Royal Palace of Turin
The Royal Palace of Turin is a historic palace of the House of Savoy in the city of Turin in Northern Italy. It was originally built in the 16th century and was modernized by Christine Marie of France in the 17th century. The palace includes the Palazzo Chiablese and the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, in 1946, the building became the property of the state and was turned into a museum. In 1997, it was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list along with 13 other residences of the House of Savoy, construction of the palace was ordered by the Regent Maria Christina in 1645. She wanted a new residence for the court after her son returned from the civil war. The chosen location was the previous Bishops Palace, which had built in the middle of the new capital of Savoy, during the reign of Emmanuel Philibert. Its advantages included an open and sunny position, in addition to being close to buildings where the court met. The Duke was able to monitor the two entrances of the city from the Bishops Palace, the Bishops Palace in Turin was captured by the French in 1536 and served as a residence of the French Viceroys of Savoy, who were appointed by Francis I of France.
Opposite the Bishops Palace was the Palazzo Vecchio or the Palazzo di San Giovanni and this building, disparagingly known as Pasta con Tonno because of its architecture, was replaced by the grand Ducal Palace. Thus the old Bishops Palace became the seat of power and was expanded by Emmanuel Philibert to house his ever growing collection of art, marbles. Emmanuel Philibert died in Turin in August 1580 and the Savoyard throne was handed down to his son, Charles Emmanuel I and his son, the future Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, entered into a prestigious marriage when he married the French Princess Christine Marie of France. Their marriage took place in Paris at the Louvre in 1619, Victor Amadeus I succeeded to the Duchy of Savoy in 1630. He had previously spent his youth in Madrid at the court of his grandfather and his wife set the tone for Victor Amadeus Is reign. Christine Marie had the court moved from the palace in Turin to the Castello del Valentino. Many of Victor Amadeus I and Christine Maries children were born at Valentino, including Francis Hyacinth, Duke of Savoy and his successor Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy.
Christine Marie became the regent of Savoy after the death of her husband in 1637 on behalf of her two sons, who succeeded as Dukes of Savoy. During the reign of Victor Amadeus II, the Daniel gallery was created and named after Daniel Seiter, Victor Amadeus II had a collection of summer apartments built to look onto the court and a winter apartment overlooking the gardens. His wife was the niece of Louis XIV, born Anne Marie dOrléans, Louis XVs mother and aunt were born in the palace in 1685 and 1688, respectively
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was a Dutch draughtsman and printmaker. A prolific and versatile master across three media, he is considered one of the greatest visual artists in the history of art. Having achieved youthful success as a painter, Rembrandts years were marked by personal tragedy. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high, Rembrandts portraits of his contemporaries, self-portraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible are regarded as his greatest creative triumphs. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and his reputation as the greatest etcher in the history of the medium was established in his lifetime, and never questioned since. Few of his paintings left the Dutch Republic whilst he lived, but his prints were circulated throughout Europe, because of his empathy for the human condition, he has been called one of the great prophets of civilization.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn was born on 15 July 1606 in Leiden, in the Dutch Republic and he was the ninth child born to Harmen Gerritszoon van Rijn and Neeltgen Willemsdochter van Zuijtbrouck. His family was quite well-to-do, his father was a miller, religion is a central theme in Rembrandts paintings and the religiously fraught period in which he lived makes his faith a matter of interest. His mother was Roman Catholic, and his father belonged to the Dutch Reformed Church, unlike many of his contemporaries who traveled to Italy as part of their artistic training, Rembrandt never left the Dutch Republic during his lifetime. He opened a studio in Leiden in 1624 or 1625, which he shared with friend, in 1627, Rembrandt began to accept students, among them Gerrit Dou in 1628. In 1629, Rembrandt was discovered by the statesman Constantijn Huygens, as a result of this connection, Prince Frederik Hendrik continued to purchase paintings from Rembrandt until 1646. He initially stayed with an art dealer, Hendrick van Uylenburgh, Saskia came from a good family, her father had been a lawyer and the burgemeester of Leeuwarden.
