Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
The Zhifang Waiji was an atlas written by various Italian Jesuits in China in the early seventeenth century. The name refers to lands beyond the purview of the Zhifang Si, the Imperial cartography office, it was the first detailed atlas of global geography available in Chinese. In the late 16th century, Western cartography was introduced to China by Matteo Ricci, who produced the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu, China's first world map, in 1602; the Wanli Emperor, who commissioned Ricci's map, subsequently ordered Ricci's colleagues Diego de Pantoja and Sabatino de Ursis to produce a book explaining the geography of the new countries shown. In 1623, the book was published by Yang Tingyun in Hangzhou, three years was reissued in a revised edition in Fujian; the eight scrolls of the Zhifang Waiji divide the world into five continents, each with separate maps and descriptions. These are named as Asia, Libya and Magellanica. An additional section covers the oceans. Ricci's original map had placed China off to one side, which resulted in a somewhat negative reception in Chinese scholarly circles.
This small change made the Zhifang Waiji more popular, it had a much longer and more wide-ranging influence than the Kunyu Wanguo Quantu as a result. The Zhifang Waiji was introduced to Korea by Jeong Duwon in 1631, a gift from the Jesuit translator João Rodrigues; the book was introduced to Japan during the Edo period, but was banned because of its Christian authorship and its initial appearance in a collection of Christian writings. The ban was lessened in 1720 to allow works which did not directly relate to Christianity to be bought and sold, the first "legitimate" sale of the book to Japan came in 1731. Despite the fact that only one edition was printed, it appears to have been read. Much of the text was reused by Ferdinand Verbiest in 1674 for his Kunyu Tushuo, it was reprinted in a number of collections, including Li Zhizao's Collection of Celestial Studies, the Siku Quanshu and a number of 19th and early 20th century encyclopedias
Matteo Ricci, S. J. was one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions. His 1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia, he is considered a Servant of God by the Roman Catholic Church. Ricci arrived at the Portuguese settlement of Macau in 1582 where he began his missionary work in China, he became the first European to enter the Forbidden City of Beijing in 1601 when invited by the Wanli Emperor, who sought his services in matters such as court astronomy and calendrical science. He converted several prominent Chinese officials to Catholicism, such as Xu Guangqi, who aided in translating Euclid's Elements into Chinese as well as the Confucian classics into Latin for the first time. Ricci was born 6 October 1552, in Macerata, part of the Papal States, today a city in the Italian region of Marche, he studied law at Rome for two years. He entered the Society of Jesus in April 1571 at the Roman College. While there, in addition to philosophy and theology, he studied mathematics and astronomy under the direction of Christopher Clavius.
In 1577, he applied for a missionary expedition to the Far East. He sailed from Lisbon, Portugal in March 1578 and arrived in Goa, a Portuguese Colony, the following September. Ricci remained there employed in teaching and the ministry until the end of Lent 1582, when he was summoned to Macau to prepare to enter China. Ricci arrived at Macau in the early part of August. In August 1582, Ricci arrived at a Portuguese trading post on the South China Sea. At the time, Christian missionary activity in China was completely limited to Macau, where some of the local Chinese people had converted to Christianity and lived in the Portuguese manner. No Christian missionary had attempted to learn the Chinese language until 1579, when Michele Ruggieri was invited from Portuguese India expressly to study Chinese, by Alessandro Valignano, founder of St. Paul Jesuit College, to prepare for the Jesuits' mission from Macau into Mainland China. Once in Macau, Ricci studied customs, it was the beginning of a long project that made him one of the first Western scholars to master Chinese script and Classical Chinese.
With Ruggieri, he traveled to Guangdong's major cities and Zhaoqing, seeking to establish a permanent Jesuit mission outside Macau. In 1583, Ricci and Ruggieri settled in Zhaoqing, at the invitation of the governor of Zhaoqing, Wang Pan, who had heard of Ricci's skill as a mathematician and cartographer. Ricci stayed in Zhaoqing from 1583 to 1589, it was in Zhaoqing, in 1584, that Ricci composed the first European-style world map in Chinese, called "Da Ying Quan Tu". No prints of the 1584 map are known to exist, but, of the much improved and expanded Kunyu Wanguo Quantu of 1602, six recopied, rice-paper versions survive, it is thought that, during their time in Zhaoqing and Ruggieri compiled a Portuguese-Chinese dictionary, the first in any European language, for which they developed a system for transcribing Chinese words in the Latin alphabet. The manuscript was misplaced in the Jesuit Archives in Rome, rediscovered only in 1934, published only in 2001. There is now a memorial plaque in Zhaoqing to commemorate Ricci's six-year stay there, as well as a "Ricci Memorial Centre" in a building dating from the 1860s.
