The Carracci were a Bolognese family of artists that played an instrumental role in bringing forth the art movement known as the Baroque. Brothers Annibale and Agostino along with their cousin Ludovico worked collaboratively on art works and art theories pertaining to the Baroque style; the Carracci family left their legacy in art theory by starting a school for artists in 1582. The school was called the Accademia degli Incamminati, its main focus was to oppose and challenge Mannerist artistic practices and principles in order to create art, avant-garde with a new modernist edge. “Jointly they effected an artistic reform that overthrew Mannerist aesthetics and initiated the Baroque.” The importance of their artistic and theoretical activity, recognized in all three painters, underlined by the studies of critics and historians of the arts such as André Chastel, Giulio Carlo Argan, many others, has decisively contributed to the exit of the crisis of Mannerism, to the formation of the figurative Baroque, to new pictorial solutions based on the recuperation of the classical and Renaissance tradition but renewed following the practice and the precepts of the study of the true and of the design.
The crisis of the culture of Catholicism was highlighted after the Protestant Reform, the successive “sack of Rome” by the troops of Charles V in 1527, facts that rendered the papal capital more insecure and unstable, less attractive to the artists of the Roman epoch who at the end of the 16th century were less inclined to produce a new artistic movement. The mannerist art that wearily replicated the style of the masters of the Renaissance, emphasizing the formal complications and virtuosity, no longer obeyed the need for clarity and devotion. Bologna was at the center of a territory in which the work of the artists traditionally had a pronounced devotional and pietistic character, furthermore found themselves in close contact with Padana and Venetian art. On these cultural and aesthetic bases the Carracci developed their work as theorists of artistic renewal, emphasizing the humanity of subjects and the clarity of the sacred scenes; the eclecticism of their art, the respect for tradition and a language adapted to the public places frequented by the working classes satisfied the desires of the church of the Counter-Reformation that needed a new mode to express its primacy over the other religions and confirm that art could and had to be a vehicle towards faith.
The Carracci fit into the political and artistic moment of the epoch, they understand the need for an artistic tension that could reflect the new desires and, free from the artifacts and the complexity of Mannerism. Another principle of the Carracci doctrine was the devotional aspect, the respect of the orthodoxy of the represented history. In doing this the Carracci followed the instructions contained in the work of the theorists of the time such as the Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, author in 1582 of the sermon on the sacred images and the profane which advocated for the control on the part of the ecclesiastic authority of the contents of the sacred scenes, while the artists retained the “liberty” to choose the most suitable style. Another point of reference to was the work of Giovanni Andrea Gilio, author of two dialogues...on the errors of painters in 1564 in which it criticized the excesses of refinement, of allegories and the bizarre inventions of the Mannerist art. The stories and the characters rendered lifelike in imitation of nature had to be ennobled by the exercise of the art and refined on the example of the great masters of the past such as Raphael Sanzio and Michelangelo Buonarroti, but Tiziano, Tintoretto and Parmigianino.
Agostino was an important printmaker, reproducing the works of masters from the 16th century as examples to imitate for the numerous students of their school. Annibale was the most talented and the one who, following his trip to Rome in 1595 where the works would be exhibited until his death in 1609, exercised an decisive influence on the fate of Italian painting at the dawn of the 17th century. Driven by the desire to explore and share their new-found approach to painting, the Carracci family collectively founded a school of art in Bologna around 1582. Named Accademia dei Desiderosi, the school most began as an informal gathering of young artists in Ludovico Carracci's studio. Around 1590, the academy was renamed Accademia degli Incamminati, adopted a more didactic academic programme. There is some debate regarding academic structure. However, it is that the academy functioned as a combination of a painters’ workshop and a formal institution, was attended by both students and established artists alike.