When Saskia, as the youngest daughter, became an orphan and Saskia were married in the local church of St. Annaparochie without the presence of Rembrandts relatives. In the same year, Rembrandt became a burgess of Amsterdam and he acquired a number of students, among them Ferdinand Bol and Govert Flinck. In 1635 Rembrandt and Saskia moved into their own house, renting in fashionable Nieuwe Doelenstraat, in 1639 they moved to a prominent newly built house in the upscale Breestraat, today known as Jodenbreestraat in what was becoming the Jewish quarter, a young upcoming neighborhood. The mortgage to finance the 13,000 guilder purchase would be a cause for financial difficulties. Rembrandt should easily have been able to pay the house off with his income, but it appears his spending always kept pace with his income. It was there that Rembrandt frequently sought his Jewish neighbors to model for his Old Testament scenes, in 1640, they had a second daughter, named Cornelia, who died after living barely over a month
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Antonio Balestra was an Italian painter of the Rococo period. Born in Verona, he first apprenticed there with Giovanni Zeffio, by 1690 he moved to Venice, where he worked for three years under Antonio Bellucci, moved to Bologna and to paint in Carlo Marattas workshop in Rome. In 1694, he won a prize from the Accademia di San Luca and he painted both in Verona and Venice, although his influence was stronger in the mainland. His pupils in Verona were Pietro Rotari and Giambettino Cignaroli, in Venice, he painted for the churches of the I Gesuiti and San Zaccaria, and the Scuola della Carita. Pietro Longhi briefly worked under Balestra, in Venice, other pupils or painters he influenced, included Mariotti, Giuseppe Nogari, Mattia Bortoloni and Angelo Trevisani. Also he influenced a young Giambattista Pittoni, among his pupils from Verona were Domenico Pecchio, Domenico Bertini, and Carlo Salis. In painting, Balestra was staid and reactionary, no longer does one see young artists studying the antique, on the contrary, we have come to a point where such study is derided as useless and obnoxious.
He painted a Virgin and Infant, with Saints Ignatius and Stanislaus Kostka for the church of SantIgnazio at Bologna and he painted for churches of Venice, Padua and Verona. Studj sopra la storia della pittura italiana dei secoli xiv e xv e della scuola pittorica, dictionary of Painters and Engravers and Critical. Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600-1750, lilli Ghio - Edi Baccheschi, Antonio Balestra, Ed
Sigismund Streit was a prominent German merchant and art patron of the 18th century in Venice. Born in Berlin, he came to Venice in 1709, where he accumulated substantial wealth and he died childless and bequeathed his collection to institutions in Germany, including the Berlinisches Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in Berlin. He came to own paintings by Canaletto, Antoine Pesne, Jacopo Amigoni, Francesco Zuccarelli and he was a contemporary of another patron Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg. Patrons and Painters and Society in Baroque Italy
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta was an Italian Rococo painter of religious subjects and genre scenes. Piazzetta was born in Venice, the son of a sculptor Giacomo Piazzetta, starting in 1697 he studied with the painter Antonio Molinari. By Piazzettas account, he studied under Giuseppe Maria Crespi while living in Bologna in 1703–05, thanks to Crespi, Carlo Cignanis influence reached Piazzetta. Piazzetta did find inspiration in Crespis art, in which the chiaroscuro of Caravaggio was transformed into an idiom of graceful charm in his pictures of common folk and he was greatly impressed by the altarpieces created by another Bolognese painter of a half-century earlier, Guercino. Around 1710, he returned to Venice, yet Piazzetas range of topics was broader than that of these artists, for example, never painted genre paintings and restricted himself to grand history and religious altarpieces. Piazzetta created an art of warm, rich color and a mysterious poetry and he often depicted peasantry, even if often in a grand fashion.
