particular, this implies. If L is a regular language by definition there is a DFA A that recognizes it, with only finitely many states.

If there are n states partition the set of all finite strings into n subsets, where subset Si is the set of strings that, when given as input to automaton A, cause it to end in state i. For every two strings x and y that belong to the same subset, for every choice of a third string z, automaton A reaches the same state on input xz as it reaches on input yz, therefore must either accept both of the inputs xz and yz or reject both of them. Therefore, no string z can be a distinguishing extension for x and y, so they must be related by RL. Thus, Si is a subset of an equivalence class of RL. Combining this fact with the fact that every member of one of these equivalence classes belongs to one of the sets Si, this gives a many-to-one relation from states of A to equivalence classes, implying that the number of equivalence classes is finite and at most n. In the other direction, suppose that RL has finitely many equivalence classes. In this case, it is possible to design a deterministic finite automaton that has one state for each equivalence class.

The start state of the automaton corresponds to the equivalence class containing the empty string, the transition function from a state X on input symbol y takes the automaton to a new state, the state corresponding to the equivalence class containing string xy, where x is an arbitrarily chosen string in the equivalence class for X. The definition of the Myhill–Nerode relation implies that the transition function is well-defined: no matter which representative string x is chosen for state X, the same transition function value will result. A state of this automaton is accepting if the corresponding equivalence class contains a string in L. Thus, the existence of a finite automaton recognizing L implies that the Myhill–Nerode relation has a finite number of equivalence classes, at most equal to the number of states of the automaton, the existence of a finite number of equivalence classes implies the existence of an automaton with that many states; the Myhill–Nerode theorem may be used to show that a language L is regular by proving that the number of equivalence classes of RL is finite.

This may be done by an exhaustive case analysis in which, beginning from the empty string, distinguishing extensions are used to find additional equivalence classes until no more can be found. For example, the language consisting of binary representations of numbers that can be divided by 3 is regular. Given the empty string, 00, 01 and 10 are distinguishing extensions resulting in the three classes, but after this step there is no distinguishing extension anymore; the minimal automaton accepting our language would have three states corresponding to these three equivalence classes. Another immediate corollary of the theorem is that if a language defines an infinite set of equivalence classes, it is not regular, it is this corollary, used to prove that a language is not regular. The Myhill–Nerode theorem can be generalized to trees. See tree automaton. Pumping lemma for regular languages, an alternative method for proving that a language is not regular; the pumping lemma may not always be able to prove.

Hopcroft, John E.. "Chapter 3", Introduction to Automata Theory and Computation, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing, ISBN 0-201-02988-X. Nerode, Anil, "Linear Automaton Transformations", Proceedings of the AMS, 9, JSTOR 2033204. Regan, Notes on the Myhill-Nerode Theorem, retrieved 2016-03-22. Bakhadyr Khoussainov. Automata Theory and its Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4612-0171-7

Alameda, Saskatchewan

Alameda is a town in southeastern Saskatchewan, Canada 50 km east of Estevan. The definition of Alameda in Spanish is "Poplar Grove" or "Tree Lined Avenue". One popular story is that the town was named for Alameda, California although there is no written documentation to support this. Alameda had a population of 369 in the Canada Census of 2016. Alameda is situated in the southeast corner of Saskatchewan; the closest larger centres to Alameda are Estevan, Weyburn and Minot, North Dakota. Alameda sits in an area, abundant with grain and water. Alameda offers the following community facilities. Alameda offered a wide range of services for its residents, which included a full-service grocery and meat store, a restaurant, a banking institution, full-service campground as well as many others; as with other small communities in Saskatchewan, many of the businesses are closing and/or closed and the residents drive to other communities for services that once were in their community. Alameda is famous for being the home of the Alameda Dam which has turned into a full-service recreational area.