Each member of the Carracci family made a unique contribution to the academy. It is believed that Ludovico Carracci occupied an administrative position, while Agostino was responsible for gathering new information, Annibale for providing creativity and lessons on painting technique. Ludovico assembled and consolidated new materials to use as teaching aids, including a collection of plaster casts of classical works. Agostino brought to the school a wealth of knowledge in a variety of subjects, including art, philosophy, astronomy, cartography and natural history, he used his know
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
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Lorenzo Sabbatini or Sabatini, Sabattini or Sabadini, sometimes referred to as Lorenzino da Bologna, was an Italian painter of the Mannerist period from Bologna. Sabbatini was born in Bologna and studied with Prospero Fontana, his teacher and collaborator, was a friend of Orazio Samacchini, his style was influenced by Giorgio Vasari and the Emilian mannerism of Parmigianino. By 1565 he was working with the studio of Giorgio Vasari in Florence, where was elected member of the Academy. Between 1566 and 1573 he was in Bologna, where he decorated the walls of several churches, including Santa Maria delle Grazie, Chiesa della Morte, San Martino Maggiore, San Giacomo Maggiore. In 1573 he moved to Rome to work under Vasari in the Cappella Paolina and Sala Regia of the Vatican, where he adopted many of the stylistic traits of Raphael's school and produced his most famous painting, The Triumph of Faith over Infidelity. After Vasari's death in 1574, Gregory XIII appointed Sabatini superintendent of works in the Vatican, a post he retained until his own premature death.
Sabbatini died in Rome in 1577. His students included the engraver Giulio di Antonio Bonasone and the painter of Flemish origin, Denis Calvaert. Holy Family and Saints, San Edigio, Bologna The Triumph of Faith over Infidelity Assumption of the Virgin Frescoes at the Malvasia Chapel The Four Evangelists The Four Teachers of the Church The Holy Family with Saints John and Michael Archangel, executed in part with Denys Calvaert Virgin and Child with Saint John, Paris Baglione, Giovanni Le Vite de’ Pittori, Scultori et Architetti. Dal Pontificato di Gregorio XII del 1572 in fino a’ tempi di Papa Urbano VIII nel 1642, p. 17 Sabbatini, Lorenzo. In: A New General Biographical Dictionary, by Hugh James Rose
The Baroque is a ornate and extravagant style of architecture, painting and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the mid-18th century. It preceded the Rococo and Neoclassical styles, it was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means to counter the simplicity and austerity of Protestant architecture and music, though Lutheran Baroque art developed in parts of Europe as well. The Baroque style used contrast, exuberant detail, deep colour and surprise to achieve a sense of awe; the style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome spread to France, northern Italy and Portugal to Austria and southern Germany. By the 1730s, it had evolved into an more flamboyant style, called rocaille or Rococo, which appeared in France and central Europe until the mid to late 18th century; the English word baroque comes directly from the French, may have been adapted from the Portuguese term barroco, a flawed pearl. Both words are related to the Spanish term berruca; the term did not describe a style of music or art.
Prior to the 18th century, the French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms related to jewelry, An example from 1531 uses the term to describe pearls in an inventory of Charles V's treasures. The word appears in a 1694 edition of Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française, which describes baroque as "only used for pearls that are imperfectly round." A 1728 Portuguese dictionary describes barroco as relating to a "coarse and uneven pearl."The French term for the artistic style may have had roots in the medieval Latin word baroco, a philosophical term, invented in the 13th century by scholastics to describe a complicated type of syllogism, or logical argument. In the 16th century the philosopher Michel de Montaigne associated the term'baroco' with "Bizarre and uselessly complicated." In the 18th century, the term was used to describe music, was not flattering. In an anonymous satirical review of the première of Jean-Philippe Rameau's Hippolyte et Aricie in October 1733, printed in the Mercure de France in May 1734, the critic wrote that the novelty in this opera was "du barocque", complaining that the music lacked coherent melody, was unsparing with dissonances changed key and meter, speedily ran through every compositional device.