He was highly original in the intensity of color he used in his shadows. The gestures and glances of his protagonists hint at unseen dramas, as in one of his best-known paintings and he brought similar elusiveness to works of a religious nature, such as the Sotto in su Glory of St. Dominic in the Church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Also notable are his many carefully rendered drawings of figures or groups of heads. Usually in charcoal or black chalk with white heightening on gray paper, these are filled with the spirit that animates his paintings. In 1750 Piazzetta became the first director of the newly founded Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia and he was elected a member of the Bolognese Accademia Clementina in 1727. Among the painters in his studio were Domenico Maggiotto, Francesco Dagiu, Johann Heinrich Tischbein, Egidio DallOglio, the engraver Marco Pitteri was affiliated with his studio, and engraved many of his works. Among younger painters who emulated his style are Giovanni Battista Pissati, giulia Lama, Federico Bencovich, and Francesco Polazzo.
He died in Venice on April 28,1754, St. James Led to Matyrdom Chiesa di San Stae, Venice. Madonna and child appearing to St Philip Neri Glory of St. Dominic Chiesa di Santi Giovanni e Paolo, centro Di, Kimball Museum of Art, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, eds. Giuseppe Maria Crespi and the Emergence of Genre Painting in Italy
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
The Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi is one of the Residences of the Royal House of Savoy in northern Italy, part of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. Built as a hunting lodge in the early 18th century, it is located in Stupinigi. The original castle was owned by the Acaja line of the House of Savoy, Lords of Piedmont until 1418 and it was acquired by Emmanuel Philibert in 1563, when the ducal capital was moved from Chambéry to Turin. The new palace was designed by the architect Filippo Juvarra to be used as a palazzina di caccia for Victor Amadeus II, within two years construction was far enough advanced for the first formal hunt to take place. Juvarra called upon a team of decorators, many of them from Venice, the final building has a total of 137 rooms and 17 galleries, and covers 31,050 square meters. Polissena of Hesse-Rotenburg, wife of Carlo Emanuele III carried out improvements, the original purpose of the hunting lodge is symbolized by the bronze stag perched at the apex of the stepped roof of its central dome, and the hounds heads that decorate the vases on the roofline.
The building has a plan, four angled wings project from the oval-shaped main hall. The extensions resulted in separate pavilions linked by long angled galleries, Stupinigi was the preferred building to be used for celebrations and dynastic weddings by members of the House of Savoy. Here, in 1773, Maria Teresa, Princess of Savoy, married Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, brother of Louis XVI and the future Charles X of France. Stupinigi has the most important collection of Piedmontese furniture, including works by Turins three most famous Royal cabinet-makers, Giuseppe Maria Bonzanigo, Pietro Piffetti and Luigi Prinotti, some of the sculptures of hunting figures are by Giovanni Battista Bernero. Additionally, temporary exhibitions are held in its galleries, such as the Mostra del Barocco. The hunting park that belonged to a branch of the House of Savoia was given to Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy in 1563, since 1992, woods and agricultural land surrounding Stupinigi have been preserved as the Parco naturale di Stupinigi.
Wildlife includes beech martens, foxes, hazel dormouses, European hares, white storks, tree squirrels, list of Baroque residences Roberto, Francesco Fenoglio. Castelvecchio di Stupinigi, storia e trasformazioni, page at Piemonte on line Visiting information Pages by the Park Authority on Parks. it Photos
Sothebys /ˈsʌðəbiz/ is a British multinational corporation headquartered in New York City. One of the worlds largest brokers of fine and decorative art, real estate, the company’s services range from corporate art services to private sales. Sothebys is the fourth oldest auction house in continuous operation. As of December 2011, the company had 1,446 employees worldwide and it is the worlds largest art business with global sales in 2011 totalling $5.8 billion. Sothebys was established on 11 March 1744 in London, the American holding company was initially incorporated in August 1983 in Michigan. In June 2006, Sothebys Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sothebys, in July 2016, Chinese insurance giant Taikang Life became Sothebys largest shareholder. Three Swedish auction houses are older and Sothebys great rival in London and New York. The current business dates back to 1804, when two of the partners of the business left to set up their own book dealership. After Baker’s death in 1778, his estate was divided between Leigh and John Sotheby, George Leigh died unmarried in 1816, but not before endeavouring to secure his succession by recruiting Samuel E Leigh into the business.