The Alameda Dam is the home of the Alameda Fishing Derby which takes place the 3rd weekend of June each year. It is the home of Moose Creek Regional Park and golf course. Alameda hosts various events throughout the year including the Alameda Agricultural Society fair and 4-H show and sale and the Alameda Flower Show. George Ramsay Cook – OC, FRSC, Canadian historian and general editor of the Dictionary of Canadian Biography. John James HarropPolitician Trent Whitfield, drafted 100th overall in the 1996 NHL Draft by the Boston Bruins plays for HC Bolzano in the Austrian Hockey League, is from Alameda. List of communities in Saskatchewan List of towns in Saskatchewan List of Canadian tornadoes and tornado outbreaks Official website Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan

XanPHol family

The Xanthomonas Phage Holin Family consists of a single protein of 64 amino acyl residues in length with 2 transmembrane segments. It is a putative uncharacterized protein from Xanthomonas phage Xp15; this protein corresponds to sequence 68 from patent US 7919601. As of March 2016, this protein does not show appreciable sequence similarity to any other proteins in the NCBI protein database. Holin Lysin Transporter Classification Database Reddy, Bhaskara L.. "Topological and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial holin families and superfamilies". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. 1828: 2654–2671. Doi:10.1016/j.bbamem.2013.07.004. PMC 3788059. PMID 23856191. Saier, Milton H.. "Holins in Bacteria and Archaea: Multifunctional Xenologues with Potential Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications". Journal of Bacteriology. 197: 7–17. Doi:10.1128/JB.02046-14. PMC 4288690. PMID 25157079. Wang, I. N.. "Holins: the protein clocks of bacteriophage infections". Annual Review of Microbiology. 54: 799–825. Doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.54.1.799.

PMID 11018145. Young, R. "Holins: form and function in bacteriophage lysis". FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 17: 191–205. Doi:10.1111/j.1574-6976.1995.tb00202.x. PMID 7669346; as of this edit, this article uses content from "1. E.45 The Xanthomonas Phage Holin Family", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed


Huế is a city in central Vietnam, the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyen Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls, it encompasses the Imperial City, with shrines. The city was the battleground for the Battle of Huế, one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War; the oldest ruins in Hue belong to the Kingdom of Lam Ap, dating back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Tho Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin in the vicinity, the ancient city of Hoa Chau is dated back to the 9th century. In 1306, the King of Champa Che Man offered Vietnam two Cham prefectures, O and Ly, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyen Tran; the Vietnamese King Tran Anh Tong accepted this offer. He took and renamed O and Ly prefectures to Thuan prefecture and Hóa prefecture with both of them referred to as Thuan Hoa region.

In 1592, the Mac dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bang province and the Le emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyen Kim, the leader of Le Dynasty loyalists. Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trinh Kiem, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyen Uông, was assassinated in order to secure Trinh Kiem's authority. Nguyen Hoang, another son of Nguyen Kim, feared a fate like Nguyen Uong's so he pretended to have mental illness, he asked his sister Ngoc Bao, a wife of Trinh Kiem, to entreat Trinh Kiem to let Nguyen Hoang govern Thuan Hoa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time. Because Mac dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuan Hoa and Trinh Kiem was busy fighting the Mac dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyen Hoang went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuan Hoa, he and his heir Nguyen Phuc Nguyen serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyen family.

Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyen lords and the clan of the Trinh lords. The Nguyen lords chose a northern territory of Thuan Hoa, as their family seat. In 1687 during the reign of Nguyen lord- Nguyen Phuc Tran, the construction of a citadel was started in Phu Xuan, a village in Thua Thien Province; the citadel was a power symbol of Nguyen family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyen lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân. In 1744, Phu Xuan became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyen lord- Nguyen Phuc Khoat proclaimed himseft Vo Vương. Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards. However, Tay Son rebellions broke out in 1771 and occupied a large area from Quy Nhon to Binh Thuan Province, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyen lords. While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and captured Phú Xuân in 1775.

After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoang Ngu Phuc made a tactical alliance with Tay Son and withdrew all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phu Xuan. In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion occupied Phú Xuân. Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital. In 1802, Nguyen Anh, a successor of the Nguyen lords, recaptured unified the country. Nguyen Anh rebuilt the citadel and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam; the city's current name is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese 化, as in the historical name Thuan Hoa. In 1802, Nguyen Phuc Anh succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Hue the national capital. Minh Mang was the second emperor of the Nguyen Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841, he was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Canh, had died in 1801. Minh Mang was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy.

During the French colonial period, Hue was in the protectorate of Annam. It remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bao Dai abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Ha Noi, in the north. While Bao Dai was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949, his new capital was Sai Gon, in the south. During the Republic of Vietnam period, being near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tet Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Hue, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, the massacre at Hue committed by the communist forces. After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Hue were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime".