Italian Socialist Party
The Italian Socialist Party was a socialist and, social-democratic political party in Italy. Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II, the PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the 19th century and had to endure persecution by the Italian government during its early years. At the start of the 20th century, the PSI chose not to oppose the governments led by five-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti. This conciliation with the governments and its improving electoral fortunes helped to establish the PSI as a mainstream Italian political party by the 1910s. Despite the partys improving electoral results, the PSI remained divided into two branches, the Reformists and the Maximalists. The Reformists, led by Filippo Turati, were mostly in the unions. The Maximalists, led by Costantino Lazzari, were affiliated with the London Bureau of socialist groups, in 1912 the Maximalists led by Benito Mussolini prevailed at the party convention and this led to the split of the Italian Reformist Socialist Party.
In the 1919 general election the PSI reached its highest result ever,32. 0% and 156 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, during this time period, Mussolini belonged to the Bolshevik wing of the Italian Socialist Party who purged moderate or reformist socialists. The national syndicalists intended to support Italian republicans in overthrowing the monarchy if such reforms were not made, the dominant internationalist and pacifist wing of the party remained committed to avoiding what it called a bourgeois war. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the PSI quickly aligned itself in support of the communist Bolshevik movement in Russia, from 1919 to the 1920s the Socialists and the Fascists emerged as prominent rival movements in Italys urban centres, often resorting to political violence in their clashes. In 1919, the Socialist Party of Turin formed the Red Army of Turin, the left-wing of the party broke away in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Italy, a division from which the PSI never been recovered and which had enormous consequences on Italian politics.
In 1922, another split occurred when the reformist wing of the party, in 1924 Giacomo Matteotti, a member of the PSU, was assassinated by Fascists and shortly afterwards a Fascist dictatorship was established in Italy. In 1925 the PSI and all political parties except the Fascist Party were banned. The partys leadership remained in exile during the Fascist years and in 1930 the PSU was re-integrated into the PSI, the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1930 and 1940. In the 1946 general election, the first after World War II, for the 1948 general election the Socialists led by Pietro Nenni chose to take part in the Popular Democratic Front along with the PCI. This caused the split of the faction within the party led by Giuseppe Saragat. The PSI was weakened by the split and was far less organized than the PCI, as a result, the Socialist parliamentary delegation was cut by a half
Andreotti is widely considered the most powerful and prominent politician of the so-called First Republic. In foreign policy, he guided Italys European Union integration, admirers of Andreotti saw him as having mediated political and social contradictions, enabling the transformation of a substantially rural country into the fifth-biggest economy in the world. Critics said he had nothing against a system of patronage that had led to pervasive corruption. At the height of his prestige as a statesman, Andreotti was subjected to damaging criminal prosecutions, charged with colluding with Cosa Nostra, courts found he had broken the links by the 1980s, and ruled the case out of time. The most sensational allegation came from prosecutors in Perugia, who charged him with ordering the murder of a journalist and he was found guilty at a trial, which led to complaints that the justice system had gone mad. Definitively acquitted by the court, Andreotti remarked, Apart from the Punic Wars, for which I was too young.
Andreotti served as the 41st Prime Minister of Italy from 1972 to 1973, from 1976 to 1979 and he served as Minister of the Interior, Defence Minister and Foreign Minister and was a Senator for life from 1991 until his death in 2013. He was a journalist and author, Andreotti was sometimes called Divo Giulio. During the 16th term of the Senate in 2008–13, he opted to join the parliamentary group UDC – independence, Giulio Andreotti, the youngest of three children, was born on 14 January 1919 in Rome. His father was a school teacher from Segni, a small town in Lazio. Andreotti attended the Liceo Torquato Tasso in Rome and graduated in Law at the University of Rome and he showed some ferocity as a youth, once stubbing out a lit taper in the eye of another altar boy who was ridiculing him. His mother was described as not very affectionate, and an aunt is said to have advised him to remember that few things in life are important, as an adult he was described as having a somewhat unusual demeanor for an Italian politician, being mild-mannered and unassuming.