Under the Sotheby family, the house extended its activities to auctioning prints, medals. John Wilkinson, Sothebys Senior Accountant, became the company’s new CEO, the business did not seek to auction fine arts in general until much later, their first major success in this field being the sale of a Frans Hals painting for nine thousand guineas as late as 1913. In 1917, Sothebys relocated from 13 Wellington Street to 34-35 New Bond Street and they soon came to rival Christies as leaders of the London auction market, which had become the most important for art. In 1955, Sothebys opened an office at Bowling Green, New York City, in 1964, Sothebys purchased Parke-Bernet, the largest auctioneer of fine art in the United States. In the following year, Sothebys moved to 980 Madison Avenue, Sothebys became a U. K. public company in 1977. The auction house closed its Madison Avenue galleries at East 76th Street, the Los Angeles galleries were sold and auctions of West Coast material moved to New York.
In the following year, a group of investors purchased and privatized Sothebys, Sothebys was initially incorporated as Sothebys Holdings, Inc. in Michigan in August 1983. Taubman took Sothebys public in 1988, listing the shares on the New York Stock Exchange. In June 2006, Sothebys Holdings, Inc. reincorporated in the State of Delaware and was renamed Sothebys shortly after, with private transactions constituting an essential and increasingly profitable business segment, through the years Sothebys has bought art galleries and helped dealers finance purchases
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Alessandro Longhi was a Venetian portrait painter and printmaker in etching. He is known best for his oil portraits of Venetian nobles of state and his father was the famed genre painter Pietro Longhi. He trained under his father and Giuseppe Nogari, like Sebastiano Bombelli in the prior century, Alessandro Longhi is noted for his zealous full-length depictions of robes and emblems of office. His tumultuous and unusual technique shows first-hand knowledge of Rembrandts etchings, italian Paintings, Venetian School, a collection catalog containing information about Longhi and his works
Rococo artists and architects used a more jocular and graceful approach to the Baroque. Their style was ornate and used light colours, asymmetrical designs, unlike the political Baroque, the Rococo had playful and witty themes. By the end of the 18th century, Rococo was largely replaced by the Neoclassic style. In 1835 the Dictionary of the French Academy stated that the word Rococo usually covers the kind of ornament and design associated with Louis XVs reign and it includes therefore, all types of art from around the middle of the 18th century in France. The word is seen as a combination of the French rocaille and coquilles, the term may be a combination of the Italian word barocco and the French rocaille and may describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe in the 18th century. The Rococo love of shell-like curves and focus on decorative arts led some critics to say that the style was frivolous or merely modish, when the term was first used in English in about 1836, it was a colloquialism meaning old-fashioned.
While there is some debate about the historical significance of the style to art in general. Italian architects of the late Baroque/early Rococo were wooed to Catholic Germany and Austria by local princes, an exotic but in some ways more formal type of Rococo appeared in France where Louis XIVs succession brought a change in the court artists and general artistic fashion. By the end of the long reign, rich Baroque designs were giving way to lighter elements with more curves. These elements are obvious in the designs of Nicolas Pineau. During the Régence, court life moved away from Versailles and this change became well established, first in the royal palace. The delicacy and playfulness of Rococo designs is seen as perfectly in tune with the excesses of Louis XVs reign. The 1730s represented the height of Rococo development in France, the style had spread beyond architecture and furniture to painting and sculpture, exemplified by the works of Antoine Watteau and François Boucher. The Rococo style was spread by French artists and engraved publications, william Hogarth helped develop a theoretical foundation for Rococo beauty.
Though not intentionally referencing the movement, he argued in his Analysis of Beauty that the lines and S-curves prominent in Rococo were the basis for grace. The development of Rococo in Great Britain is considered to have connected with the revival of interest in Gothic architecture early in the 18th century. The beginning of the end for Rococo came in the early 1760s as figures like Voltaire and Jacques-François Blondel began to voice their criticism of the superficiality, Blondel decried the ridiculous jumble of shells, reeds, palm-trees and plants in contemporary interiors. By 1785, Rococo had passed out of fashion in France, replaced by the order, in Germany, late 18th century Rococo was ridiculed as Zopf und Perücke, and this phase is sometimes referred to as Zopfstil