Expelled from Zhaoqing in 1589, Ricci obtained permission to relocate to Shaoguan in the north of the province, reestablish his mission there. Further travels saw Ricci reach Nanjing and Nanchang in 1595. In August 1597, Alessandro Valignano, his superior, appointed him Major Superior of the mission in China, with the rank and powers of a Provincial, a charge that he fulfilled until his death, he moved to Tongzhou in 1598, first reached the capital Beijing itself on 7 September 1598. However, because of a Chinese intervention against Japanese invasion of Korea at the time, Ricci could not reach the Imperial Palace. After waiting for two months, he left Beijing. During the winter of 1598, with the help of his Jesuit colleague Lazzaro Cattaneo, compiled another Chinese-Portuguese dictionary, in which tones in Chinese syllables were indicated in Roman text with diacritical marks. Unlike Ricci's and Ruggieri's earlier Portuguese-Chinese dictionary, this work has not been found. In 1601, Ricci was invited to become an adviser to the imperial court of the Wanli Emperor, the first Westerner to be invited into the Forbidden City.
This honor was in recognition of Ricci's scientific abilities, chiefly his predictions of solar eclipses, which were significant events in the Chinese world. He established the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Beijing, the oldest Catholic church in the city. Ricci was given free access to the Forbidden City but never met the reclusive Wanli Emperor, however, granted him patronage, with a generous stipend and supported Ricci's completion of the Zhifang Waiji, China's first global atlas. Once established in Beijing, Ricci was able to meet important officials and leading members of the Beijing cultural scene and convert a number of them to Christianity. One conversion, which he called "extraordinary", occurred in 1602, when Li Yingshi, a decorated veteran of the Japanese/Korean War and a well-known astrologer and feng shui exper
Houghton Library, on the south side of Harvard Yard adjacent to Widener Library, is Harvard University's primary repository for rare books and manuscripts. It is part of the Harvard College Library, the library system of Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Harvard's first special collections library began as the Treasure Room of Gore Hall in 1908; the Treasure Room moved to the newly-built Widener Library in 1915. In 1938, looking to supply Harvard's most valuable holdings with more space and improved storage conditions, Harvard College Librarian Keyes DeWitt Metcalf made a series of proposals which led to the creation of Houghton Library, Lamont Library, the New England Deposit Library. Funding for Houghton was raised with the largest portion coming from Arthur A. Houghton Jr. in the form of stock in Corning Glass Works. Construction was completed by the fall of 1941, the library opened on February 28, 1942. Along with much else, Houghton holds collections of papers of Samuel Johnson, Emily Dickinson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Margaret Fuller, John Keats, Ralph Waldo Emerson and his family, Amos Bronson Alcott and his daughter Louisa May Alcott, along with the papers of other notable transcendentalists, Theodore Roosevelt, T.
S. Eliot, E. E. Cummings, Henry James, William James, James Joyce, John Updike, Jamaica Kincaid, Gore Vidal, many others. Houghton holds the letters of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, who commanded the 54th Massachusetts during the Civil War, was killed during the assault on Fort Wagner. Houghton has five main curatorial departments: Early Books and Manuscripts, which includes a large collection of Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts and over 2,500 incunabula. Early Modern Books and Manuscripts, featuring the Donald and Mary Hyde Collection of Dr. Samuel Johnson, one of the largest collections of books and manuscripts relating to Samuel Johnson and his circle. Modern Books and Manuscripts, which collects material from 1800 to the present, including the papers and libraries of Emily Dickinson, John Keats, Leon Trotsky, Gore Vidal, John Updike, Amy Lowell, collector Julio Mario Santo Domingo, Jr. among many others. Modern Books & Manuscripts New Acquisitions Blog Printing & Graphic Arts which documents the history and art of book production.
The Harvard Theatre Collection covering the history of the performing arts. A Houghton Library Chronicle, 1942–1992. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard College Library. 1992. OCLC 26633110. Centuries of books & manuscripts: collectors and friends and librarians build the Harvard College Library: an exhibition on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Houghton Library, 1942–1992. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard College Library. 1992. OCLC 26024581. Houghton Library home page Houghton 75: Celebrating Houghton Library's 75th Anniversary Online exhibition: Public Poet, Private Man: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow at 200 Online exhibition: Books in Books: Reflections on Reading and Writing in the Middle Ages Online exhibition: Harvard's Lincoln Online exhibition: A Monument More Durable Than Brass: The Donald and Mary Hyde Collection of Dr. Samuel Johnson Online exhibition: History of the Harry Elkins Widener Memorial Collection Online exhibition: "I shall be your dearest love": John Keats and Fanny Brawne Online exhibition: "Such a Curious Dream!: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland at 150 Houghton Library Blog Department of Modern Books & Manuscripts new acquisitions blog
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Colossus of Rhodes
The Colossus of Rhodes was a statue of the Greek sun-god Helios, erected in the city of Rhodes, on the Greek island of the same name, by Chares of Lindos in 280 BC. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was constructed to celebrate Rhodes' victory over the ruler of Cyprus, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, whose son Demetrius I of Macedon unsuccessfully besieged Rhodes in 305 BC. According to most contemporary descriptions, the Colossus stood 70 cubits, or 33 metres high—the approximate height of the modern Statue of Liberty from feet to crown—making it the tallest statue of the ancient world, it collapsed during the earthquake of 226 BC. As of 2015, there are tentative plans to build a new Colossus at Rhodes Harbour, although the actual location of the original remains in dispute. In the late 4th century BC, allied with Ptolemy I of Egypt, prevented a mass invasion staged by their common enemy, Antigonus I Monophthalmus. In 304 BC a relief force of ships sent by Ptolemy arrived, Demetrius and his army abandoned the siege, leaving behind most of their siege equipment.
