"Lofsöngur" known as "Ó Guð vors lands", is the national anthem of Iceland. Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson composed the music; this was adopted as the national anthem in 1944, when the country voted to end its personal union with Denmark and become a republic. It is notorious for being challenging to sing and its strong religious theme has been source of dispute in contemporary Iceland; the period during the late 1800s saw music in Iceland flourish. Though many of their initial composers had to study and ply their trade abroad due to insufficient opportunities on offer at home, they were able to bring what they had learned back to Iceland. One of these musicians was Sveinbjörn Sveinbjörnsson, the first person from his homeland to pursue "an international career as a composer", he sojourned in Edinburgh during the early 1870s, wrote the music for Lofsöngur inside a town house located in the city's New Town in 1874. By 1922, the song became so well known and loved throughout Iceland that, in recognition of this, the Althing endowed Sveinbjörnsson with a state pension.
He was the first composer in the country to be conferred such an honour. The lyrical portion of it was penned by Matthías Jochumsson, one of the "best loved poets" in the country, a priest. Although the commemorative plaque in Edinburgh purports that both the music and lyrics were written there, it is nowadays believed that Jochumsson had in fact produced the latter back in his homeland. Much like Sveinbjörnsson, Jochumsson became the first Icelandic poet to be given a state pension; the Althing bestowed on him the title of "National Poet". It was written to coincide with the 1874 festivities in honor of one millennium since the Norse first arrived on the island, it is for this reason that the full translation of the anthem's title is "The Millennial Hymn of Iceland". The song was first played on August 2 of that year, at a service celebrated at Reykjavík Cathedral to commemorate the milestone, with the King of Denmark – Christian IX – in attendance. However, the song was not adopted as the country's national anthem until 70 years in 1944, when Icelanders voted in a referendum to end their state's personal union with Denmark and become a republic.
Although the Icelandic national anthem consists of three stanzas, only the first one is sung on a regular basis. It is notorious for being challenging to sing, due to its large vocal range of high and low registers. "Lofsöngur" has been described as a Christian hymn to God with strong religious themes. Thus, its suitability as the national anthem in Iceland's secular society of the present-day has been challenged, not withstanding the fact that the country still maintains an official religion in the form of the Church of Iceland; some have suggested replacing it with a non-religious song, more all-encompassing. Upptökurnar eru af geisladisk sem forsætisráðuneytið gaf út árið 2003 The Icelandic National Anthem Audio of the national anthem of Iceland, with information and lyrics A simple but accurate MIDI transcription of the official version Video of choir singing'Lofsöngur'
Ja, vi elsker dette landet
"Ja, vi elsker dette landet" known by the title "Song For Norway", is a patriotic anthem, regarded as the de facto national anthem of Norway since early 20th century, after being used alongside Sønner av Norge since the 1860s. The lyrics were written by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson between 1859 and 1868, the melody was written by his cousin Rikard Nordraak sometime during the winter of 1863-1864, it was first performed publicly on 17 May 1864 in connection with the 50th anniversary of the constitution. Only the first and the last two verses are sung; until the mid-1860s, the older anthems Sønner av Norge and Norges Skaal were regarded as the Norwegian national anthems, with Sønner av Norge being most recognised. Ja, vi elsker dette landet came to be recognised as a national anthem from the mid-1860s; until the early 20th century, both Sønner av Norge and Ja, vi elsker were used alongside, with Sønner av Norge being preferred in official situations. In 2011, the song Mitt lille land featured prominently in all the memorial ceremonies following the 2011 Norway attacks and was described by the media as "a new national anthem."
On the Norwegian Constitution Day in 2012, the NRK broadcast was opened with "Mitt lille land." Bjørnson wrote in a modified version of the Danish language current in Norway at the time. Written Bokmål has since been altered in a series of orthographic reforms intended to distinguish it from Danish and bring it closer to spoken Norwegian; the text below, in use today, is identical to Bjørnson's original in using the same words, but with modernised spelling and punctuation. The most sung verses, 1, 7 and 8, have been modernised most and have several variations in existence. For example, Bjørnson wrote «drømme på vor jord», which some sources today write as «drømme på vår jord», while others write «drømmer på vår jord». In each verse the last two lines are sung twice, one or two words are repeated an extra time when the lines are sung the second time; these words are written in italics in the Norwegian lyrics below. The first verse is written down in full as an example; the three used stanzas of Ja, vi elsker were translated into English long ago.
