The Giudicato of Gallura was one of four Sardinian giudicati of the Middle Ages. These were de facto independent states ruled by judges bearing the title iudex, Gallura, a name which comes from gallus, meaning rooster, was subdivided into ten curatoriae governed by curatores under the judge. In the 13th century, the arms of Gallura contained a rooster, Gallura is the northeast region of the island, with its main city at Olbia. The first iudices of Gallura only appear in the historical record late in the eleventh century, for this reason, it was often in alliance with the Giudicato of Cagliari in the south. Gallura began as a province of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, after the Arab conquest of Sicily in 827 AD, Sardinia was effectively cut off from regular communication with the Imperial government in Constantinople. Unable to receive instruction or support from the empire, the provincial Byzantine magistrates, like the other Sardinian provinces, what were initially appointed, perhaps even elected, positions eventually evolved into hereditary ones. From the mid-ninth to the eleventh centuries, little is known at all about Gallura. Modern theories generally assume that these early rulers were Pisan governors sent by the Republic, in a letter of Pope Gregory VII dated 1074, he refers to Constantine I of Gallura, probably a member of the Gherardeschi clan. There are legends surrounded Constantines relationship with the powerful Corsican lords of Cinarca, the popes, through Pisan archbishops, sought to extend their authority directly over Sardinia. In this they were aided by the various monastic movements — Benedictine, Camaldolese, Vallombrosan and these monks introduced important economic, agricultural, technological, artistic, ecclesiastic, and social advancements, developments, and transformations. The reign of Torgodorios son, Saltaro, was interrupted for three years by Ittocorre de Gunale, but the dynasty was restored by Constantine II, who was succeeded by Comita I. Around 1130, Comita joined Gonario II of Torres and Constantine I of Arborea in doing homage to the Pisan archdiocese. On 26 June 1132, Comita went to Ardara, the palace of the Giudicato of Logudoro to do homage directly the Archbishop Roger. The ties to Pisa were reestablished and they were to endure, Comita was succeeded by Constantine III, probably a son of Ittocorre and thus the first Gallurese iudex of the Lacon dynasty. Constantine was succeeded by his son Barisone II, who left a daughter, Elena. This opened Gallura to succession crisis as rival faction sought the hand of Elena in marriage, William Malaspina tried to marry her, but Pope Innocent III forbade it. In 1206, William I of Cagliari invaded Gallura, finally, in 1207, Elena married the Pisan Lamberto Visconti. Lamberto repulsed the invasion and secured Gallura in the Pisan fold and they first invaded Gallura because of its strong Pisan connection
Church of Saint Simplicius at Olbia, constructed in the 12th century.
Gallura (brown) and the other Giudicati of Sardinia