To celebrate their victory, the Rhodians sold the equipment left behind for 300 talents and decided to use the money to build a colossal statue of their patron god, Helios. Construction was left to the direction of Chares, a native of Lindos in Rhodes, involved with large-scale statues before, his teacher, the sculptor Lysippos, had constructed a 22-metre-high bronze statue of Zeus at Tarentum. Construction began in 292 BC. Ancient accounts, which differ to some degree, describe the structure as being built with iron tie bars to which brass plates were fixed to form the skin; the interior of the structure, which stood on a 15-metre-high white marble pedestal near the Mandraki harbour entrance, was filled with stone blocks as construction progressed. Other sources place the Colossus on a breakwater in the harbour. According to most contemporary descriptions, the statue itself was about 70 cubits, or 33 metres tall. Much of the iron and bronze was reforged from the various weapons Demetrius's army left behind, the abandoned second siege tower may have been used for scaffolding around the lower levels during construction.
Upper portions were built with the use of a large earthen ramp. During the building, workers would pile mounds of earth on the sides of the colossus. Upon completion all of the earth was removed and the colossus was left to stand alone. After twelve years, in 280 BC, the statue was completed. Preserved in Greek anthologies of poetry is what is believed to be the genuine dedication text for the Colossus. To you, O Sun, the people of Dorian Rhodes set up this bronze statue reaching to Olympus, when they had pacified the waves of war and crowned their city with the spoils taken from the enemy. Not only over the seas but on land did they kindle the lovely torch of freedom and independence. For to the descendants of Herakles belongs dominion over sea and land. Modern engineers have put forward a plausible hypothesis for the statue's construction, based on the technology of the time, the accounts of Philo and Pliny, who saw and described the ruins; the base pedestal was said to be at least 18 metres in diameter, either circular or octagonal.
The feet were covered with thin bronze plates riveted together. Eight forged iron bars set in a radiating horizontal position formed the ankles and turned up to follow the lines of the legs while becoming progressively smaller. Individually cast curved bronze plates 60 inches square with turned-in edges were joined together by rivets through holes formed during casting to form a series of rings; the lower plates were one inch in thickness to the knee and 3⁄4-inch thick from knee to abdomen, while the upper plates were 1⁄4–1⁄2-inch thick except where additional strength was required at joints such as the shoulder, etc. The statue stood for 54 years until Rhodes was hit by the 226 BC earthquake, when significant damage was done to large portions of the city, including the harbour and commercial buildings, which were destroyed; the statue fell over onto the land. Ptolemy III offered to pay for the reconstruction of the statue, but the oracle of Delphi made the Rhodians afraid that they had offended Helios, they declined to rebuild it.
The remains lay on the ground as described by Strabo for over 800 years, broken, they were so impressive that many travelled to see them. Pliny the Elder remarked that few people could wrap their arms around the fallen thumb and that each of its fingers was larger than most statues. In 653, an Arab force under Muslim caliph Muawiyah I captured Rhodes, according to The Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, the statue was melted down and sold to a Jewish merchant of Edessa who loaded the bronze on 900 camels; the Arab destruction and the purported sale to a Jew originated as a powerful metaphor for Nebuchadnezzar's dream of the destruction of a great statue. The same story is recorded by Bar Hebraeus, writing in Syriac in the 13th century in Edessa: "And a great number of men hauled on strong ropes which were tied round the brass Colossus, in the city and pulled it down, and they weighed from it three thousand loads of Corinthian brass, they sold it to a certain Jew from Emesa". Theophanes is the sole source of this account and all other sources can be traced to him
Andrius Rudamina, S. J. was the first Lithuanian Jesuit missionary in China. Andrius Rudamina was born into an old and distinguished Lithuanian noble family in the village of Rudamina, 10 kilometres away from the country's capital, Vilnius, his father named Andrius Rudamina, was the mayor of Vilnius and his mother was Dorota Galvelanka. According to other sources, his father was Jonas Rudamina and he was the elder of Senasis Daugėliškis, a village situated in eastern Lithuania, his mother died when Rudamina was still young and he was the only son in the family. Therefore from an early age, his father groomed Rudamina to follow his footsteps and become a statesman. Rudamina completed his elementary education at home and continued his studies at the Vilnius Jesuit College in 1613. While at college, he excelled at the study of logic and because of his diligence was invited to join the Sodality of Our Lady, he decided to join the Jesuits, but his father, who wanted Rudamina to become a statesman, was opposed to this idea.