Andreotti did not use his influence to advance his children to prominence, see all, tolerate much, and correct one thing at a time, was a quote that emphasised what has been called his art of the possible view of politics. Andreotti was known for his discretion and retentive memory, and a sense of humour, Andreotti did not shine at his school and started work in a tax office while studying law at the University of Rome. In this period he became a member of the Italian Catholic Federation of University Students and its members included many of the future leaders of the Italian Christian Democracy. In 1938 while researching the papal navy in the Vatican library, he met Alcide De Gasperi, De Gasperi asked Andreotti if he had nothing better to do with his time, inspiring him to become politically active. Speaking of De Gasperi, Andreotti said, He taught us to search for compromise, in July 1939, while Aldo Moro was president of FUCI, Andreotti became director of its magazine Azione Fucina. In 1942, when Moro was enrolled in the Italian Army, Andreotti succeeded him as president of FUCI, during his early years Andreotti suffered violent migraines that forced him to sporadically make use of psychoactive drugs and opiates
Prime Minister of Italy
The office of Prime Minister is established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election, prior to the establishment of the Italian Republic, the position was called President of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of Italy. King Victor Emmanuel III removed Mussolini from office in 1943 and the position was restored with Marshal Pietro Badoglio becoming Prime Minister in 1943, Alcide De Gasperi became the first Prime Minister of the Italian Republic in 1946. The Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers—which holds executive power, the position is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems. The formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office, as the President of the Council of Ministers the modern Prime Minister leads the Cabinet. In addition the Prime Minister leads a political party and generally commands the majority in the Parliament.
Article 95 of the Italian constitution provides that the Prime Minister directs, the Prime Ministers activity has often consisted of mediating between the various parties in the majority coalition, rather than directing the activity of the Council of Ministers. The office was first established in 1848 in Italys predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia—although it was not mentioned in its constitution, from 1848 to 1861 ten Prime Ministers governed the Kingdom, most of them being right-wing politicians. After the Unification of Italy and the establishment of the kingdom, in fact the candidate for office was appointed by the king, and presided over a very unstable political system. The first Prime Minister was Camillo Benso di Cavour, who was appointed on 23 March 1861, from 1861 to 1911 Historical Right and Left Prime Ministers alternatively governed the country. One of the most famous and influential Prime Ministers of this period was Francesco Crispi, a patriot and statesman. He led the country for six years, from 1887 until 1891, Crispi was internationally famous and often mentioned along with world statesmen such as Bismarck and Salisbury.
Originally an enlightened Italian patriot and democrat liberal, he went on to become a bellicose authoritarian prime minister and admirer of Bismarck. His career ended amid controversy and failure due to becoming involved in a banking scandal. He is often seen as a precursor of the fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, in 1892 Giovanni Giolitti, a young leftist politician, was elected Prime Minister by king Umberto I, but after less than a year he was forced to resign and Crispi returned to power. In 1903 after a period of instability he was appointed head of the government. Giolitti was the Prime Minister five times between 1892 and 1921 and the second-longest serving Prime Minister in Italian history, after Mussolini, under his influence, the Italian Liberals did not develop as a structured party. They were instead a series of informal personal groupings with no links to political constituencies
Minister without portfolio
A minister without portfolio is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry. Stanley Bruce was given the title of Minister without Portfolio when he took up his position in 1932 as the Commonwealth Minister in London and he was given the title by Lyons Cabinet so that he could better represent the PM and his colleagues free from the limitations of a portfolio. In this case the title was a promotion and carried considerable responsibilities, bangladesh appoints ministers without portfolio during cabinet reshuffles or fresh appointments. Ministers are not usually appointed without portfolio as a coalition negotiation – all long run ministers end up with a portfolio, suranjit Sengupta was a minister without portfolio in Sheikh Hasinas second government. Notable Conservatives who filled the role include R. B, and Arthur Meighen, Meighen served this role after he had been prime minister. The practice has continued under the guise of ministers of state without responsibilities in the ministers titles, three control ministers served as ministers without portfolio during World War I.
After the Liberation of Denmark in May 1945, the first Danish cabinet included four ministers without portfolio, kauffmann served in this capacity from 12 May to 7 November 1945. The three other holders of this title had joined the cabinet a few days before – Aksel Larsen, lise Østergaard held a position as minister without portfolio with special attention to foreign policy issues in Anker Jørgensens cabinet from 26 February 1977 to 28 February 1980. Anders Fogh Rasmussen appointed Bertel Haarder to Minister without Portfolio, Haarder served in this capacity from 27 November 2001 to 18 February 2005. The reason for appointing a minister without a ministry was the Danish European Union Presidency of 2002, Haarder was considered the most experienced Danish politician on European affairs. Tamás Fellegi Kunwar Natwar Singh Since the inception of the state, Indonesia had ministers without portfolio, the number was not fixed, entirely depended on the behest of the President. Below is the list of Ministers without Portfolio in each Cabinet, Mohammad Amir Abdul Wahid Hasyim Sartono Alexander Andries Maramis Mohammad Amir Oto Iskandar di Nata Rasjidi Wikana Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwana IX Abdul Wahid Hasyim Wikana Dr.
Such a minister may nevertheless be given a specific title, the only substantive minister without portfolio has been Frank Aiken, the Minister for the Co-ordination of Defensive Measures during World War II. By the Emergency Powers Act 1939 in force, the Minister for Defence was able to delegate some competences to him, such delegation is now done instead with Ministers of State, junior ministers who are not members of the government. Junior ministers can be given a right to sit at cabinet and this allows the Government to circumvent the Constitutional limit on the number of Senior Ministers. On several occasions a minister has been appointed to a government with the title of a new Department of State. Between the date of appointment and the date of creation of the department, examples include, It is common practice in Israel to appoint ministers without portfolio as part of the coalition negotiations. All cabinets in recent years have had at least some such appointment, departments on equalities, European affairs and relations with regions, for example, are usually led by ministers without portfolio
Silvio Berlusconi is an Italian media tycoon and politician who served as Prime Minister of Italy in four governments. Berlusconi is the controlling shareholder of Mediaset and has owned the Italian football club A. C. Milan since 1986 and he is nicknamed Il Cavaliere for his Order of Merit for Labour, although he voluntarily resigned from this order in March 2014. In 2016, Forbes magazine ranked him as the 188th richest man in the world with a net worth of US$7.1 billion, in 2009, Forbes ranked him 12th in the List of The Worlds Most Powerful People due to his domination in Italian politics. He was the leader of the centre-right party Forza Italia from 1994 to 2009, since November 2013, he has led a revived Forza Italia. Berlusconi was the senior G8 leader from 2009 until 2011 and he holds the record of G8 Summit hosting. After serving nearly 19 years as member of the Chamber of Deputies, Italys lower house, on 1 August 2013, he was convicted of tax-fraud by the final appeal instance, Court of Cassation along with a public office ban for two years.
As his age exceeded 70 years, he was exempted from direct imprisonment, because of being sentenced to a gross imprisonment for more than two years, a new Italian anticorruption law made the Senate expel and bar him from serving any legislative office for six years. Berlusconi has pledged to stay leader of Forza Italia throughout the period where he serves his imprisonment sentence, Berlusconi is famous for his populist political style and brash, overbearing personality. Berlusconi was born in Milan in 1936, where he was raised in a middle-class family and his father, Luigi Berlusconi, was a bank employee, and his mother, Rosa Bossi, a housewife. Silvio was the first of three children, he had a sister, Maria Francesca Antonietta Berlusconi, and has a brother, Paolo Berlusconi. After completing his school education at a Salesian college, he studied law at the Università Statale in Milan, graduating in 1961. Berlusconi was not required to serve the standard one-year stint in the Italian army which was compulsory at the time, in life, he wrote AC Milans anthem with the Italian music producer and pop singer Tony Renis and Forza Italias anthem with the opera director Renato Serio.
With the Neapolitan singer Mariano Apicella, he wrote two Neapolitan song albums, Meglio na canzone in 2003 and Lultimo amore in 2006, in 1965, he married Carla Elvira DallOglio, and they had two children, Maria Elvira, better known as Marina, and Pier Silvio. By 1980, Berlusconi had established a relationship with the actress Veronica Lario and he was divorced from DallOglio in 1985, and married Lario in 1990. By this time, Berlusconi was an entrepreneur, and his wedding was a notable social event. One of his best men was Bettino Craxi, a prime minister and leader of the Italian Socialist Party. In May 2009, Lario announced that she was to file for divorce, in addition to his five children, Berlusconi has ten grandchildren. Berlusconis business career began in construction, in the late 1960s, he built Milano Due,4,000 residential apartments east of Milan
Massimo DAlema is an Italian politician who was the 53rd Prime Minister from 1998 to 2000. Later he was Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2008 and he is a journalist and served for a time as national secretary of the Democratic Party of the Left. Sometimes media refers to him as Leader Maximo, due to his first name Massimo, earlier in his career he was a member of the Italian Communist Party, and he was the first former communist to become prime minister of a NATO country. Massimo DAlema was born in Rome on 20 April 1949, the son of Giuseppe DAlema and he is married to Linda Giuva, a professor at the University of Siena, and has two children and Francesco. He became a member of Italian Communist Party, part of which in 1991 gave origin to the Democratic Party of the Left. In 1998, succeeding Romano Prodi, he became Prime Minister and he was the first former Communist to become prime minister of a NATO country and the first Prime Minister of Italy born after Italy became a Republic in 1946.
