Frederick, Prince of Wales
Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG, was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44 in 1751. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, the father of King George III. Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne at birth, after his great-grandmother, paternal grandfather and father, he moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, was created Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father and upon the latter's death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George III. Prince Frederick Lewis was born on 1 February 1707 in Hanover, Holy Roman Empire, as Duke Friedrich Ludwig of Brunswick-Lüneburg, to Prince George, son of George, Elector of Hanover, one of Frederick's two godfathers; the Elector was the son of Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James VI and I and first cousin and heir presumptive to Queen Anne of Great Britain.
However, Sophia died before Anne at age 83 in June 1714, which elevated the Elector to heir-presumptive. This made Frederick's father the new Prince of Wales and first-in-line to the British throne and Frederick himself second-in-line. Frederick's other godfather was his grand-uncle Frederick I, King in Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick was nicknamed "Griff" within the family. In the year of Anne's death and the coronation of George I, Frederick's parents, Prince of Wales, Caroline of Ansbach, were called upon to leave Hanover for Great Britain when their eldest son was only seven years old, he was left in the care of his grand-uncle Ernest Augustus, Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, did not see his parents again for 14 years. In 1722, the 15-year-old Frederick was inoculated against smallpox by Charles Maitland on the instructions of his mother Caroline, his grandfather, George I, created him Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham in the county of Kent, Viscount of Launceston in the county of Cornwall, Baron of Snaudon in the county of Carnarvon, on 26 July 1726.
The latter two titles have been interpreted differently since: the ofs are omitted and Snaudon rendered as Snowdon. Frederick arrived in England in 1728 as a grown man, the year after his father had become King George II. By George and Caroline had had several younger children, Frederick, himself now Prince of Wales, was a high-spirited youth fond of drinking and women; the long separation damaged their relationship, they would never be close. 1728 saw the foundation of Fredericksburg, named after him—his other namesakes are Prince Frederick, Fort Frederick, Fort Frederick, South Carolina, Fort Frederick, New York and Fort Frederica, while Fort Frederick, Point Frederick, Fort Frederick and Fort Frederick, New Brunswick were named after him posthumously. The motives for the ill-feeling between Frederick and his parents may include the fact that he had been set up by his grandfather as a small child, as the representative of the House of Hanover, was used to presiding over official occasions in the absence of his parents.
He was not permitted to go to Great Britain until after his father took the throne as George II on 11 June 1727. Frederick had continued to be known as Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Hanover after his father had been created Prince of Wales. In 1728, Frederick was brought to Britain and was created Prince of Wales on 8 January 1729, he served as the tenth Chancellor of the University of Dublin from 1728 to 1751, a portrait of him still enjoys a commanding position in the Hall of the Trinity College, Dublin. He sponsored a court of'opposition' politicians. Frederick and his group supported the Opera of the Nobility in Lincoln's Inn Fields as a rival to Handel's royally sponsored opera at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket. Frederick was a lover of music who played the cello, he enjoyed the natural sciences and the arts, became a thorn in the side of his parents, making a point of opposing them in everything, according to the court gossip Lord Hervey. At court, the favourite was Frederick's younger brother, Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, to the extent that the king looked into ways of splitting his domains so that Frederick would succeed only in Britain, while Hanover would go to William.
Hervey and Frederick wrote a theatrical comedy together, staged at the Drury Lane Theatre in October 1731. It was panned by the critics, the theatre's manager thought it so bad that it was unlikely to play out the first night, he had soldiers stationed in the audience to maintain order, when the play flopped the audience was given their money back. Hervey and Frederick shared a mistress, Anne Vane, who had a son called FitzFrederick Vane in June 1732. Either of them or William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington, another of her lovers, could have been the father. Jealousy between them may have contributed to a breach, their friendship ended. Hervey wrote bitterly that Frederick was "false... never having the least hesitation in telling any lie that served his present purpose." A permanent result of Frederick's patronage of the arts is "Rule, Britannia!", one of th
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Sturm und Drang
Sturm und Drang was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and early 1780s. Within the movement, individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements; the period is named for Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play of the same name, first performed by Abel Seyler's famed theatrical company in 1777. The philosopher Johann Georg Hamann is considered to be the ideologue of Sturm und Drang. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller were notable proponents of the movement early in their life, although they ended their period of association with it by initiating what would become Weimar Classicism. French neoclassicism, a movement beginning in the early Baroque, with its emphasis on the rational, was the principal target of rebellion for adherents of the Sturm und Drang movement. For them, sentimentality and an objective view of life gave way to emotional turbulence and individuality, enlightenment ideals such as rationalism and universalism no longer captured the human condition.
The term Sturm und Drang first appeared as the title of a play by Friedrich Maximilian Klinger, written for Abel Seyler's Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft and published in 1776. The setting of the play is the unfolding American Revolution, in which the author gives violent expression to difficult emotions and extols individuality and subjectivity over the prevailing order of rationalism. Though it is argued that literature and music associated with Sturm und Drang predate this seminal work, it was from this point that German artists became distinctly self-conscious of a new aesthetic; this spontaneous movement became associated with a wide array of German authors and composers of the mid-to-late Classical period. Sturm und Drang came to be associated with literature or music aimed at shocking the audience or imbuing them with extremes of emotion; the movement soon gave way to Weimar Classicism and early Romanticism, whereupon a socio-political concern for greater human freedom from despotism was incorporated along with a religious treatment of all things natural.