The name of the translator is mentioned in printed versions of the English text. It has so far not been possible to identify the person responsible or to ascertain when it was translated, but the following versions of stanzas 1, 7, 8 are well known and sung by descendants of Norwegian immigrants to the United States. Its popularity and familiarity among Norwegian-Americans seems to indicate that it has been around for a long time since before the middle of the 20th century, much earlier; this translation may be regarded as the "official" version in English. Two alternative metrical version are in existence; the second version follows the original and was learnt by heart by a Norwegian who did not know the name of the translator. It has been published in a collection of Sange og digte paa dansk og engelsk. Two small changes in this text has been done in the version, presented here. Verse 2, sung, has been omitted, the last two lines in each verse are repeated, in the same way as we sing it in Norwegian.
A verse hailing Charles IV who had succeeded his father as king of Norway in July 1859 was included in the original version of "Ja, vi elsker". However, following the divisive international events of the spring of 1864 where the ideal of a unified Scandinavia was coldly shattered, Bjørnson went from being a monarchist to republicanism, the tribute to the reigning sovereign was stricken from the song; the lyrics that were taken out were: Kongen selv står stærk og åpen som vår Grænsevagt og hans allerbedste Våpen er vår Broderpagt. In English this reads: The King himself stands strong and open As our border guard and his most powerful weapon is our brethren pact; the "brethren pact" which the text is referring to was a military treaty between Norway and Denmark to come to the assistance should one of the nations come under military assault. This happened when German troops invaded South Jutland in February 1864. None of the alliance partners came to the rescue of Denmark; this perceived treason of the "brethren pact" once and for all shattered many people's dreams of unification of the three countries.
In 1905 the Union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved after many years of Norwegian struggle for equality between the two states, as stipulated in the 1815 Act of Union. The unilateral declaration by the Norwegian Storting of the union's dissolution 7 June provoked strong Swedish reactions, bringing the two nations to the brink of war in the autumn. In Sweden, pro-war conservatives were opposed by the Social Democrats, whose leaders Hjalmar Branting and Zeth Höglund spoke out for reconciliation and a peaceful settlement with Norway. Swedish socialists sang Ja, vi elsker dette landet to demonstrate their support for the Norwegian people’s right to secede from the union. During World War II, the anthem was used both by the Norwegian resistance and the Nazi collaborators, the latter group for propaganda reasons; the German occupiers forbade any use of the anthem. In May 2006, the multicultural newspaper Utrop proposed that the national anthem be translated into Urdu, the native language of the most numerous group of recent immigrants to Norway.
The editor's idea was that people from other ethnic groups should be able to honour their adopted country with devotion if they were no
"Limba noastră" has been the national anthem of the Republic of Moldova since 1994. For a short period before that, the official anthem of the country was Deșteaptă-te, române!, the national anthem of Romania. The lyrics were written by Alexei Mateevici a month before his death. Mateevici contributed to the national emancipation of Bessarabia; the music was composed by Alexandru Cristea. Uniquely among national anthems, the focus of "Limba noastră" is Romanian, it calls for the people to revive the usage of their native language. The poem does not make a named reference to the language. "Limba noastră", like "Deșteaptă-te, române!", makes reference to the awakening from the sleep of death: "a people awaken from the sleep of death" and "awaken, from the sleep of death", respectively. The original poem contains four stanzas of twelve verses each. For the anthem, the verses were reorganised into five stanzas of four verses each. Limba noastră is based on a twelve-verse poem. Today, only verses 1, 2, 5, 9, 12 are used in the national anthem.
Anthem of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic Deșteaptă-te, române!, former national anthem of Moldova Moldovan language Moldovenism Wikisource, "Limba noastră", full text of Mateevici's poem State Symbols of the Republic of Moldova - The official page of the Republic of Moldova features a page about the flag and anthem, which include vocal and instrumental versions President's House - The official website of the President of Moldova has a page with information about the anthem. The Romanian version of the page contains the music score of the anthem. Moldova: Limba noastră - Audio of the national anthem of Moldova, with information and lyrics "Romanian Nationalism in the Republic of Moldova" by Andrei Panici, American University in Bulgaria, 2002
God Save the Queen
"God Save the Queen" is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, the British Crown dependencies. The author of the tune is unknown, it may originate in plainchant. "God Save the Queen" is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is the royal anthem – played in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia, Canada and Tuvalu. In countries not part of the British Empire, the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still connected with royal ceremony; the melody continues to be used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein, "Oben am jungen Rhein", the royal anthem of Norway, "Kongesangen". In the United States, the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country,'Tis of Thee". Beyond its first verse, consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions.
Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, on rare occasions, three; the sovereign and her or his spouse are saluted with the entire composition, while other members of the Royal Family who are entitled to royal salute receive just the first six bars. The first six bars form all or part of the Vice Regal Salute in some Commonwealth realms outside the UK, as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories. In The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes points out the similarities to an early plainsong melody, although the rhythm is distinctly that of a galliard, he gives examples of several such dance tunes that bear a striking resemblance to "God Save the King/Queen". Scholes quotes a keyboard piece by John Bull which has some similarities to the modern tune, depending on the placing of accidentals which at that time were unwritten in certain cases and left to the discretion of the player.
He points to several pieces by Henry Purcell, one of which includes the opening notes of the modern tune, setting the words "God Save the King". Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, "Remember O Thou Man" was the source of the tune; the first published version of what is the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year, with the landing of Charles Edward Stuart and was published in The Gentleman's Magazine; this manuscript has the tune depart from that, used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, for example, Thomas Arne writing a setting of the tune for the Drury Lane Theatre. Scholes' analysis includes mention of "untenable" and "doubtful" claims, as well as "an American misattribution"; some of these are: The French Marquise de Créquy wrote in her Souvenirs that a song named "Grand Dieu, sauvez le Roi!", with words by Marie de Brinon and music by Jean-Baptiste Lully, was performed in gratitude for the survival by Louis XIV of an anal fistula operation.
Créquy claimed that the tune was plagiarised by Handel, so adopted by the British as "un de leurs air nationaux". After the Battle of Culloden, the Hanover dynasty adopted this melody as the British anthem. A different song, "Domine, Salvum Fac Regem", was the unofficial French anthem until 1792. James Oswald was a possible author of the Thesaurus Musicus, so may have played a part in the history of the song, but is not a strong enough candidate to be cited as the composer of the tune. Henry Carey: Scholes refutes this attribution: first on the grounds that Carey himself never made such a claim, it has been claimed that the work was first publicly performed by Carey during a dinner in 1740 in honour of Admiral Edward "Grog" Vernon, who had captured the Spanish harbour of Porto Bello during the War of Jenkins' Ear. Scholes recommends the attribution "traditional" or "traditional; the English Hymnal gives no attribution, stating "17th or 18th cent." Like many aspects of British constitutional life, "God Save the Queen" derives its official status from custom and use, not from Royal Proclamation or Act of Parliament.
The variation in the UK of the lyrics to "God Save the Queen" is the oldest amongst those used, forms
"Azərbaycan Marşı" or the March of Azerbaijan, is the national anthem of Azerbaijan. The music was composed with lyrics by poet Ahmad Javad; the government adopted the anthem in 1920 with the passage of the decree, "On the State Hymn of the Republic of Azerbaijan." In 1992, after the fall of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijan's government restored "Azərbaycan Marşı" as the national anthem. The government of Azerbaijan has officially declared the national anthem to be "the sacred symbol of the Azerbaijan state, its independence and unity."Since 2006, a fragment of the lyrics from the national anthem is depicted on the obverse of the Azerbaijani 5 manat banknote. In 2011, to mark the 20th anniversary of Azerbaijan's independence from Soviet rule, the government issued a stamp celebrating the anthem. In 1919, during the formation of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, the new government announced it was accepting submissions from the public for a national anthem, coat of arms and state seal. A prize of 15,000 rubles would be awarded to the citizen.
Azerbaijani composer Uzeyir Hajibeyov wrote two marches. In 1919, this work received the first award announced by the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic; the second march was the "March of Azerbaijan." According to Turkish musicologist Etem Üngör, "In those years, when Azerbaijan had not yet lost its independence, the march was chanted by military schools before lessons."In 1922, "Azərbaycan marşı" was replaced by Soviet communist anthem "The Internationale". In 1944, during World War II, the new Soviet national anthem replaced "The Internationale" and an additional Anthem of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic was installed. In 1989, following several years of changes brought by perestroika, composer Aydin Azimov arranged a modern recording of the anthem by a full symphony and chorus; that fall, "Azərbaycan marşı" was broadcast on television and radios in Azerbaijan, 70 years after it was introduced. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, in spring 1992, the leaders of the independent Azerbaijani government proposed that the original anthem should be restored as the anthem of Azerbaijan.