In an effort to change his son's mind, in 1616, he sent him to study philosophy at the University of Mainz. After his studies in Mainz, in 1617, Rudamina joined the University of Leuven, where according to the wishes of his father, he studied civil law. In parallel to his law studies, he demonstrated keen interest in mathematics, physics and geography. Rudamina abruptly ended his studies at Leuven and returned to Lithuania once he found out that his father was gravely ill. While back in Lithuania, he began working at the court of one of his relatives Eustachijus Valavičius, the bishop of Vilnius. Shortly after his return, his father died and Rudamina inherited the family's estates. Despite the considerable opposition of his relatives, on 31 May 1618, he joined the Jesuit order. Subsequently, he handed over the family estate to the Jesuit novitiate in Vilnius. After a two-year novitiate at the Church of St. Ignatius, on 1 June 1620, he took his first religious vows, he was sent to study theology at the Jesuit University in Vilnius.
At that time, he befriended Andrew Bobola, who came to be known as the Apostle of Lithuania and became a saint, as well as Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, a renowned Jesuit poet. Rudamina and Sarbiewski remained close friends for many years to come, just before Rudamina's journey to India, Sarbiewski wrote a poem in honour of Rudamina, titled Ad Andream Rudaminum. In 1622, together with a small number of other young and talented Jesuits from Vilnius, were sent to Rome to continue with their theological studies at the Roman College. On 3 June 1623, Rudamina was ordained as a priest. In 1624, he graduated from the Roman College. After receiving the consent of the Superior General of the Society of Jesus, Mutio Vitelleschi, to go on a mission to China on 5 September 1624, he left Rome for Lisbon. After the missionary preparations in Lisbon, at the beginning of March 1625, along with eleven Portuguese Jesuits, he sailed to Goa, which he reached on 22 August 1625. At the beginning of his stay in India, Rudamina suffered from malaria and his superiors sent him to Macao where the climate was better for his fragile health.
Rudamina spent less than a year in Goa, but he was the first Lithuanian to visit India. Upon his arrival to China, Rudamina studied Chinese language and customs. From Macao he went to Hangzhou in the Zhejiang Province. From Hangzhou he sent letters in Chinese to Michael Ortiz, the Provincial of Vilnius. Although Rudamina recovered from the malaria, he became infected with a pulmonary disease during the trip, yet despite his health problems, he was committed to learning Chinese. He preached in the language; the superiors concerned about his deteriorating health sent him at the end of 1628 to the Fujian Province, where several hundred Christians lived, in order to help Father Giulio Aleni. Working together, he and Aleni published an important book in Chinese titled Kouduo Richao 口鐸日抄; this was a book of scholarly dialogues between Jesuit missionaries and Confucian converts in Fujian. Li Jiubiao, the chief editor of the book praised the two Jesuits for their scholarly work; this book was first published in 1630 in 1872 and again in 1922.
During his stay in China, Rudamina wrote two manuscripts in Chinese, Shih-pa fu hsin t’u 十八幅 心圖 and Shih fu ch’in tai t’u 十幅 勤怠圖. Due to his weak health, Rudamina could not participate in long journeys. Therefore, he did local pastoral work by explaining the teachings of the Catholic faith and comforting the sick, receiving guests, as well as preaching and hearing confessions, he was devoted to the sacrament of reconciliation as a confessor. His pastoral work giving the spiritual exercises was adapted to the Confucian notion of self-cultivation, his catechetical method making use of pictures of the Cor Jesu was an effective tool in evangelization. This traditional method was known to be powerful in Europe, he knew that these pictures could take advantage of the meaning of "heart" in Chinese, xin 心, which referred not only to an anatomical organ, but had the Confucian philosophical meaning of "mind-and-heart". As his health got worse, Rudamina died in Fuzhou on 5 September 1631, his body was buried in the missionary cemetery in a separate tomb in the shape of a chapel.
This tomb soon became a place of pilgrimage. His missionary work in China and his last days were described by Benedict de Matos, the Jesuit Provincial Superior of the Fuzhou P