In 1762, Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française wrote that the term could be used figuratively to describe something "irregular, bizarre or unequal."Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a musician and composer as well as philosopher, wrote in 1768 in the Encyclopédie: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, loaded with modulations and dissonances. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, the movement limited, it appears that term comes from the word'baroco' used by logicians."In 1788, the term was defined by Quatremère de Quincy in the Encyclopédie Méthodique as "an architectural style, adorned and tormented". The terms "style baroque" and "musique baroque" appeared in Le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française in 1835. By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art; this was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burkhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition."Alternatively, a derivation from the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci has been suggested.
In 1888, the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. The Baroque style of architecture was a result of doctrines adopted by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545–63, in response to the Protestant Reformation; the first phase of the Counter-Reformation had imposed a severe, academic style on religious architecture, which had appealed to intellectuals but not the mass of churchgoers. The Council of Trent decided instead to appeal to a more popular audience, declared that the arts should communicate religious themes with direct and emotional involvement. Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. Baroque churches were designed with a large central space, where the worshippers could be close to the altar, with a dome or cupola high overhead, allowing light to illuminate the church below.
The dome was one of the central symbolic features of baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Another feature of baroque churches are the quadratura. Quadratura paintings of Atlantes below the cornices appear to be supporting the ceiling of the church. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real; the interiors of baroque churches became more and more ornate in the High Baroque, an
Luigi Lanzi was an Italian art historian and archaeologist. When he died he was buried in the church of the Santa Croce at Florence by the side of Michelangelo. Born in Treia, Lanzi was educated as a priest, he entered the Order of the Jesuits, resided at Rome and in 1773 was appointed keeper of the galleries of Florence, where he became president of the Accademia della Crusca. He thereafter studied Italian painting and Etruscan antiquities and language. In the one field his labors are represented by his Storia Pittorica dell' Italia, the first portion of which, containing the Florentine, Sienese and Neapolitan schools, appeared in 1792, the rest in 1796. In archaeology his great achievement was Saggio di lingua Etrusca, followed by Saggio delle lingue d' Italia in 1806. In his 1806 memoir on the so-called Etruscan vases Dei vasi antichi dipinti volgarmente chiamati Etruschi, Lanzi rightly perceived their Greek origin and characters. What was true of the antiquities would be true he argued, of the Etruscan language, the object of the Saggio di lingua Etrusca was to prove that this language must be related to that of the neighboring peoples: Romans, Umbrians and Greeks.
He was allied with Ennio Quirino Visconti in his great but never accomplished plan of illustrating antiquity altogether from existing literature and monuments. His notices of ancient sculpture and its various styles appeared as an appendix to the Saggio di lingua Etrusca, arose out of his minute study of the treasures added to the Florentine collection from the Villa Medici; the abuse he met with from writers on the Etruscan language led Corssen to protest in the name of his real services to philology and archaeology. Among his other productions was an edition of Hesiod's Works and Days, with valuable notes, a translation in terza rima. Begun in 1785, it was recast and completed in 1808; the list of his works closes with a series of treatises on spiritual subjects. Elogio dell' abate L. Lanzi, By Presso Niccolò Capurro, Pisa. Giulio Natali, "Nel primo centenario dalla morte di Luigi Lanzi", in Real deputazione di storia patria per le provincie delle Marche, atti e memorie, volume vi Lanzi, Luigi.
Thomas Roscoe, ed. Schools of Bologna, Ferrara and Piedmont. III. London. Lanzi, Luigi. Thomas Roscoe, ed. Schools of Florence and Siena. I. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall. Lanzi, Luigi. Thomas Roscoe, ed. Schools of Naples, Lombardy, Modena, Parma and Milan. II. London: George Bell and Sons. Lanzi, Luigi. Thomas Roscoe, ed. School of Venice. III. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall. Lanzi, Luigi. Thomas Roscoe, ed. Schools of Lombardy, Modena, Parma and Milan. IV. London: W. Simpkin and R. Marshall; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lanzi, Luigi". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 188. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Luigi Lanzi". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Works by Luigi Antonio Lanzi at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Luigi Lanzi at Internet Archive