The Milli Mejlis signed it into law on 27 May 1992. Note that, in accordance with Azerbaijani law, there are no official translations of the anthem. Regulations for the performance of the national anthem are set forth in the law signed by President Heydar Aliyev in 1996. While a performance of the anthem may include only music, only words, or a combination of both, the anthem must be performed using the official music and words prescribed by law. Once a performance has been recorded, it may be used for any purpose, such as in a radio or television broadcast. In 2012, Philip Sheppard with the London Philharmonic Orchestra recorded the anthem for the 2012 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Paralympics. Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni, Musiqini dinləmək Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni, Himni dinləmək Instrumental from The Copyright Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan website Azerbaijani National Anthem on YouTube
A national anthem is a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are hymns in style; the countries of Latin America, Central Asia, Europe tend towards more ornate and operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East, Oceania and the Caribbean use a more simplistic fanfare. Some countries that are devolved into multiple constituent states have their own official musical compositions for them. A national anthem is most in the national or most common language of the country, whether de facto or official, there are notable exceptions. Most states with more than one national language may offer several versions of their anthem, for instance: The "Swiss Psalm", the national anthem of Switzerland, has different lyrics for each of the country's four official languages; the national anthem of Canada, "O Canada", has official lyrics in both English and French which are not translations of each other, is sung with a mixture of stanzas, representing the country's bilingual nature.
The song itself was written in French. "The Soldier's Song", the national anthem of Ireland, was written and adopted in English, but an Irish translation, although never formally adopted, is nowadays always sung instead. The current South African national anthem is unique in that five of the country's eleven official languages are used in the same anthem, it was created by combining two different songs together and modifying the lyrics and adding new ones. One of the two official national anthems of New Zealand, "God Defend New Zealand", is now sung with the first verse in Māori and the second in English; the tune is the same but the words are not a direct translation of each other. "God Bless Fiji" has lyrics in Fijian which are not translations of each other. Although official, the Fijian version is sung, it is the English version, performed at international sporting events. Although Singapore has four official languages, with English being the current lingua franca, the national anthem, "Majulah Singapura" is in Malay and by law can only be sung with its original Malay lyrics, despite the fact that Malay is a minority language in Singapore.
This is because Part XIII of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore declares, “the national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script ” There are several countries that do not have official lyrics to their national anthems. One of these is the national anthem of Spain. Although it had lyrics those lyrics were discontinued after governmental changes in the early 1980s after Francisco Franco's dictactorship. In 2007 a national competition to write words was held. Other national anthems with no words include "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica", the national anthem of San Marino, that of Bosnia and Herzegovina and that of Kosovo, entitled "Europe"; the national anthem of India, "Jana Gana Mana", the official lyrics are in the Devnagari. The lyrics were adopted from a Bengali poem written by Rabindranath Tagore. Despite the most common language in Wales being English, the Welsh regional anthem "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is sung in the Welsh language; the national anthem of Finland, was first written in Swedish and only translated to Finnish.
It is nowadays sung in both languages as there is a Swedish speaking minority of about 6% in the country. National anthems rose to prominence in Europe during the 19th century, but some originated much earlier; the presumed oldest national anthem belongs to the Netherlands and is called the "Wilhelmus". It was written between 1568 and 1572 during the Dutch Revolt and its current melody variant was composed shortly before 1626, it was a popular orangist march during the 17th century but it did not become the official Dutch national anthem until 1932. The Japanese national anthem, "Kimigayo", has the oldest lyrics, which were taken from a Heian period poem, yet it was not set to music until 1880; the Philippine national anthem "Lupang Hinirang" was composed in 1898 as wordless incidental music for the ceremony declaring independence from the Spanish Empire. The Spanish poem "Filipinas" was written the following year to serve as the anthem's lyrics. "God Save the Queen", the national anthem of the United Kingdom and the royal anthem reserved for use in the presence of the Monarch in some Commonwealth realms, was first performed in 1619 under the title "God Save the King".
It is not the national anthem of the UK, though it became such through custom and usage. Spain's national anthem, the "Marcha Real", written in 1761, was among the first to be adopted as such, in 1770. Denmark adopted the older of its two national anthems, "Kong Christian stod ved højen mast", in 1780. Serbia became the first Eastern European nation to have a national anthem – "Rise up, Serbia!" – in 1804."Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu", the national anthem of Kenya, is one of the first national anthems to be specifical