There is much debate regarding whose work should or should not be included in the canon of Sturm und Drang. One point of view would limit the movement to Goethe, Johann Gottfried Herder, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, their direct German associates writing works of fiction and/or philosophy between 1770 and the early 1780s; the alternative perspective is that of a literary movement inextricably linked to simultaneous developments in prose and drama, extending its direct influence throughout the German-speaking lands until the end of the 18th century. The originators of the movement came to view it as a time of premature exuberance, abandoned in favor of conflicting artistic pursuits; the literary topos of the "Kraftmensch" existed as a precursor to Sturm und Drang among dramatists beginning with F. M. Klinger, the expression of, seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism; these ideals are identical to those of Sturm und Drang, it can be argued that the name exists to catalog a number of parallel, co-influential movements in German literature rather than express anything different from what German dramatists were achieving in the violent plays attributed to the Kraftmensch movement.
Major philosophical/theoretical influences on the literary Sturm und Drang movement were Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, both from Königsberg, both in contact with Immanuel Kant. Significant theoretical statements of Sturm und Drang aesthetics by the movement's central dramatists themselves include Lenz' Anmerkungen übers Theater and Goethe's Von deutscher Baukunst and Zum Schäkespears Tag; the most important contemporary document was the 1773 volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. Einige fliegende Blätter, a collection of essays that included commentaries by Herder on Ossian and Shakespeare, along with contributions by Goethe, Paolo Frisi, Justus Möser; the protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem, or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed. Goethe's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality.
The literature of Sturm und Drang features an anti-aristocratic slant while seeking to elevate all things humble, natural, or intensely real. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. Friedrich Schiller's drama, Die Räuber, provided the groundwork for melodrama to become a recognized dramatic form; the plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers and Karl Moor. Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are comp
Recorder (musical instrument)
The recorder is a woodwind musical instrument in the group known as internal duct flutes—flutes with a whistle mouthpiece. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower, it is the most prominent duct flute in the western classical tradition. Recorders are made in different sizes with names and compasses corresponding to different vocal ranges; the sizes most in use today are the soprano, alto and bass. Recorders are traditionally constructed from wood and ivory, while most recorders made in recent years are constructed from molded plastic; the recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is reverse conical to cylindrical, all recorder fingering systems make extensive use of forked fingerings. The recorder is first documented in Europe in the Middle Ages, continued to enjoy wide popularity in the Renaissance and Baroque periods, but was little used in the Classical and Romantic periods.
It was revived in the 20th century as part of the informed performance movement, became a popular amateur and educational instrument. Composers who have written for the recorder include Monteverdi, Purcell, Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, Paul Hindemith, Benjamin Britten, Leonard Bernstein, Luciano Berio, Arvo Pärt. Today, there are many professional recorder players who demonstrate the instrument's full solo range and a large community of amateurs; the sound of the recorder is described as clear and sweet, has been associated with birds and shepherds. It is notable for its quick response and its corresponding ability to produce a wide variety of articulations; this ability, coupled with its open finger holes, allow it to produce a wide variety of tone colors and special effects. Acoustically, its tone is pure and odd harmonics predominate in its sound; the instrument has been known by its modern English name at least since the 14th century. David Lasocki reports the earliest use of "recorder" in the household accounts of the Earl of Derby in 1388, which register i. fistula nomine Recordour.
By the 15th century, the name had appeared in English literature. The earliest references are in John Lydgate's Temple of Glas: These lytylle herdegromys Floutyn al the longe day.. In here smale recorderys, In floutys. and in Lydgate's Fall of Princes: Pan, god off Kynde, with his pipes seuene, / Off recorderis fond first the melodies. The instrument name "recorder" derives from the Latin recordārī, by way of Middle French recorder and its derivative MFr recordeur; the association between the various disparate, meanings of recorder can be attributed to the role of the medieval jongleur in learning poems by heart and reciting them, sometimes with musical accompaniment. The English verb "record" meant "to learn by heart, to commit to memory, to go over in one's mind, to recite" but it was not used in English to refer to playing music until the 16th century, when it gained the meaning "silently practicing a tune" or "sing or render in song", long after the recorder had been named. Thus, the recorder cannot have been named after the sound of birds.
The name of the instrument is uniquely English: in Middle French there is no equivalent noun sense of recorder referring to a musical instrument. Partridge indicates that the use of the instrument by jongleurs led to its association with the verb: recorder the minstrel's action, a "recorder" the minstrel's tool; the reason we know this instrument as the recorder and not one of the other instruments played by the jongleurs is uncertain. The introduction of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of French professionals in 1673 popularized the French name for the instrument, "flute douce", or "flute", a name reserved for the transverse instrument; until about 1695, the names "recorder" and "flute" overlapped, but from 1673 to the late 1720s in England, the word "flute" always meant recorder. In the 1720s, as the transverse flute overtook the recorder in popularity, English adopted the convention present in other European languages of qualifying the word "flute", calling the recorder variously the "common flute", "common English-flute", or "English flute" while the transverse instrument was distinguished as the "German flute" or "flute."
Until at least 1765, some writers still used "flute" to mean recorder. Until the mid 18th century, musical scores written in Italian refer to the instrument as flauto, whereas the transverse instrument was called flauto traverso; this distinction, like the English switch from "recorder" to "flute," has caused confusion among modern editors and performers. Indeed, in most European languages, the first term for the recorder was the word for flute alone. In the present day, cognates of the word "flute," when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the recorder, the modern concert flute, or other non-western flutes. Starting the 1530s, these languages began to add qualifiers to specify this particular flute. In the case of the recorder, these describe variously Since the
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website