While DAlema was Prime Minister, Italy took part in the NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1999, the attack was supported by Silvio Berlusconi and the centre-right opposition, but the far left strongly contested it. He has been the director of LUnità, formerly the official newspaper of the Italian Communist Party, immediately following the April 2006 election, he was proposed as the future President of the Chamber of Deputies. The Communist Refoundation Party, strongly pushed for Fausto Bertinotti to become the next President, after a couple of days of heated debate, DAlema stepped back to prevent a fracture between political parties, an act applauded by his allies. The same month, he was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs in the new Prodi government and he served in those posts until 2008, when Prodis government fell and Berlusconis right-wing coalition prevailed in the election that followed in April 2008. DAlema was re-elected to the Chamber of Deputies in this election as part of the recently formed Democratic Party, while Italian Foreign Minister in the 2006-2008 Romano Prodi center-left government, Massimo DAlema took a very pro-active diplomatic stance during the 2006 Lebanon War.
DAlema was briefly a Member of the European Parliament from 2004 to 2006, since 2003 he has been member of the scientific committee of Michel Rocard and Dominique Strauss-Kahns association A gauche en Europe. He still figures on the European scene, he signed the Soros letter and has called for a stronger European integration, since 30 June 2010 DAlema has been the president of the Foundation for European Progressive Studies, the political foundation of the Party of European Socialists. 1967, Secondary school-leaving certificate in classical subjects Did not complete studies in philosophy at the famed Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, dialogo su Berlinguer, with Paul Ginsborg, Giunti,1994, ISBN 88-09-20545-6, Un paese normale. LItalia verso le riforme, Mondadori,1997, ISBN 88-04-42161-4, Parole a vista, with Enrico Ghezzi, Bompiani,1998, ISBN 88-452-3777-X, Kosovo. Gli italiani e la guerra, with Federico Rampini, Mondadori,1999, ISBN 88-04-47302-9, Oltre la paura, Mondadori,2002, ISBN 88-04-51206-7
University of Pisa
The University of Pisa is an Italian public research university located in Pisa, Italy. It was founded in 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI and it is the 19th oldest extant university in the world and the 10th oldest in Italy. The prestigious university is ranked within the top 10 nationally and the top 400 in the according to the ARWU. It houses the Orto botanico di Pisa, Europes oldest academic botanical garden, the University of Pisa is part of the Pisa University System, which includes the Scuola Normale Superiore and the SantAnna School of Advanced Studies. The university has about 50,000 students and its the only university in Italy which has become a member of the prestigious Universities Research Association. In 2013, the University of Pisa finished with La Sapienza University of Rome in first place among the Italian universities, the University of Pisa was officially established on September 3,1343. However, a number of scholars claim its origin back to the 11th century. The following century formed the first documents to prove the presence of doctors of medicine, the earliest evidence of a Pisan Studium dates to 1338, when jurist Ranieri Arsendi transferred to Pisa from Bologna.
He, along with Bartolo da Sassoferrato, a lecturer in law, were paid by the municipality to teach public lessons. Pisa was one of the first European universities to boast this papal attestation, the first taught subjects were theology, civil law, canon law and medicine. In 1355, Francesco da Buti, the commentator of Dantes Divine Comedy. Pisa and its Studium underwent a period of crisis around the turn of the 15th century, in 1473, thanks to Lorenzo de Medici, the Pisan Studium resumed its systematic development, and the construction of a building for holding lessons was provided for in 1486. The building — known as Palazzo della Sapienza — was located in the 14th-century Piazza del Grano, the image of a cherub was placed above the gate DellAbbondanza, leading to the piazza, and today is still the symbol of the university. Following the rebellion and the war against Florence in 1494, the Pisan Studium suffered a period of decline and was transferred to Pistoia and Florence. The ceremonial reopening of the university on November 1,1543, the quality of the university was furthered by the statute of 1545 and the Pisan Athenaeum became one of the most significant in Europe for teaching and research.
The chair of Semplici was held by Luca Ghini, founder of the worlds first botanical gardens and he was succeeded by Andrea Cesalpino, who pioneered the first scientific methodology for the classification of plants, and is considered a forerunner in the discovery of blood circulation. Gabriele Falloppio and Marcello Malpighi lectured in anatomy and medicine, galileo Galilei, who was born and studied in Pisa, became professor of mathematics at the Pisan Studium in 1589. The universitys role as an institution became more accentuated during the Medici Grand Duchy period
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is considered a nation within a nation. Tuscany is traditionally a popular destination in Italy, and the main tourist destinations by number of tourist arrivals are Florence, Montecatini Terme, Castiglione della Pescaia and Grosseto. The village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited destination in the region. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val dOrcia are internationally renowned, Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the worlds 89th most visited city, roughly triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north and east, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast.
The comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany has a western coastline on the Tyrrhenian Sea, containing the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of approximately 22,993 square kilometres and crossed by major mountain chains, and with few plains, the region has a relief that is dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, and mountains. Plains occupy 8. 4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the River Arno, many of Tuscanys largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks, following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, and the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before Orientalization occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose, the Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art.
The Etruscans lived in Etruria well into prehistory, throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, one reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, and ensured peace. These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather. The Roman civilization in the West collapsed in the 5th century AD, in the years following 572, the Longobards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their Duchy of Tuscia
Vincenzo Alfonso Visco is an Italian politician and economist who has served as a government minister. He gained an MSc in Economics at the University of York in 1969 and was awarded an degree in 2004. He served as Finance Minister for a few days in 1993 and again from 1996 to 2000 and he returned to government in 2006 as Vice-Minister of Economy, a role in which he courted controversy. He was accused of using his influence to benefit Unipol in a bank takeover. He hit the headlines in this role when he described the debt as a disaster
Giuseppe Pisanu is an Italian politician, longtime member of the Chamber of Deputies for the Christian Democracy and for Forza Italia. From 2006 he sits in the Senate and he was the top-aide to Benigno Zaccagnini, leader of the left-wing of the Christian Democracy and national secretary of the party from 1975 to 1980. In the 1980s, Pisanu was many times member of the Italian government as under-secretary for Agriculture, in 1994 he joined Forza Italia, of which he was Vice-President and President of faction in the Chamber of Deputies. From 2002 to 2006, he was minister of the Interior, Giuseppe Pisanu at La Repubblica Giuseppe Pisanu at Radio Radicale Giuseppe Pisanu at the Internet Movie Database
Piedmont is one of the 20 regions of Italy. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres and a population of about 4.6 million, the capital of Piedmont is Turin. The name Piedmont comes from medieval Latin Pedemontium or Pedemontis, i. e. ad pedem montium, meaning “at the foot of the mountains”. Other towns of Piedmont with more than 20,000 inhabitants sorted by population and it borders with France and the Italian regions of Lombardy, Aosta Valley and for a very small fragment with Emilia Romagna. The geography of Piedmont is 43. 3% mountainous, along with areas of hills. Piedmont is the second largest of Italys 20 regions, after Sicily and it is broadly coincident with the upper part of the drainage basin of the river Po, which rises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and is Italy’s largest river. The Po collects all the waters provided within the semicircle of mountains which surround the region on three sides, from the highest peaks the land slopes down to hilly areas, and to the upper, and to the lower great Padan Plain. 7. 6% of the territory is considered protected area.
There are 56 different national or regional parks, one of the most famous is the Gran Paradiso National Park located between Piedmont and the Aosta Valley, Piedmont was inhabited in early historic times by Celtic-Ligurian tribes such as the Taurini and the Salassi. They were subdued by the Romans, who founded several colonies there including Augusta Taurinorum, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was repeatedly invaded by the Burgundians, the Goths, Lombards, Franks. In the 9th–10th centuries there were incursions by the Magyars. At the time Piedmont, as part of the Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire, was subdivided into several marks, in 1046, Oddo of Savoy added Piedmont to their main territory of Savoy, with a capital at Chambéry. Other areas remained independent, such as the powerful comuni of Asti and Alessandria, the County of Savoy was elevated to a duchy in 1416, and Duke Emanuele Filiberto moved the seat to Turin in 1563. In 1720, the Duke of Savoy became King of Sardinia, founding what evolved into the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Republic of Alba was created in 1796 as a French client republic in Piedmont.
A new client republic, the Piedmontese Republic, existed between 1798 and 1799 before it was reoccupied by Austrian and Russian troops, in June 1800 a third client republic, the Subalpine Republic, was established in Piedmont. It fell under full French control in 1801 and it was annexed by France in September 1802, in the congress of Vienna, the Kingdom of Sardinia was restored, and furthermore received the Republic of Genoa to strengthen it as a barrier against France. Piedmont was a springboard for Italys unification in 1859–1861, following earlier unsuccessful wars against the Austrian Empire in 1820–1821 and this process is sometimes referred to as Piedmontisation. However, the efforts were countered by the efforts of rural farmers